Lord Kitchener Wants You

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Kitchener-leete.jpg
"Britons: Lord Kitchener Wants You. Join Your Country's Army! God save the King."
Media watercolor; print
Release date(s) 1914
Country United Kingdom

Lord Kitchener Wants You was a 1914 advertisement which was developed into a recruitment poster. It depicted Lord Kitchener, the British Secretary of State for War, above the words "WANTS YOU". Kitchener, wearing the cap of a British Field Marshal, stares and points at the viewer calling them to enlist in the British Army against the Central Powers. The image is considered one of the most iconic and enduring images of the war. A hugely influential image and slogan, it has also inspired imitations in other countries, from the United States to the Soviet Union.

Development[edit]

Eric Field's original design that caught the attention of Lord Kitchener

Prior to the institution of conscription in 1916, the United Kingdom relied upon volunteers for military service. Until the outbreak of the First World War, recruiting posters had not been used in Britain on a regular basis since the Napoleonic Wars. UK government advertisements for contract work were handled by His Majesty's Stationery Office, who passed this task onto the publishers of R. F. White & Sons in order to avoid paying the government rate to newspaper publishers. As war loomed in late 1913 the number of advertising contracts expanded to include other firms. J. E. B. Seely, then the Secretary of State for War, awarded Sir Hedley Le Bas, Eric Field, and their Caxton Advertising Agency a contract to advertise for recruits in the major UK newspapers. Eric Field designed a prototype full-page advertisement with the Coat of Arms of King George V and the phrase "Your King and Country Need You." Britain declared war on the German Empire on 4 August 1914 and the first run of the full-page ran the next day in those newspapers owned by Lord Northcliffe.[1]

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom H. H. Asquith had appointed Kitchener as Secretary of State for War.[2] Kitchener was the first currently serving soldier to hold the post and was given the task of recruiting a large army to fight Germany. Unlike some of his contemporaries who expected a short conflict, Kitchener foresaw a much longer war requiring hundreds of thousands of enlistees.[3] [4] According to Gary S. Messinger, Kitchener reacted well to Field's advertisement although insisting "that the ads should all end with 'God Save the King' and that they should not be changed from the original text, except to say 'Lord Kitchener needs YOU.'" In the following months Le Bas formed an advisory committee of ad men to develop further newspaper recruiting advertisements, most of which ran vertically 11 inches (28 cm), two columns wide.[5]

Alfred Leete, one Caxton's illustrators, designed the now-famous image as a cover illustration for the 5 September 1914 issue of London Opinion, a popular weekly magazine, taking cues from Field's earlier recruiting advertisement.[6][7] At the time, the magazine had a circulation of 300,000.[8] In response to requests for reproductions, the magazine offered postcard-sized copies for sale. The Parliamentary Recruiting Committee obtained permission to use the design in poster form.[9] A similar poster used the words "YOUR COUNTRY NEEDS YOU".[10]

Kitchener, a "figure of absolute will and power, an emblem of British masculinity",[11] was a natural subject for Leete's artwork as his name was directly attached to the recruiting efforts and the newly-forming Kitchener's Army.[12] Le Bas of Caxton Advertising (for whom Leete worked) chose Kitchener for the advertisement because Kitchener was "the only soldier with a great war name, won in the field, within the memory of the thousands of men the country wanted."[13] Kitchener made his name in the Sudan Campaign, avenging the death of General Gordon with brutality and efficiency. He became a hero of "New Imperialism" alongside other widely regarded figures in Britain like Field Marshal Wolseley and Field Marshal Roberts.[14] [15] Kitchener's appearance including his bushy mustache and court dress jacket was reminiscent of romanticized Victorian era styles.[16] Kitchener, several inches taller than the national average and powerfully built, was for many the personification of military ethos so popular in the present Edwardian era.[17] After the scorched earth tactics and hard-fought victory of the Second Boer War, Kitchener represented a return to the military victories of the colonial era.[18] The fact that Kitchener's name is not used in the poster demonstrates how easily he was visually recognized.[19] David Lubin opines that the image may be one of the earliest successful celebrity endorsements as the commercial practice expanded greatly in the 1920.[20] Keith Surridge posits that Kitchener's features evoked the harsh, feared militarism of the Germans which bode well for British fortune in the war.[21] Kitchener would not see the end of the war; he died onboard HMS Hampshire in 1916.[22]

Original versions by Alfred Leete[edit]

Impact[edit]

"He is not a great man, he is a great poster."[23]

Margot Asquith

Leete's drawing of Kitchener was the most famous image used in the British Army recruitment campaign of World War I.[2][9] It continues to be considered a masterful piece of wartime propaganda as well as an enduring and iconic image of the war.[24][25][26][27][28] [29]

Recruitment posters in general have often been seen as a driving force helping to bring more than a million men into the Army.[30] September 1914, coincident with publication of Leete's image, saw the highest number of volunteers enlisted.[9] The Times recorded the scene in London on 3 January 1915; "Posters appealing to recruits are to be seen on every hoarding, in most windows, in omnibuses, tramcars and commercial vans. The great base of Nelson's Column is covered with them. Their number and variety are remarkable. Everywhere Lord Kitchener sternly points a monstrously big finger, exclaiming 'I Want You'".[9] One contemporaneous publication decried the use of advertising methods to enlist soldiers: "the cold, basilisk eye of a gaudily-lithographed Kitchener rivets itself upon the possible recruit and the outstretched finger of the British Minister of War is levelled at him like some revolver, with the words, 'I want you.' The idea is stolen from the advertisement of a 5c. American cigar."[31] Although it became one of the most famous posters in history,[9] its widespread circulation did not halt the decline in recruiting.[9]

This 30-word poster was an official product of the Parliamentary Recruitment Committee and was more popular contemporaneously.

The use of Kitchener's image for recruiting posters was so widespread that Lady Asquith referred to the Field Marshal simply as "the Poster."[20]

The placement of the Kitchener posters including Alfred Leete's design has been examined and questioned following an Imperial War Museum publication in 1997. The War Museum suggested that the poster itself was a "non event" and was made popular by postwar advertising by the war museum, perhaps conflating Leete's design with the so-called "30-word" poster, an official product from the Parliamentary Recruitment Committee.[13] The 30-word design was the most popular recruitment poster at the time having been printed ten times the volume of Leete's image.[8] [32] This fact is counter-intuitive when the two images are compared. The official recruiting poster is based on a photograph showing Kitchener's mustache more realistically trimmed, his eyes evince his strabismus and his shoulders appear diminutive. Leete's image has been praised for being more arresting while his accompanying text is also far less verbose. The official wording, taken from a Kitchener speech, may seem more fitting for a character in a Henry James novel.[20] The 30-word recruiting poster was developed as Britons' collective hopes of the war being over by Christmas were dashed in January of 1915 and volunteer enlistments fell.[33] A 2013 book researched by James Taylor counters the popular belief that the Leete design was an influential recruitment tool during the war. He claims the original artwork was acquired by the Imperial War Museum in 1917 and catalogued as a poster in error.[8] Though the image of Kitchener (Britain's most popular soldier) inspired several other poster designs, Taylor says he can find no evidence in photographs of the time that the Leete poster was used, although a photograph from 15 December 1914 taken at the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway station in Liverpool clearly depicts Leete's depiction among other recruiting posters.[8] [34]

The effectiveness of the image upon the viewer is attributed to what E. B. Goldstein has called the 'differential rotation effect.' Because of this effect, Kitchener's eyes and his foreshortened arm and hand appear to follow the viewer regardless of the viewer's orientation to the artwork.[35][36][37] Historian Carlo Ginzburg compared Leete's image of Kitchener to similar images of Christ and Alexander the Great as depicting the viewer's contact with a powerful figure.[38] Pearl James commented on Ginzburg's analysis agreeing that the strength of the connotation lies with a clever use of discursive psychology and that art historical methods better illuminate why this image has such resonance.[39] The capitalized word "YOU" grabs the reader, bringing them directly to Kitchener's message.[20] The textual focus on "you" engages the reader about their own participation in the war.[40] Nicholas Hiley differs in that Leete's portrayal of Kitchener is less about immediate recruiting statistics but the myth that has grown around the image, including ironic parodies.[13][41] Leete's Kitchener poster caught the attention of a then eleven-year-old George Orwell, who may have used as it the basis for his description of the "Big Brother" posters in his novel 1984.[20]

In 1997 the British Army created a recruiting ad re-using Leete's image substituting Kitchener's face with that of a British Army non-commissioned officer of African descent.[42] Leete's image of Kitchener is featured on a 2014 £2 coin produced by sculptor John Bergdahl for the Royal Mint. The coin was the first of a five-year series to commemorate the centennial of the war.[43] Use of Leete's image of Kitchener has been criticized by some for its pro-war connotation in light of the human losses of the First World War and the violence of Kitchener's campaign in Sudan.[44] In July 2014, one of only four original posters known to exist went to auction for more than £10,000. The other three originals exist on display in State Library of Victoria, the Museum of Brands, Packaging and Advertising, and the Imperial War Museum.[45][46] Leete's design was also used for a corn maze in the Skylark Garden Center in Wimblington to mark the centenary of World War I.[47]

Imitations[edit]

The image of Lord Kitchener with his hand pointing directly at the viewer has inspired numerous imitations:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Messinger 1992, pp. 214–216.
  2. ^ a b "Historic Figures – Lord Horatio Kitchener (1850–1916)". BBC.  Retrieved 31 March 2011
  3. ^ Jones, Nigel (2013-12-16). Peace And War: Britain In 1914. Head of Zeus. pp. 222–223. ISBN 978-1781852538. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  4. ^ Welch & Fox 2012, pp. 79-80.
  5. ^ Messinger 1992, pp. 216–217.
  6. ^ Stride, Helena (2008-05-12). "Call to arms". TES. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  7. ^ Pollock, John (2013-09-19). Kitchener: Double volume. Constable & Robinson Ltd. ISBN 9781472113344. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  8. ^ a b c d Copping, Jasper (2013-08-02). "'Your Country Needs You' – The myth about the First World War poster that 'never existed'". The Telegraph.  Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Simkins, Peter (1988). Kitchener's army: the raising of the new armies, 1914–16. Manchester University Press. pp. 122–123. 
  10. ^ Lord Kitchener "Your country needs you!". Sterling Times. Retrieved 31 March 2011
  11. ^ Tynan 2013, p. 35.
  12. ^ Tynan 2013, pp. 46-47.
  13. ^ a b c Hiley, Nicholas (1997). "Kitchener wants YOU and Daddy what did YOU do in the great war?: The Myth of British Recruiting Posters". Imperial War Museum Review (Imperial War Museum) 11: 40–58. 
  14. ^ Welch & Fox 2012, pp. 48-49.
  15. ^ Surridge 2001, pp. 298, 305.
  16. ^ Tynan 2013, pp. 35-36.
  17. ^ Surridge 2001, pp. 307-308.
  18. ^ Welch & Fox 2012, p. 52.
  19. ^ Surridge 2001, p. 311.
  20. ^ a b c d e Lubin, David M. (September 2011). "Losing Sight: War, Authority, and Blindness in British and American Visual Cultures, 1914–22". Art History 34 (4): 796–817. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8365.2010.00847.x – via Wiley Online Library. 
  21. ^ Surridge 2001, p. 309.
  22. ^ Surridge 2001, pp. 312-313.
  23. ^ Gosling, Lucinda (2008). Brushes and Bayonets: Cartoons, Sketches and Paintings of World War I. Osprey Publishing. p. 28. ISBN 9781846030956. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  24. ^ "British First World War Recruiting Posters". McMaster University. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  25. ^ "Propaganda 1914–18". The National Archives. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  26. ^ Taylor, Philip M. (1999). British Propaganda in the 20th Century: Selling Democracy. Edinburgh University Press. p. 1. ISBN 0748610405. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  27. ^ Sooke, Alastair (2013-07-03). "Can propaganda be great art?". BBC. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  28. ^ Hardie, Martin; Sabin, Arthur Knowles (1920). War posters issued by belligerent and neutral nations 1914-1919. London: A & C Black. p. 9. 
  29. ^ Hughes-Wilson, John; Steel, Nigel (2014). A History Of The First World War In 100 Objects: In Association With The Imperial War Museum. Octopus Books. ISBN 9781844037605. 
  30. ^ "British History in depth: The Pals Battalions in World War One". BBC.  Retrieved 31 March 2011
  31. ^ R. L. Orchelle (May 15, 1915). "The Soul of England". The Vital Issue (Francis J.L. Dorl) 2 (20): 4. 
  32. ^ Eley, Adam (4 August 2014). "Kitchener: The most famous pointing finger". BBC. 
  33. ^ White, Bonnie J. (2009). "Volunteerism and Early Recruitment Efforts in Devonshire, August 1914–December 1915". The Historical Journal (Cambridge University Press) 52 (3): 641–666. doi:10.1017/S0018246X09990069. 
  34. ^ "First World War posters, 1914". National Railway Museum. 
  35. ^ Cutting, James E. (1988). "Affine Distortions of Pictorial Space: Some Predictions for Goldstein (1987) That La Gournerie (1859) Might Have Made". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance (pdf) (American Psychological Association) 14 (2): 305–311. doi:10.1037/0096-1523.14.2.305. 
  36. ^ Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea J; Kappers, Astrid M L; Todd, James T (2004). "Pointing out of the picture". Perception 33 (5): 513–530. doi:10.1068/p3454. Retrieved 2014-03-03. 
  37. ^ Busey, Thomas A.; Brady, Nuala P.; Cutting, James E. (1990). "Compensation is unnecessary for the perception of faces in slanted pictures". Perception & Psychophysics (pdf) (Psychonomic Society) 48 (1): 2. 
  38. ^ Ginzburg, Carlo (2001). "'Your Country Needs You': A Case Study in Political Iconography". History Workshop Journal (Oxford University Press) (52): 1–22. 
  39. ^ James 2009, p. 21.
  40. ^ Chambers, R. (1983). "Art and Propaganda in an Age of War: The Role of Posters". South African Journal of Military Studies (pdf) 13 (4). Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  41. ^ James 2009, p. 18.
  42. ^ Surridge 2001, p. 298.
  43. ^ "The 100th Anniversary of the FWW – Outbreak UK £2 Brilliant Uncirculated Coin". Royal Mint. 2014-02-20. Retrieved 2014-03-02. 
  44. ^ "Calls for 'offensive' Kitchener WWI centenary coin to be scrapped". Herald Scotland. 2014-01-14. Retrieved 2014-03-02. 
  45. ^ Sim, David (July 8, 2014). "Lord Kitchener Wants You: Rare First World War Posters Go On Sale". International Business Times. Retrieved 2014-07-09. 
  46. ^ "About Us". Robert Opie Collection. Retrieved 2014-07-09. 
  47. ^ "Lord Kitchener WW1 poster created in Cambridgeshire maize maze". BBC. 18 July 2014. 
  48. ^ Capozzola, Christopher (2008). Uncle Sam Wants You : World War I and the Making of the Modern American Citizen. Oxford University Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780195335491. 

Bibliography[edit]

Further Reading[edit]

  • Thatcher, Martyn; Quinn, Anthony (2013-10-01). The Amazing Story of the Kitchener Poster. Funfly Design. ISBN 9780956909428. 

External links[edit]