John Russell, 1st Earl Russell

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The Right Honourable
The Earl Russell
KG GCMG PC
Lord John Russell.jpg
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
In office
29 October 1865 – 28 June 1866
Monarch Victoria
Preceded by The Viscount Palmerston
Succeeded by The Earl of Derby
In office
30 June 1846 – 23 February 1852
Monarch Victoria
Preceded by Sir Robert Peel, Bt
Succeeded by The Earl of Derby
Leader of the Opposition
In office
28 June 1866 – 3 December 1868
Monarch Victoria
Preceded by The Earl of Derby
Succeeded by Benjamin Disraeli
In office
23 February 1852 – 19 December 1852
Monarch Victoria
Preceded by The Earl of Derby
Succeeded by The Earl of Derby
Foreign Secretary
In office
18 June 1859 – 3 November 1865
Preceded by The Earl of Malmesbury
Succeeded by The Earl of Clarendon
In office
28 December 1852 – 21 February 1853
Preceded by The Earl of Malmesbury
Succeeded by The Earl of Clarendon
Secretary of State for the Colonies
In office
23 February 1855 – 21 July 1855
Preceded by Sidney Herbert
Succeeded by Sir William Molesworth, Bt
Lord President of the Council
In office
12 June 1854 – 8 February 1855
Preceded by The Earl Granville
Succeeded by The Earl Granville
Secretary of State for War and the Colonies
In office
30 August 1839 – 30 August 1841
Preceded by The Marquess of Normanby
Succeeded by Lord Stanley
Home Secretary
In office
18 April 1835 – 30 August 1839
Preceded by Henry Goulburn
Succeeded by The Marquess of Normanby
Personal details
Born John Russell
(1792-08-18)18 August 1792
Mayfair, Middlesex, England
Died 28 May 1878(1878-05-28) (aged 85)
Richmond Park, Surrey, England
Political party Liberal (1868–1878)
Other political
affiliations
Whig (until 1868)
Spouse(s) Adelaide Frances
Children 4
Alma mater University of Edinburgh
Religion Church of England
Signature Cursive signature in ink

John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, KG, GCMG, PC (18 August 1792 – 28 May 1878), known as Lord John Russell before 1861, was a leading Whig and Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister on two occasions during the mid-19th century. Scion of one of the most powerful aristocratic families, his great achievements, says A. J. P. Taylor, were based on his indefatigable battles in Parliament over the years on behalf of the expansion of liberty; after each loss he tried again and again, until finally his efforts were largely successful. Woodward, however, argued that he was too much the abstract theorist, so that "He was more concerned with the removal of obstacles to civil liberty than with the creation of a more reasonable and civilized society.[1] Nevertheless Russell led his Whig Party into support for reform; he was the principal architect of the great Reform Act of 1832. As Prime Minister his luck ran out. He took much of the blame for the government's failures in dealing with the Irish famine. Taylor concludes that as prime minister, he:

was not a success. Indeed, his Government of 1846 to 1852 was the ruin of the Whig party: it never composed a Government again, and his Government of 1865 to 1866, which might be described as the first Liberal Government, was very nearly the ruin of the Liberal party also.[2]

Background and education[edit]

Russell was born small and premature into the highest echelons of the British aristocracy. The Russell family had been one of the principal Whig dynasties in England since the 17th century, and were among the richest handful of aristocratic landowning families in the country, but as a younger son of the 6th Duke of Bedford he was not expected to inherit the family estates. As a younger son of a Duke, he bore the courtesy title "Lord John Russell", but as he was not a peer in his own right he was entitled to sit in the House of Commons until he was made an earl and moved to the House of Lords in 1861.

He was educated by tutors and attended the University of Edinburgh,1809 and 1812; he did not take a degree. Although of small stature and often in poor health, he traveled widely in Britain and on the continent.[3]

Public life[edit]

Russell entered the House of Commons as a Whig in 1813. In 1819, Russell embraced the cause of parliamentary reform, and led the more reformist wing of the Whigs throughout the 1820s. When the Whigs came to power in 1830 in Earl Grey's government, Russell entered the government as Paymaster of the Forces, and was soon elevated to the Cabinet. He was one of the principal leaders of the fight for the Reform Act 1832, earning the nickname Finality Jack from his complacency pronouncing the Act a final measure. In 1834, when the leader of the Commons, Lord Althorp, succeeded to the peerage as Earl Spencer, Russell became the leader of the Whigs in the Commons, a position he maintained for the rest of the decade, until the Whigs fell from power in 1841. In this position, Russell continued to lead the more reformist wing of the Whig party, calling, in particular, for religious freedom, and, as Home Secretary in the late 1830s, played a large role in democratizing the government of British cities (other than London). During his career in Parliament, Lord John Russell represented the City of London.[4]

Taylor emphasizes Russell's central role in the expansion of liberty and leading his Whig Party to a commitment to a reform agenda.[5] In 1845, as leader of the Opposition, Russell came out in favour of repeal of the Corn Laws, forcing Conservative Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel to follow him. When the Conservatives split the next year over this issue, the Whigs returned to power and Russell became Prime Minister.

Russell's premiership was frustrated, because due to party disunity and infighting, he was unable to secure the success of many of the measures he was interested in passing. Russell's first government coincided with the Great Irish Famine of the late 1840s. Russell was unable to find a solution. He fought with his headstrong Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston, whose belligerence and support for continental revolution he found embarrassing. Palmerston was forced to resign when he recognized Napoleon III's coup of 2 December 1851, without royal approval.

Palmerston turned the vote on a militia bill into a vote of confidence on the government. The majority vote in favour of an amendment proposed by Palmerston caused the downfall of Russell's ministry on 21 February 1852. This was Palmerston's famous "tit for tat with Johnny Russell", a revenge for his dismissal by Russell as Foreign Minister.[6]

In Opposition February 1852 until December of 1852[edit]

The July 1852 general election saw the election of 330 Conservatives and 324 Whigs to the Parliament. Neither had an overall majority for 38 members who were technically Conservatives, were actually Peelites (followers of the late Robert Peel). The Peelites had deserted the Conservatives to vote for the repeal of the Corn Laws in June 1846. The Corn Laws had imposed a tariff on all cheap imported wheat and, thus, kept the price of wheat and the bread made from wheat high. This served the interests of landed aristocracy which was the main body of support for the Conservative Party. However, the high price of wheat and bread added greatly to the desperation of poor and hungry in England and Ireland.[7]

The new Parliament included 113 "Free Traders" who were more radical than the Peelites. They felt that the tariffs on all imported consumer goods should be removed, not just the tariff on wheat or "corn." There were also 63 members of the "Irish Brigade," made up of Irish members interested in the Tenant Rights legislation for the protection of the tenant farmers in Ireland. None of these minor groups were interested in forming a government with the Conservatives because of the bitterness left over from the repeal of the Corn Laws. However, John Russell of the Whigs could not attract enough of the minor party members to form a government either. Other issues handled during the recent Russell government had alienated these three minor groups from the Whigs also. Thus, Queen Victoria asked the Earl of Derby to form a minority government. It only lasted until December 1852.[8]

Portrait of John Russell by Francis Grant, 1853

Foreign Minister in the Aberdeen Government[edit]

Russell, as the leader of the Whig Party, then brought it into a new coalition government with the Peelite Conservatives, headed by the Peelite Lord Aberdeen. Palmerston could not possibly be appointed as Foreign Minister but he had to be a part of the new Aberdeen government and became Home Secretary. Russell continued to serve as Leader of the Whig Party in the House of Commons. As the leader of the largest party in the Aberdeen coalition government, Russell was needed in the new government. Accordingly, on 28 December 1852, Russell was appointed Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.

In the eyes of many, including the Queen and Aberdeen, his jockeying for position against Palmerston was one of the causes of the inability of the administration to take a firm direction. It was a contest that Palmerston won; having entered the administration as the expected Whig heir, Russell left it having been overtaken by Palmerston.[9]

The Crimean War[edit]

Main article: Crimean War

Together with Palmerston, Russell was instrumental in getting Britain to join France in thwarting the threat of Russia against the Ottoman Empire. They did so as a member of the Aberdeen government and against the wishes of the cautious, Russophile Earl of Aberdeen. The Ottoman Empire was in a state of decline and several nations in Europe sought acquire portions of its territory. Russia sought to assert its territorial claims to the Balkans. However, just as soon as Louis Bonaparte had completed his coup against the Second Republic of France and assumed the title Napoleon III, he sent an ambassador to the Ottoman Empire with instructions to obtain from the Ottomans, a guarantee that France was to be the exclusive "protector of Christian sites" in Jerusalem and the Holy Land. Louis Bonaparte was the nephew of Napoleon I, Emperor of France, and many British public officials - like Aberdeen - felt that Louis Bonaparte was merely seeking foreign adventure and aggrandizement and would sooner or later involve Britain in another series of wars like those wars against France and Napoleon from 1793 to 1815. France had long been seen as an opponent of British interests, and that perception had not changed since 1815. Accordingly, much of the British public sided with Russia in what was now being called the "Eastern Question."[10] However, as time passed, the horrific losses of British soldiers, reported in detail in the press, caused British public opinion to turn hostile. The British government was worried about the outcome of the rising tensions over Eastern Question. Accordingly, Aberdeen sent, Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, a diplomat of considerable experience, to the Ottoman Empire, to oversee British interests.

When the Ottomans gave way to Louis Bonaparte's demands, Russia strongly objected and on 7 May 1853 one of Russia's leading statesmen, Prince Alexander Sergeyevich Menshikov, arrived in Turkey to demands an agreement favourable to Russia. During the Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774, Russia had occupied the Turkish/Ottoman-controlled provinces of Wallachia and Moldavia (modern Romania). Under the Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarva signed in 1774, Russia had given these Danubian provinces back to the Ottoman Empire in exchange for Turkish recognition of Russia's exclusive right to "protect the Christian sites in Jerusalem and the Holy Land." Menshikov, using threats, obtained his agreement with The Porte.[11]

The British elite saw a growing Russian threat not just to the Ottomans but also to Europe and even India. The balance of power was being upset. London cooperated with Paris. France sent the French ship-of-the-line to the Black Sea, in the spring of 1852, as a show of force against the Russians. The Ottomans reversed themselves and signed a treaty acknowledging the French and the Vatican as the official protectors of the Christian sites in the Holy Land. The Russians responded by sending its 4th and 5th Army Corps into Wallachia and Moldavia. It expected Austria and Prussia would support this move, but they were opposed and Russia had no allies. The Aberdeen government resisted active pursuit of the war. Lord Russell, frustrated by the Prime Minister's delays, resigned from the government on 21 February 1853. Aberdeen replaced Russell with Lord Clarendon.[12]

The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia on 23 October 1853. The Russian fleet defeated the Turkish fleet at the Battle of Sinope on 30 November 1853. After Russia had ignored the Anglo-French ultimatum, both France and Britain declared war on Russia on 28 March 1854. The war was fought chiefly in the Black Sea, with the great Russian base of Sebastopol in Crimea as the main target. In September 1854, British, French and Turkish troops landed on the Crimean Peninsula and set siege to Sevastopol. After a campaign marked by gross mismanagement and very high rates of death from disease, Sevastopol finally fell. Public opinion had turned hostile.[13]

A motion in Parliament to investigate the mismanagement became a vote of confidence in the Aberdeen government and in the Secretary for War. Accordingly, when the Robuck motion passed, Aberdeen treated the vote as a vote of "no confidence" on his government and resigned. Upon the resignation of the Earl of Aberdeen, Lord Palmerston was asked formed a new government. John Russell was sent to Vienna to negotiate (accepting the Colonial Office) but sacrificed himself to protect negotiation confidentiality, and temporarily retired from politics in 1855, focusing on writing.[14]

Foreign Minister in the Palmerston Government 1859-1865[edit]

In 1859, following another short-lived Conservative government, Palmerston and Russell made up their differences, and Russell consented to serve as Foreign Secretary in a new Palmerston cabinet - usually considered the first true Liberal Cabinet. This period was a particularly eventful one in the world outside Britain, seeing the Unification of Italy, the American Civil War, and the 1864 war over Schleswig-Holstein between Denmark and the German states. Russell arranged the London Conference of 1864, but failed to establish peace in the war. His tenure of the Foreign Office was noteworthy for the famous dispatch in which he defended Italian independence: "Her Majesty's Government will turn their eyes rather to the gratifying prospect of a people building up the edifice of their liberties, and consolidating the work of their independence, amid the sympathies and good wishes of Europe" (27 October 1860).[15]

The House of Lords 1860[edit]

Russell was elevated to the peerage as Earl Russell, of Kingston Russell in the County of Dorset, and Viscount Amberley, of Amberley in the County of Gloucester and of Ardsalla in the County of Meath, and in 1861. As a peer in his own right, he sat in the House of Lords for the remainder of his career.

Prime Minister Again 1865-1866[edit]

When Palmerston suddenly died in late 1865, Russell again became Prime Minister. His second premiership was short and frustrating, and Russell failed in his great ambition of expanding the franchise - a task that would be left to his Conservative successors, Derby and Benjamin Disraeli. In 1866, party disunity again brought down his government, and Russell went into permanent retirement.

Marriages and children[edit]

Adelaide Lister, Russell's first wife (d. 1838)

On 11 April 1835, Russell married Adelaide, Lady Ribblesdale, the eldest daughter of Thomas Lister Esq. and the widow of Thomas Lister, 2nd Baron Ribblesdale, who had died in 1832.[16] Her death in 1838 cut the marriage short after three years. They had two daughters, Lady Georgiana Adelaide Russell (1836–1922), who married Archibald Peel and had a daughter, Grace (1878–1973); and Lady Victoria Russell (1838–1880), who married the Rev. Henry Montagu Villiers, and left many descendants.[17]

On 20 July 1841 Russell married secondly Lady Frances Anna-Maria Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, daughter of Gilbert Elliot, 2nd Earl of Minto. Their children were John Russell, Viscount Amberley (1842–1876), George Gilbert William Russell (1848–1933); Francis Albert Rollo Russell (1849–1914) and Mary Augusta Russell (1853–1933). They lived at Pembroke Lodge, Richmond Park[18]

After the death in 1876 of his eldest son, Lord Amberley, Russell and his second wife thereafter brought up his son's children, including Bertrand Russell, who recalled Russell in his later life as "a kindly old man in a wheelchair".[19]

Legacy[edit]

He was succeeded as Liberal leader by former Peelite William Gladstone, and was thus the last true Whig to serve as Prime Minister. Generally taken as the model for Anthony Trollope's Mr Mildmay, aspects of his character may also have suggested those of Plantagenet Palliser. An ideal statesman, said Trollope, should have "unblemished, unextinguishable, inexhaustible love of country...But he should also be scrupulous, and, as being scrupulous, weak."[20]

The 1832 Reform Act and the democratisation of the government of British cities are partly attributed to his efforts.

He also worked for emancipation, leading the attack on the Test and Corporation acts, which were repealed in 1828, as well as towards legislation limiting working hours in factories in the 1847 Factory Act, and the Public Health Act of 1848.

His government's approach to dealing with the Great Irish Famine is now widely condemned as counterproductive, ill-informed and disastrous. Russell himself was sympathetic to the plight of the Irish poor, and many of his relief proposals were blocked by his cabinet or by the British Parliament.[21]

Queen Victoria's attitude to Russell had been coloured by his role in the Aberdeen administration, In visiting Windsor Castle to resign, Aberdeen had told the Queen: "Nothing could have been better, he said than the feeling of the members towards each other. Had it not been for the incessant attempts of Ld John Russell to keep up party differences, it must be acknowledged that the experiment of a coalition had succeeded admirably", which attitude she shared.[22] The Queen continued to criticise Russell for his behaviour for the rest of his life, and on his death in 1878 her journal records that he was: "A man of much talent, who leaves a name behind him, kind, & good, with a great knowledge of the constitution, who behaved very well, on many trying occasions; but he was impulsive, very selfish (as shown on many occasions, especially during Ld Aberdeen's administration) vain, & often reckless & imprudent".[23]

Russell's governments[edit]

Literature[edit]

In 1819 Lord John Russell published his book Life of Lord Russell about his famous ancestor; and a year later his Essays and Sketches of Life and Character, "By a Gentleman who has left his lodgings" (1820), a series of social and cultural commentaries ostensibly found in a missing lodger's rooms.[24] In 1822 Russell published a historical drama Don Carlos : or, Persecution. A tragedy, in five acts.[25] Between 1853 and 1856, he edited the Memoirs, Journal and Correspondence of Thomas Moore, which was published by Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans over 8 volumes.[26][27]

A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens was dedicated to Lord John Russell "In remembrance of many public services and private kindnesses."[28]

Ancestry[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ E. L. Woodward, The Age of Reform, 1815-1870 (2nd ed . 1962) p 95
  2. ^ A. J. P. Taylor, Essays in English History (1976) p 67
  3. ^ John Prest, Lord John Russell (University of South Carolina Press, 1972), 11-13.
  4. ^ Prest (2009)
  5. ^ A. J. P. Taylor, Essays in English History (1976)
  6. ^ Prest, 2009
  7. ^ Prest, 2009
  8. ^ Prest, 2009
  9. ^ B. K. Martin, "The Resignation of Lord Palmerston in 1853: Extracts from Unpublished Letters of Queen Victoria and Lord Aberdeen", Cambridge Historical Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1 (1923), pp. 107-112, Cambridge University Press, JSTOR
  10. ^ Stuart J. Reid, Lord John Russell (1895) ch 10
  11. ^ Orlando Figes, The Crimean War: A History (2010) pp 107-14
  12. ^ Stuart J. Reid, Lord John Russell (1895) ch 10
  13. ^ Stuart J. Reid, Lord John Russell (1895) ch 11
  14. ^ Stuart J. Reid, Lord John Russell (1895) ch 12-13
  15. ^ Stuart J. Reid, Lord John Russell (1895) ch 14
  16. ^ Paul Scherer, Lord John Russell: A Biography (1999) pp 80-82
  17. ^ Stuart J. Reid, Lord John Russell (1895)
  18. ^ Scherer, p 135
  19. ^ Ronald Clark, The Life of Bertrand Russell (1978) ch 1
  20. ^ Quoted in Blair G. Kenney, "Trollope's Ideal Statesmen: Plantagenet Palliser and Lord John Russell" in Nineteenth-Century Fiction, Vol. 20, No. 3. (Dec., 1965), pp. 281-285.
  21. ^ Scherer, p 158
  22. ^ Queen Victoria's Journals, Tuesday 30th January 1855, Windsor Castle, Princess Beatrice's copies, Volume:39 (1st January 1855-30th June 1855), pp. 47-48, Online from the Bodleian Library
  23. ^ Queen Victoria's Journals, Wednesday 29th May 1878, Balmoral Castle, Princess Beatrice's copies, Vol 68 (1st January 1878-24th June 1878), pp. 268-69, Online from the Bodleian Library
  24. ^ [Russell, Lord John]. Essays and Sketches ... (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, 1820)
  25. ^ Internet Archive: Don Carlos : or, Persecution. A tragedy, in five acts (1822)
  26. ^ Internet Archive: Details: Memoirs, journal, and correspondence of Thomas Moore. Ed. by the Right Honourable Lord John Russell, M.P
  27. ^ Internet Archive: Details: Memoirs, journal, and correspondence of Thomas Moore. Ed. by the Right Honourable Lord John Russell, M.P
  28. ^ Dickens, Charles (1866), A Tale of Two Cities (First ed.), London: Chapman and Hall, pp. iii, retrieved 2013-01-05 
  29. ^ Cokayne, Complete Peerage, 1st ed., vol. 6, 1895, p. 450.
  30. ^ Cokayne and Gibbs, Complete Peerage, 2nd ed., vol. 2, 1912, pp. 84-5
  31. ^ Cokayne and Gibbs, Complete Peerage, 2nd ed., vol. 2, 1912, pp. 83-4
  32. ^ Cokayne and Gibbs, Complete Peerage, 2nd ed., vol. 2, 1912, pp. 81-2.
  33. ^ Cokayne and Gibbs, Complete Peerage, 2nd ed., vol. 2, 1912, pp. 81 ; she was the daughter and heiress of John Howland of Streatham, Surrey, and his wife, Elizabeth Child, daughter of Sir Josiah Child, Baronet.
  34. ^ Cokayne and Gibbs, Complete Peerage, 2nd ed., vol. 2, 1912, pp. 83.
  35. ^ Cokayne and Gibbs, Complete Peerage, 2nd ed., vol. 2, 1912, pp. 83.
  36. ^ Cokayne and Gibbs, Complete Peerage, 2nd ed., vol. 2, 1912, pp. 83 ; she was a daughter of Evelyn Pierrepont, Duke of Kingston.
  37. ^ Cokayne and Gibbs, Complete Peerage, 2nd ed., vol. 2, 1912, pp. 84-5
  38. ^ Cokayne and Gibbs, Complete Peerage, 2nd ed., vol. 2, 1912, pp. 84.
  39. ^ Cokayne and Gibbs, Complete Peerage, 2nd ed., vol. 1, 1910, pp. 91
  40. ^ Cokayne and Gibbs, Complete Peerage, 2nd ed., vol. 1, 1910, pp. 93 ; she was the daughter and heiress of Adam van der Duyn, Lord of St. Gravenmoer (in Holland).
  41. ^ Cokayne and Gibbs, Complete Peerage, 2nd ed., vol. 1, 1910, pp. 94.
  42. ^ Cokayne and Gibbs, Complete Peerage, 2nd ed., vol. 4, 1916, p. 219.
  43. ^ Cokayne and Gibbs, Complete Peerage, 2nd ed., vol. 3, 1910, pp. 94 ; she was the dowager Baroness Belayse and a daughter fo Francis Brudenell, Lord Brudenell.
  44. ^ Cokayne, Complete Peerage, 1st ed., vol. 6, 1895, p. 450.
  45. ^ Cokayne, Complete Peerage, 1st ed., vol. 6, 1895, p. 450.
  46. ^ Cokayne, Complete Peerage, 1st ed., vol. 7, 1896, p. 411.
  47. ^ Cokayne, Complete Peerage, 1st ed., vol. 7, 1896, p. 410.
  48. ^ Cokayne, Complete Peerage, 1st ed., vol. 7, 1896, p. 410 ; daughter of James Master, of East Langdon, Kent, and his wife, Joice, daughter of Christopher Turner, of Milton Erneys, Bedfordshire.
  49. ^ Cokayne, Complete Peerage, 1st ed., vol. 7, 1896, p. 411.
  50. ^ Cokayne, Complete Peerage, 1st ed., vol. 7, 1896, p. 411 ; son of Sir Peter Daniel of Clapham, Surrey ; also commonly spelt "Lionel" ; a portrait of him hung in Yotes Court (see J.P. Neale and T. Moule, Views of the Seats or Noblemen and Gentlemen, vol. 4, 1828 [no page numbers]).
  51. ^ E. Hasted, The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent, vol. 5, 1797, p. 84 ; "Mr. James Master resided here [Yokes Place], where he died in 1689 [...] he left three sons and two daughters [...] The daughters were [...] and Martha, who married Lionel Daniel, esq., of Surry [sic], by whom she had William, his heir, and a daughter Elizabeth, married to George, late lord viscount Torrington".
  52. ^ Cokayne, Complete Peerage, 1st ed., vol. 7, 1896, p. 411.
  53. ^ Cokayne, Complete Peerage, 1st ed., vol. 7, 1896, p. 411.
  54. ^ Cokayne and Gibbs, Complete Peerage, 2nd ed., vol. 3, p. 422.
  55. ^ Cokayne and Gibbs, Complete Peerage, 2nd ed., vol. 3, p. 422 ; daughter of John Cecil, fifth Earl of Exeter.
  56. ^ Cokayne, Complete Peerage, 1st ed., vol. 7, 1896, p. 411.
  57. ^ Cokayne, Complete Peerage, 1st ed., vol. 7, 1896, p. 411 ; Cokayne and Gibbs, Complete Peerage, 2nd ed., vol. 3, p. 422 ; of Caledon and Kinard, county Tyrone.
  58. ^ Cokayne and Gibbs, Complete Peerage, 2nd ed., vol. 3, p. 422 ; daughter of Most Rev. Anthony Dopping, Bishop of Meath.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainWood, James, ed. (1907). "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Chamberlain, Muriel E. Lord Aberdeen: A Political Biography (1983)
  • Halevy, Elie. The Triumph of Reform 1830-1841 ((History of the English People in the Nineteeth Century, Volume 3) (1950) detailed political narrative
    • Halevy, Elie. Victorian Years (History of the English People in the Nineteeth Century, Volume 4) (1951) detailed political narrative
  • Krein, David F. "War And Reform: Russell, Palmerston and the Struggle for Power in the Aberdeen Cabinet, 1853-54," Maryland Historian (1976) 7#2 pp 67-84.
  • Partridge, M. S. "The Russell Cabinet and National Defence, 1846-1852.," History (1987) 72# 235, pp 231-250.
  • Prest, John. "Russell, John, first Earl Russell (1792–1878)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004; online ed, 2009 accessed 31 Aug 2014, short scholarly biography
  • Prest, John M. Lord John Russell (Macmillan, 1972), a scholarly biography
  • Prest, J. M. "Gladstone and Russell." Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 16 (1966) pp: 43-63.
  • Reid, Stuart Johnson. Lord John Russell (1895) online; free at Kindle
  • Saunders, Robert. Lord John Russell and Parliamentary Reform, 1848-67," English Historical Review (2005) 120#489 pp 1289-1315. in JSTOR
  • Scherer, Paul. Lord John Russell: A Biography (1999) 427pp, a scholarly biography
  • Scherer, Paul H. "Partner or Puppet? Lord John Russell at the Foreign Office, 1859-1862." Albion: A Quarterly Journal Concerned with British Studies (1987): 347-371. in JSTOR
  • Taylor, A. J. P. Essays in English History (1976) pp 67=72
  • Tilby A. Wyatt. Lord John Russell,: A study in civil and religious liberty (1931)
  • Woodward, Llewellyn. The Age of Reform, 1815-1870 (Oxford History of England) (1938; 2nd ed. 1962), political narrative and analysis

Historiography[edit]

  • Beales, Derek. "Peel, Russell and Reform," Historical Journal (1974) 17#4 pp 873-882 in JSTOR
  • Loades, David Michael, ed. Reader's guide to British history (2003) 2:1147-49

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
John Calcraft
Paymaster of the Forces
1830–1834
Succeeded by
Sir Edward Knatchbull, Bt
Preceded by
Viscount Althorp
Leader of the House of Commons
1834
Succeeded by
Sir Robert Peel
Preceded by
Henry Goulburn
Home Secretary
1835–1839
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Normanby
Preceded by
Sir Robert Peel, Bt
Leader of the House of Commons
1835–1841
Succeeded by
Sir Robert Peel, Bt
Preceded by
The Marquess of Normanby
Secretary of State for War and the Colonies
1839–1841
Succeeded by
Lord Stanley
Preceded by
Sir Robert Peel, Bt
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
30 June 1846 – 23 February 1852
Succeeded by
The Earl of Derby
Leader of the House of Commons
1846–1852
Succeeded by
Benjamin Disraeli
Preceded by
The Earl of Malmesbury
Foreign Secretary
1852–1853
Succeeded by
The Earl of Clarendon
Preceded by
Benjamin Disraeli
Leader of the House of Commons
1852–1855
Succeeded by
The Viscount Palmerston
Preceded by
The Earl Granville
Lord President of the Council
1854–1855
Succeeded by
The Earl Granville
Preceded by
Sidney Herbert
Secretary of State for the Colonies
1855
Succeeded by
Sir William Molesworth, Bt
Preceded by
The Earl of Malmesbury
Foreign Secretary
1859–1865
Succeeded by
The Earl of Clarendon
Preceded by
The Viscount Palmerston
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
29 October 1865 – 28 June 1866
Succeeded by
The Earl of Derby
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Lord William Russell
Richard Fitzpatrick
Member of Parliament for Tavistock
18131817
With: Lord William Russell
Succeeded by
Lord William Russell
Lord Robert Spencer
Preceded by
Lord William Russell
Lord Robert Spencer
Member of Parliament for Tavistock
18181820
With: Lord William Russell 1818–1819
John Peter Grant 1819–1820
Succeeded by
John Peter Grant
John Nicholas Fazakerly
Preceded by
Lord Frederick Montagu
Member of Parliament for Huntingdonshire
18201826
With: William Henry Fellowes
Succeeded by
William Henry Fellowes
Viscount Mandeville
Preceded by
Viscount Duncannon
Member of Parliament for Bandon
18261830
Succeeded by
Viscount Bernard
Preceded by
Viscount Ebrington
Lord William Russell
Member of Parliament for Tavistock
18301831
With: Lord William Russell
Succeeded by
Lord William Russell
John Heywood Hawkins
Preceded by
Sir Thomas Dyke Acland
Viscount Ebrington
Member of Parliament for Devonshire
18311832
With: Viscount Ebrington
Constituency abolished
New constituency Member of Parliament for Devonshire South
18321835
With: John Crocker Bulteel 1832–1835
Sir John Yarde-Buller 1835
Succeeded by
Sir John Yarde-Buller
Montague Parker
Preceded by
William Henry Hyett
George Poulett Scrope
Member of Parliament for Stroud
18351841
With: George Poulett Scrope
Succeeded by
George Poulett Scrope
William Henry Stanton
Preceded by
Sir Matthew Wood
George Grote
William Crawford
James Pattison
Member of Parliament for City of London
18411861
With: Sir Matthew Wood 1841–1843
John Masterman 1841–1857
George Lyall 1841–1847
James Pattison 1843–1849
Lionel de Rothschild 1847–1861
Sir James Duke 1849–1861
Robert Wigram Crawford 1857–1861
Succeeded by
Lionel de Rothschild
Sir James Duke
Robert Wigram Crawford
Western Wood
Party political offices
Preceded by
The Viscount Melbourne
Leader of the British Whig Party
1842–1855
with The Marquess of Lansdowne (1842–1846)
Succeeded by
The Viscount Palmerston
Preceded by
Viscount Althorp
Whig Leader in the Commons
1834–1855
Succeeded by
The Viscount Palmerston
Preceded by
The Viscount Palmerston
Leader of the British Liberal Party
1865–1866
Succeeded by
William Ewart Gladstone
Preceded by
The Earl Granville
Leader of the Liberals in the House of Lords
1865–1868
Succeeded by
The Earl Granville
Academic offices
Preceded by
Andrew Rutherfurd
Rector of the University of Glasgow
1846–1847
Succeeded by
William Mure
Preceded by
Lord Barcaple
Rector of the University of Aberdeen
1863–1866
Succeeded by
Mountstuart Elphinstone Grant Duff
Preceded by
George Grote
President of the Royal Historical Society
1873–1878
Succeeded by
Henry Bruce, 1st Baron Aberdare
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Earl Russell
1861–1878
Succeeded by
Frank Russell