Lord of Biscay

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After swearing the Oath to the Fueros under the Guernica tree, King Ferdinand II of Aragon receives the traditional homage of kissing of the hand from the Juntas Generales (General Assembly) of Biscay, July 30, 1476.

Lord of Biscay (Basque: Bizkaiko Jauna, Spanish: Señor de Vizcaya) is the historical title of the Lordship of Biscay, a feudal territory in present-day Biscay, in the Basque Country.

History[edit]

The first known Lord of Biscay (11th century), Íñigo López "Ezkerra" was a lieutenant of the Kingdom of Pamplona (later known as Navarre); this feudal relationship was intermittently held to by his successors until the definitive Castilian conquest of Gipuzkoa in 1200. The relations of the lords with the kings of Castille made them the landlords of Haro, La Rioja because they had favored the Castilian interests in the conflicts with Pamplona/Navarre.

The Lords had limited powers and had, like the Navarrese monarchs before them, to give oath at Gernika of respecting the fuero (Basque: forua), which in this context means a compilation of laws, when inheriting the honor.

After the Lordship was inherited by the Castilian dynasty in 1370, the Kings of Castile (and later, of Spain) still had to give oath in equal manner and so they did, until the Biscayan fueros were unilaterally supplanted at the end of 19th century, as a retaliatory measure from the government of Madrid for the support of the provinces to the Carlist pretender to the Crown.[1] They haven't done it since the second restoration of Alfonso XII

List of Lords of Biscay[edit]

The arms of the House of Haro, Lords of Biscay between the 11th and 14th centuries. Its composition is the basis for the coat of arms of many towns and villages in Biscay.

Mythical[edit]

According to Lope García de Salazar, author of the historical Bienandanzas e fortunas (15th Century), there were at least five mythical or legendary lords of Biscay before the ones that can actually be considered historical and documented.

  • Jaun Zuria (the White Lord): supposedly born from the union of god Sugaar and a Scottish (or Irish, or Danish, or Frankish) princess in the village of Mundaka. Legend says that Jaun Zuria was the elected chief of the Biscayans in the victorious battle of Arrigorriaga against the invading forces of the Kingdom of Asturias; tradition holds that before the battle he saw two wolves carrying lambs in their mouths, presaging the victory; this scene is reflected in the arms of the lords of Biscay of the House of Haro.
  • Munio López (909-920), the son of Jaun Zuria, who married Belasquita, daughter of Sancho I of Pamplona.[2]
  • Íñigo López Esquira (920-965), the step-brother of Munio López and called "the left-handed".
  • Lope II Íñiguez (965-1011)
  • Sancho López (1011-1016)

Historical[edit]

House of Haro[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Íñigo López
Ezkerra (The Left-Handed)
1040-1077
Unknown Toda Fórtunez[3][4]
five children
1077
Lope Íñiguez
1077-1093
1050
Son of Íñigo López and Toda Fórtunez
Ticlo Díaz[5]
five children
1093
Diego López
the White
1093-1124
1075
Son of Lope Íñiguez and Ticlo Díaz
María Sánchez
three children
1124
Lope Díaz
the one from Nájera
1125-1170
Unknown
Son of Diego López and María Sánchez
Aldonza[6]
eleven children
6 May, 1170
Diego López II
the Good
1170-1214
Diego López II de Haro.jpg 1152
Lope Díaz and Aldonza
(1) María Manrique de Lara
one children
(2)Toda Pérez de Azagra
seven children
16 September, 1214
Lope Díaz II
Brave Head
1214-1236
1170
Son of Diego López II and María Manrique de Lara
Urraca Alfonso de León
10 children[7]
15 November, 1236
Diego López III
1236-1254
Unknown
Son of Lope Díaz II and Urraca Alfonso de León
Constanza de Béarn
five children
4 October, 1254
Lope Díaz III
1254-1288
Unknown
Son of Diego López III and Constanza de Béarn
Juana Alfonso de Molina
two children
8 June, 1288
Diego López IV
the Young
1288-1289
Unknown
Son of Lope Díaz III and Juana Alfonso de Molina
Unmarried 1289
María Díaz
the Good
1289-1295
1270
Daughter of Lope Díaz III and Juana Alfonso de Molina
Juan de Castile
three children
1342

House of Burgundy[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Henry of Castile
the Senator
1294-1295
1230
Son of Ferdinand III of Castile and Elisabeth of Swabia
Juana Núñez de Lara
no children
8 August, 1313

House of Haro (restored, first time)[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Diego López V
the Intruder
1295-1310
Don Diego López de Haro V.jpg 1250
Son of Diego López III and Constanza de Béarn
Violante de Castile
four children
1310
María Díaz
the Good
1310-1322 (second lordship)
1270
Daughter of Lope Díaz III and Juana Alfonso de Molina
Juan of Castile
three children
1342
Juan
the One-eyed
1322-1326
Unknown
Son of Juan of Castile and María Díaz
Isabel of Portugal and Manuel
one children
31 October, 1326
María Díaz
the Good
1326-1333 (third lordship)
1270
Daughter of Lope Díaz III and Juana Alfonso de Molina
Juan of Castile
three children
1342

House of Vela[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Ladrón Íñiguez
Prince of the Navarrese
1124-1136
Unknown
Son of Íñigo Vela and Áurea Jiménez
Unknown
Three children
1155
Vela Ladrón
Vela from Navarre
1136-1143
1115
Son of Ladrón Íñiguez
Unknown 1143
Ladrón Íñiguez
Prince of the Navarrese
1143-1155 (second lordship)
Unknown
Son of Íñigo Vela and Áurea Jiménez
Unknown
Three children
1155
Vela Ladrón
Vela from Navarre
1155-1174 (second lordship)
1115
Son of Ladrón Íñiguez
Unknown 1143

House of Burgundy (restored)[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Alfonso XI
1333-1334
Alfonso XI, king of Leon and Castile 02.jpg 1311
Son of Ferdinand IV of Castile and Constance of Portugal
Maria of Portugal
two children
1350

House of Haro (restored, second time)[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
María Díaz II
1334-1349
Unknown
Daughter of Juan de Castilla y Haro and Isabel of Portugal and Manuel
Juan Núñez III de Lara
five children
1348-49

House of Lara[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Juan Núñez III
1334-1350
1314-15
Son of Ferdinand de la Cerda and Juana de Lara
María Díaz II de Haro
five children
1350
Nuño de Lara
1351-1352
1348
Son of Juan Núñez III de Lara and María Díaz II de Haro
Unmarried 1352
Juana de Lara
1352-1359
1335
Daughter of Juan Núñez III de Lara and María Díaz II de Haro
Tello Alfonso
no children
1359

House of Trastámara[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Tello Alfonso
1355-1369
1337
Son of Alfonso XI of Castile and Eleanor de Guzmán
Juana de Lara
no children
1370
John I of Castile
1369-1379
JuanIdeCastilla.JPG 1358
Son of Henry II of Castile and Juana Manuel
Eleanor of Aragon
two children
1390

Starting with John I, the title of Lord of Biscay got integrated in the Crown of Castile, and ever since the monarchs of Castile, and later Spain, have also upheld the title of Lord of Biscay. The title is currently held by Felipe VI of Spain.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Trask, L. The History of Basque Routledge: 1997 ISBN 0-415-13116-2
  2. ^ Título de cómo fue don Munso López, su fijo, segundo Señor de Vizcaya en de las Bienandanzas...
  3. ^ Martín Duque 2002, p. 898.
  4. ^ Balparda de las Herrerías 1933-34, p. 164.
  5. ^ Balparda de las Herrerías 1933-34, pp. 257 and 259.
  6. ^ Salazar y Acha 1985, pp. 57-60.
  7. ^ Real Academia de Historia, Colección Salazar y Castro, Ref. M-8, fº 63v-64 [1]

Bibliographical sources[edit]

  • Historia de Navarra, el estado vasco, Mikel Sorauren, 1998.

External links[edit]