Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians)
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2007)|
|Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians)|
Cap Badge of Lord Strathcona's Horse
|Active||1 July 1901 – present|
|Part of||Royal Canadian Armoured Corps|
|Nickname||Strathcona's, Strats, Straths (WWII era)|
|March||Soldiers of the Queen|
|Colonel-in-Chief||HRH The Prince of Wales|
|MGen (Ret'd) Ross|
|Tartan||Forbes (Pipes and Drums)|
Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) (LdSH [RC]) is a regular armoured regiment of the Canadian Army. Currently based in Edmonton, Alberta, the regiment is part of 3rd Canadian Division's 1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group. Members of the regiment are commonly called Strathconas or Strats as a short form.
The regiment is currently composed of a regimental headquarters and four primary squadrons: A, B, Reconnaissance ('Recce') and Headquarters. In September 2006, B Squadron deployed to Afghanistan using the Leopard C2, the first NATO deployment of main battle tanks (MBTs) to Afghanistan.
Each year the squadron that distinguishes itself with the highest efficiency rating in the regiment earns the title "Prince of Wales Squadron" for the year. The regiment has seven affiliated cadet corps in Alberta and British Columbia.
The main vehicles operated by Lord Strathcona's Horse are the Leopard tank and the Coyote Reconnaissance Vehicle. Due to a change in Canadian army doctrine in the early 2000s away from heavy armour to more infantry-centred operations, Lord Strathcona's Horse was for several years the only regular armoured regiment to operate MBTs . This was until the 2006 announcement that the Royal Canadian Dragoons would be re-equipped with a squadron of Leopards.
The regimental motto is Perseverance. The current Commanding Officer is Lieutenant-Colonel Paul Peyton and the Regimental Sergeant Major is Chief Warrant Officer A.J. Batty. The Colonel-in-Chief of the regiment is His Royal Highness Charles, Prince of Wales, while the honorary Colonel of the Regiment is MGen (Ret'd) Ross.
The regiment was one of the last in the British Empire to be created and raised by a private individual, Donald Alexander Smith, 1st Baron Strathcona and Mount Royal. During the Boer War, Lord Strathcona recruited and equipped the cavalry regiment at his own expense for service in South Africa. Many skilled horsemen (cowboys and North-West Mounted Police members) enlisted, allowing for a short training period and rapid deployment to Africa. The 537 officers and men, as well as 599 horses, of the new regiment sailed from Halifax on 18 March 1900 and arrived in Cape Town on 10 April. Along with The Royal Canadian Dragoons, the regiment won renown for their scouting skills.
Rumour exists that members of the North-West Mounted Police serving with the regiment during the Boer War preferred the boots the regiment wore, and adopted them as their own – hence the name "Strathcona boots" for Royal Canadian Mounted Police high brown boots.
Another legacy of the official kit is the huge popularity of the distinctive Stetson Campaign Hat worn by all Canadians serving in Africa during the Second Boer War. After seeing Canadian troops in this attire at the Relief of Mafeking, British Officer Robert Baden-Powell ordered 10,000 of the hats for his own troops.
Supposedly General Kitchener was astonished at the size of the newly arrived Canadian soldiers. Their commander, Sam Steele, is said to have replied "My apologies, sir. I combed all of Canada and these are the smallest I could find."
After the war, the regiment boarded ship at Cape Town on 20 January 1901 and arrived in London on 14 February. Here they met Lord Strathcona for the first time and were presented their medals by King Edward VII personally. On its return to Canada on 9 March 1901, the regiment was disbanded. The name "Strathcona's Horse" was revived in 1909 when the Royal Canadian Mounted Rifles (which had been created in the Permanent Force in 1901) was renamed "Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians)". The word Lord was prepended to the regimental title in 1911.
At the outbreak of the First World War, the regiment was mobilized and began its training in England. In 1915, Lord Strathcona's Horse served as infantry in the trenches in France. On 16 February 1916, the Strathcona's were reconstituted as a mounted force and, as an Imperial Service Regiment, served in the Canadian Cavalry Brigade attached to the 2nd Indian Cavalry Division, which in November 1916 became the 5th Cavalry Division of the British 4th Army. In March 1917, the regiment saw action as cavalry during the defence of the Somme front. It was during this fighting that Lieutenant Frederick Harvey won the Victoria Cross for rushing a German machine gun post and capturing the gun position. In spring 1918 during the last great German offensive, called by the Germans Operation Michael, when the Imperial and French armies were on the verge of being split, the regiment earned its third Victoria Cross. On 31 March 1918, in what is known as "the last great cavalry charge" at the Battle of Moreuil Wood, Gordon Flowerdew was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross for leading his men in a successful engagement with entrenched German forces.
One of the many dramatic changes World War I introduced into military organization and technology was the introduction of the tank, and in the 1930s the regiment followed suit with the rest of the world's modern militaries and was converted from cavalry to armoured.
During the Second World War, the regiment mobilized an armoured regiment for overseas service, which joined the First Canadian Armoured Division (renamed the 5th Canadian Armoured Division). During an inspection in England, King George VI noticed that the divisional patches on the sleeves of the troopers bore the legend "LSH". He remarked to a Strathcona's officer that he had always thought the proper abbreviation of "Lord" was "Ld". The regiment promptly changed its formation patches and have used the correct designation ever since.
In July 1940, LdSH(RC) along with the Royal Canadian Dragoons, were mobilized as the 1st Canadian Motorcycle Regiment. Later that year, the Strathcona's became 2nd Armoured Regiment, Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians). The Regiment trained in England for two years with Canadian built Ram tanks and saw its first action in an armoured role in Italy.
One of the regiment's most noteworthy battles in Italy was the Melfa River Crossing. During this desperate battle the Strathcona RHQ reconnaissance troop established a bridgehead in conjunction with "A" Company, The Westminster Regiment (Motor) on the Melfa River and held it against determined German tank and infantry attacks until reinforcements could arrive. The action resulted in a Victoria Cross being awarded to the OC "A" Company, Major Jack Mahony and forged a long-standing association between the two regiments.
The advance up the boot of Italy bloodied the regiment but also forged their identity as a Canadian tank unit, second to none. The regiment left Italy in February 1945, and fought in the North West Europe campaign to liberate Holland and the Lowlands. In 1946, the regiment returned to Canada and except for two operational tours in Germany, called Calgary its home garrison.
During the Cold War, the regiment was deployed on several rotations to West Germany, and three squadrons fought in rotation in the Korean War as part of the 1st Commonwealth Division. Originally intended to be equipped with M-10 tank destroyers, the Strathconas in Korea went into action with M4A3E8 Sherman tanks.
Other deployments include two six-month missions in Bosnia: 1994 with the United Nations and 1997 with NATO. In 2002 the Reconnaissance Squadron participated as part of the Canadian battle group during the U.S.-led invasion of Afghanistan. The squadron returned to Kabul, Afghanistan for a six-month rotation in 2004 as part of Canada's ongoing commitment to the International Security Assistance Force. Since September 2006, various squadrons of Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) have served continuously in Afghanistan, forming the basis of every tank squadron to serve as part of Task Force Kandahar.
In 2000, to commemorate the centenary of its original foundation, a mounted detachment of eighteen members from Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) was invited to London, where, in ceremonial full-dress, they mounted the Queen's Life Guard at the Horse Guards on seven days between 8 and 23 September. This was a very great honour, as they were the first overseas unit ever to have mounted the Queen's Life Guard at the Horse Guards.
The Freedom of the City was exercised by Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) in St. Albert, Alberta, on June 11, 2011.
The Strathconas have been awarded the following battle honours:
- South Africa 1900–01
- First World War: Festubert 1915, Somme 1916, ’18, Cambrai 1917, ’18, St. Quentin, Amiens, Hindenburg Line, St. Quentin Canal, Beaurevoir, Pursuit to Mons, France and Flanders 1915–18
- Second World War: Liri Valley, Melfa Crossing, Torrice Crossroads, Gothic Line, Pozzo Alto Ridge, Italy 1944–45, Ĳsselmeer, North-West Europe, 1945
- Korea, 1951–53
- Lieutenant Gordon Muriel Flowerdew, VC
- Lieutenant Frederick Maurice Watson Harvey, VC, MC
- Sergeant Arthur Herbert Lindsay Richardson, VC
Heraldry and Dress
- Armorial Description: Lord Strathcona's Coat of Arms, without supporters, being a shield surmounted by a maple tree inclined to the left, and cut through by a beaver working at the base; in the chief a demi-lion rampant; in the centre a railroad spike and hammer crossed; in the base a canoe bearing a flag inscribed NW and containing four men; the whole surrounded by a riband which is encircled by a wreath of roses, thistles, shamrocks and maple leaves, and inscribed LORD STRATHCONA'S HORSE, ROYAL CANADIANS, surmounted by a scroll bearing the motto PERSEVERANCE, and the whole surmounted by the Crown.
- This badge commemorates Lord Strathcona's role in the fur trade and in the settlement of North West Canada (as the province of Alberta was called prior to 1905) by its representation of a Hudson's Bay Company trade canoe, the flag 'NW' (for "North West"), and the representation of the railway construction tools. The latter mark Lord Strathcona's direct role in the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
- Shoulder title
- STRATHCONA'S (brass DEU); LdSH(RC) (CADPAT)
- Full Dress Uniform (No. 1 Dress)
- scarlet: facings: myrtle green; headdress: dragoon helmet with red and white plume; tartan: ? (pipers' trews, later kilts)
- Service Dress (No. 3 Dress)
- Canadian Forces Pattern service dress, with collar badges (or "dogs") of the Strathcona Coat of Arms.
The Pipes and Drums
Although the 2nd Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment (2RCR), maintains the only pipes and drums in the regular army, Lord Strathcona's Horse also maintains its own pipes and drums. The difference between the two is that the 2RCR Pipes and Drums is funded directly by the Battalion, while the LdSH (RC) pipes and drums is funded by the regimental society. As such, the pipes and drums is a voluntary band that consists of both members of the regiment and outside volunteers.
There are several Royal Canadian Army Cadets units spread across Alberta, British Columbia and the Northwest Territories which are affiliated to the Lord Strachcona's Horse (Royal Canadians). Cadets are not soldiers; they are part of an organization dedicated to developing citizenship and leadership among young men and women aged 12 to 18 years of age with a military flavour, and are not required to join the Canadian Forces.
|1292 RCACC||Calgary, Alberta|
|1813 RCACC||Cranbrook, BC|
|2716 RCACC||Mayerthorpe, Alberta|
|2860 RCACC||Fort Simpson, NWT|
|2952 RCACC||Grande Cache, Alberta|
|3066 RCACC||Golden, BC|
|3070 RCACC||Evansburg, Alberta|
Cadet units affiliated to the LdSH(RC) receive support and also are entitled to wear traditional regimental accoutrements on their uniforms.
Order of precedence
The Royal Canadian Dragoons
|Lord Strathcona's Horse
12e Régiment blindé du Canada
- Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) Society: History of Regiment.
- Canadian War Museum: Munnings, Charge of Flowerdew's Squadron (1918).
- Oldfield, Major J.E.: The Westminster's War Diary, pages 74-107. Mitchel Press, 1964.
- St. Albert, Alberta
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lord Strathcona's Horse.|
- Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) Canadian Forces page
- Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) Regimental Society
- Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) Regimental Manual, 2004