Loricariinae

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Loricariinae
Sturisoma panamense 2.jpg
Sturisoma panamense
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Siluriformes
Family: Loricariidae
Subfamily: Loricariinae
Bonaparte, 1831
Tribes

Harttiini Isbrücker, 1979
Loricariini Isbrücker, 1979

Loricariinae is a subfamily of the family Loricariidae of catfish (order Siluriformes).[1] This subfamily is divided into two tribes and about 30 genera.[2] They are mainly native to freshwater habitats in South America, but there are also several species (in genera Crossoloricaria, Dasyloricaria, Fonchiiichthys, Rineloricaria, Spatuloricaria, Sturisoma and Sturisomatichthys) in Panama and a single (Fonchiiichthys) in Costa Rica.[3]

Taxonomy[edit]

Loricariinae was first described in 1831.[4] Later, in 1979, many genera were described and Loricariinae was divided into four subfamilies: Loricariini, Harttiini, Farlowellini, and Acestridiini. Eventually, the genera of Acestridiini was included under Hypoptopomatinae and genera of Farlowellini was reclassified into Hartiini.[2] This subfamily has been found to be monophyletic.[2] The most recent papers conclude that there are 30 or 31 genera; the status of Cteniloricaria is dubious; although recognized as a synonym of Harttia by some, this conclusion was reached without diagnosing the type species of Cteniloricaria.[2]

Appearance and anatomy[edit]

As loricariids, loricariinae species are characterized by a depressed body covered by bony plates, a unique pair of maxillary barbels, and modification of the mouth into a suckermouth.[2] Members of the subfamily Loricariinae show a greater diversity of lip structures and shapes than other loricariids.[5] Loricariines are characterized by a long and depressed caudal peduncle (rectangular cross-section) and by the absence of an adipose fin.[2][4] They also show dramatic variation in body shape, lip morphology and dentition. The sexual dimorphism is often pronounced and is expressed through the hypertrophy of odontodes on the pectoral fin rays, on the snout margin, and sometimes on the predorsal area of mature males. Certain genera also show sexual differences in lip and tooth structures.[2]

The Harttiini are characterized by numerous and pedunculated teeth, a caudal fin with more branched rays, the absence of postorbital notches and predorsal keels, a rounded mouth, papillose lips weakly or not fringed, and short maxillary barbels.[2] The Loricariini are characterized by a more important variation in lips and teeth shape, the frequent presence of postorbital notches and predorsal keels, longer maxillary barbels, and less numerous teeth and branched rays in the caudal fin.[2]

Genera[edit]

Genera list based on Covain and Fisch-Muller (2007), except for Cteniloricaria.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Loricariinae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved May 28, 2007. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Covain, Raphael; Fisch-Muller, Sonia (2007). "The genera of the Neotropical armored catfish subfamily Loricariinae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae): a practical key and synopsis" (PDF). Zootaxa 1462: 1–40. 
  3. ^ Angulo; Garita-Alvarado; Bussing; and López (2013). Annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of continental and insular Costa Rica: additions and nomenclatural revisions. Check List 9(5): 987–1019.
  4. ^ a b Armbruster, Jonathan W. "Loricariinae". Retrieved 2007-05-28. 
  5. ^ Reis, Roberto E.; Pereira, Edson H. L. (2000). Schaefer, S. A., ed. "Three New Species of the Loricariid Catfish Genus Loricariichthys (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from Southern South America". Copeia 2000 (4): 1029–1047. doi:10.1643/0045-8511(2000)000[1029:TNSOTL]2.0.CO;2.