Play in O.co Coliseum
Headquartered in Alameda, California
|Fight song||The Autumn Wind|
|Owner(s)||Mark Davis (majority owner)|
|General manager||Reggie McKenzie|
|Head coach||Dennis Allen|
League championships (3†)
Conference championships (5)
Division championships (15)
|Playoff appearances (21)|
Founded in 1960, the Oakland Raiders are an American football team based in Oakland, California. For the first ten seasons of their existence, the Raiders belonged to the American Football League; they have been members of the National Football League since the 1970 AFL–NFL merger. As of 2013, the Raiders belong to the West division of the American Football Conference. Over the span of fifty-four seasons, the Raiders have experienced considerable success. Entering the 2014 season the Raiders sported a regular season record of 434–375–11, with a playoff record of 25–18.
In the club's first three seasons (1960–1962), the team struggled both on and off the field. In 1963, the Raiders appointed eventual owner/general manager Al Davis to the position of head coach. Under Davis' guidance, the team's fortunes improved dramatically. In 1967, the Raiders reached the postseason for the first time; they went on to win their first, and only, AFL title that year by beating the Houston Oilers in the Championship Game, but they were defeated by the Green Bay Packers in Super Bowl II.
The Raiders' run of success grew during the 1970s; during this time, they won six division titles and played in six AFC championship games. In 1976, the team captured its first championship by defeating the Minnesota Vikings in Super Bowl XI. In 1980, the Raiders unexpectedly won a second championship by defeating the Philadelphia Eagles in Super Bowl XV, at the time being the first NFL team to have ever done so as the wild card team in the playoffs. Two years later, the franchise relocated to Los Angeles. In 1983 (their second season since the move), they defeated the Washington Redskins in Super Bowl XVIII to capture a third championship. The Raiders' fortunes declined considerably following the 1985 season; they would win just one division title (1990) and two playoff games over their final nine seasons in Los Angeles. In 1995, the team returned to Oakland.
In the early 2000s, the Raiders experienced a massive (albeit brief) resurgence; their renaissance culminated with a 2002 loss to the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in Super Bowl XXXVII. The team struggled significantly in the years following that Super Bowl loss. While the Raiders' fortunes somewhat improved in 2010 and 2011, they have not reached the playoffs (or attained a winning record) in 11 seasons. They most recently finished 4–12 in 2013.
Today, the Raiders are known for their extensive fan base and distinctive team culture. Since 1960, the team has won fifteen division titles (three AFL and twelve NFL), three Super Bowls, four AFC titles (1976, 1980, 1983, and 2002) and an AFL Championship. Thirteen former members of the team have been enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame.
- 1 History
- 1.1 The beginning & early years (1959–1962)
- 1.2 The AFL and Al Davis (1963–1969)
- 1.3 AFL–NFL Merger (1970–1981)
- 1.4 The Los Angeles era (1982–1994) and third world championship
- 1.5 Back To Oakland (1995–present)
- 1.5.1 Jon Gruden era (1998–2001)
- 1.5.2 Bill Callahan era (2002–2003)
- 1.5.3 Coaching carousel (2004–2011)
- 1.5.4 The Reggie McKenzie/Dennis Allen era begins (2012–present)
- 2 Championships
- 3 Logos and uniforms
- 4 Home fields
- 5 New stadium proposals
- 6 Culture
- 7 Cheerleaders
- 8 Radio and television
- 9 Rivals
- 10 Ownership, administration and financial operations
- 11 Players
- 11.1 Pro Football Hall Of Famers
- 11.2 Retired numbers
- 11.3 LA/Oakland Raiders Individual Awards
- 11.4 Oakland/Los Angeles Raiders Career Leaders
- 11.5 Oakland/Los Angeles Raiders Single-season Leaders
- 11.6 Oakland/Los Angeles Raiders All-Pros
- 11.7 Oakland/Los Angeles Raiders Pro Bowlers
- 11.8 Current roster
- 12 Head coaches and staff
- 13 Notes and references
- 14 External links
The beginning & early years (1959–1962)
Having enjoyed a successful collegiate coaching career at Navy during the 1950s, San Francisco native Eddie Erdelatz was hired as the Raiders first head coach. On February 9, 1960, after previously rejecting offers from the NFL's Washington Redskins and the AFL's Los Angeles Chargers, Erdelatz accepted the Oakland Raiders head coaching position. In January 1960, the Raiders, originally scheduled to play in Minnesota, was the last team of eight in the new American Football League to select players, thus relegated to the remaining talent available. The 1960 Raiders 42-man roster included 28 rookies and only 14 veterans. Among the Raiders rookies were future Pro Football Hall of Fame inductee center Jim Otto, and a future Raiders head coach, quarterback Tom Flores. In their 1960 debut year under Erdelatz the Raiders finished their first campaign with a 6–8 record. While off the field, Erdelatz battled an ulcer caused by numerous conflicts with the team's front office. Ownership conflicts prevented the team from signing any top draft picks the next season. On September 18, 1961 Erdelatz was dismissed after being outscored 99–0 in the first two games of the Raiders 1961 season.
On September 24, 1961, after the dismissal of Eddie Erdelatz, management appointed Los Angeles native and offensive line coach Marty Feldman to the Raiders head coaching job. Under Feldman, the team finished the 1961 season with a 2–12 record. Feldman began the 1962 season as Raiders head coach but was fired on October 16, 1962 after a dismal 0–5 start. From October 16, 1962 – December 16, 1962, the Raiders then appointed Oklahoma native and assistant coach Red Conkright as head coach. Under Conkright, the Raiders' only victory was its final game of the season, finishing with a 1–13 record. Following the 1962 season the Raiders appointed Conkright to an interim mentor position. Under the Raiders first three head coaches since entering the AFL, the team's combined three-year performance was a disappointing 9–33 record.
The AFL and Al Davis (1963–1969)
1963–1966 Al Davis becomes head coach/general manager
After the 1962 season, Raiders managing general partner F. Wayne Valley hired Al Davis as Raiders head coach and general manager. At 33, he was the youngest person in professional football history to hold the positions. Davis immediately began to implement what he termed the "vertical game," an aggressive offensive strategy inspired by the offense developed by Chargers head coach Sid Gillman. Under Davis the Raiders improved to 10–4, and he was named the AFL's Coach of the Year in 1963. Though the team slipped to 5–7–2 in 1964, it rebounded to an 8–5–1 record in 1965.
In April 1966, Davis left the Raiders after being named AFL Commissioner, promoting assistant coach John Rauch to head coach. Two months later, the league announced its merger with the NFL. With the merger, the position of commissioner was no longer needed, and Davis entered into discussions with Valley about returning to the Raiders. On July 25, 1966, Davis returned as part-owner of the team. He purchased a 10% interest in the team for $18,000, and became the team's third general partner — the partner in charge of football operations.,
Under Rauch, the Raiders matched their 1965 season's 8–5–1 record in 1966 but missed the playoffs, finishing second in the AFL West Division.
1967–1969 Oakland wins AFL Championship
On the field, the team Davis had assembled and coached steadily improved. With John Rauch (Davis's hand-picked successor) as head coach, and led by quarterback Daryle Lamonica, acquired in a trade with Buffalo, the Raiders finished the 1967 season with a 13–1–0 record and won the 1967 AFL Championship, defeating the Oilers 40–7. The win earned the team a trip to the Orange Bowl in Miami, Florida in Super Bowl II, January 14, 1968, where they were defeated 33–14 by Vince Lombardi's Packers. The following year, the Raiders ended the 1968 season with a 12–2–0 record winning the AFL West Division title but were defeated 27–23 by the New York Jets in the AFL Championship Game. Citing management conflicts with day-to-day coaching decisions, Rauch resigned as Raiders head coach on January 16, 1969, accepting the head coaching job of the Buffalo Bills.
The John Madden era begins
During the early 1960s, John Madden was a defensive assistant coach at San Diego State University under SDSU head coach Don Coryell. Madden credits Coryell as being an influence on his coaching. In 1967, Madden was hired by Al Davis as the Raiders linebacker coach. On February 4, 1969, after the departure of John Rauch, Raiders assistant coach John Madden was named the Raiders sixth head coach. Under Madden, the 1969 Raiders won the AFL West Division title with a 12–1–1 record. On December 20, 1969, the Raiders defeated the Oilers 56–7 in the AFL Division playoff game. In the AFL Conference Championship game on January 4, 1970, the Raiders were defeated by Hank Stram's Chiefs 17–7.
AFL–NFL Merger (1970–1981)
In 1970, the AFL-NFL merger took place and the Raiders joined the Western Division of the American Football Conference (actually the AFL West with the same teams as in 1969, except for the Cincinnati Bengals) in the newly merged NFL. The first post-merger season saw the Raiders win the AFC West with an 8–4–2 record and go all the way to the conference championship, where they lost to the Colts. Despite another 8–4–2 season in 1971, the Raiders failed to win the division or achieve a playoff berth.
1972–1978 first world championship
The teams of the 1970s were thoroughly dominant teams, with 8 Hall of Fame inductees on the roster and a Hall of Fame coach in John Madden. The 1970s Raiders created the team's identity and persona as a team that was hard-hitting. Dominant on defense, with the crushing hits of safeties Jack Tatum and George Atkinson, the Raiders regularly held first place in the AFC West, entering the playoffs nearly every season. From 1973 through 1977, the Raiders reached the conference championship every year.
This was the era of the bitter rivalry between the Pittsburgh Steelers and Raiders. In the 1970s, the Steelers and Raiders during many of those seasons were the two best teams in the AFC and, arguably, the NFL. The Raiders regularly met the Steelers in the playoffs, and the winner of the Steelers-Raiders game went on to win the Super Bowl in 3 of those instances, from 1974–76. The rivalry garnered attention in the sports media, with controversial plays, late hits, accusations and public statements.
The rivalry began with and was fueled by a controversial last-second play in their first playoff game in 1972. That season the Raiders achieved a 10–3–1 record and an AFC West title. In the divisional round, they were beaten by the Steelers 13–7 on a play that become known as the Immaculate Reception. The Raiders won the AFC West again in 1973 with a 9–4–1 record. Lamonica was replaced as starting quarterback early in the season by Ken Stabler, who remained the starting quarterback throughout the team's dominant seasons of the 1970s. The Raiders defeated Pittsburgh 33–14 in the divisional round of the playoffs to reach the AFC Championship, but lost 27–10 to the Dolphins.
In 1974, Oakland had a 12–2 regular season, which included a 9-game winning streak. They beat the Dolphins 28–26 in the divisional round of the playoffs in a see-saw battle remembered as the "Sea of Hands" game. They then lost the AFC Championship to the Steelers, who went on to win the Super Bowl. The Raiders were held to only 29 yards rushing by the Pittsburgh defense, and late mistakes turned a 10–3 lead at the start of the fourth quarter into a disappointing 24–13 loss.
In the 1975 season opener, the Raiders beat Miami and ended their 31-game home winning streak. With an 11–3 record, they defeated Cincinnati 31–28 in the divisional playoff round. Again, the Raiders faced the Steelers in the conference championship, eager for revenge; again, the Raiders came up short, as the Steelers won the AFC Championship and then went on to another Super Bowl title. According to John Madden and Al Davis, the Raiders relied on quick movement by their wide receivers on the outside sidelines – the deep threat, or 'long ball' – more so than the Steelers of that year, whose offense was far more run-oriented than it would become later in the 1970s. Forced to adapt to the frozen field of Three Rivers Stadium, with receivers slipping and unable to make quick moves to beat coverage, the Raiders lost, 16–10. The rivalry had now grown to hatred, and became the stereotype of the 'grudge match.'
In 1976, the Raiders came from behind dramatically to beat Pittsburgh 31–28 in a revenge match in the season opener, and continued to cement its reputation for dirty play by knocking WR Lynn Swann out for two weeks with a clothesline to the helmet. Al Davis later tried to sue Steelers coach Chuck Noll for libel after the latter called safety George Atkinson a criminal for the hit. The Raiders won 13 regular season games and a close 24–21 victory over New England in the playoffs. They then knocked out the Steelers in the AFC Championship to go to Super Bowl XI. Oakland's opponent was the Vikings, a team that had lost three previous Super Bowls. The Raiders led 16–0 at halftime, having forced Minnesota into multiple turnovers. By the end, they won 32–14 for their first post-merger championship.
The following season saw the Raiders finish 11–3, but they lost the division title to Denver. They settled for a wild card, beating the Colts in the second-longest overtime game in NFL history, but then fell to the Broncos in the AFC Championship. During a 1978 preseason game, Patriots WR Darryl Stingley was injured by a hit from Raiders FS Jack Tatum and paralyzed for life. Although the 1978 Raiders achieved a winning record at 9–7, they missed the playoffs for the first time since 1971, losing critical games to Seattle, Denver and Miami towards the end of the season.
1979: the Tom Flores era begins
After ten consecutive winning seasons and one Super Bowl championship, John Madden left the Raiders (and coaching) in 1979 to pursue a career as a television football commentator. His replacement was former Raiders quarterback Tom Flores, the first Hispanic head coach in NFL history. Flores led the Raiders to another 9–7 season, but not the playoffs. In the midst of the turmoil of Al Davis's attempts to move the team to Los Angeles in 1980, Tom Flores coached the Raiders to their second NFL Championship by beating the Philadelphia Eagles in Super Bowl XV, with the Raiders becoming the first team to ever win the Super Bowl after getting into the playoffs as the wild card team. Quarterback Jim Plunkett revitalized his career, taking over for the ineffective Dan Pastorini mid-season, by leading the team to this championship, after owner Al Davis had picked up Pastorini when he swapped quarterbacks with the Houston Oilers, sending the beloved Ken Stabler to the Oilers.
The Los Angeles era (1982–1994) and third world championship
After the 1980 season, Al Davis attempted unsuccessfully to have improvements made to the Oakland Coliseum, specifically the addition of luxury boxes. That year, he signed a memorandum of agreement to move the Raiders from Oakland to Los Angeles. The move, which required three-fourths approval by league owners, was defeated 22–0 (with five owners abstaining). When Davis tried to move the team anyway, he was blocked by an injunction. In response, the Raiders not only became an active partner in an antitrust lawsuit filed by the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum (who had recently lost the Los Angeles Rams), but filed an antitrust lawsuit of their own. After the first case was declared a mistrial, in May 1982 a second jury found in favor of Davis and the Los Angeles Coliseum, clearing the way for the move. With the ruling, the Raiders finally relocated to Los Angeles for the 1982 season to play their home games at the Los Angeles Coliseum.
The team finished 8–1 in the strike-shortened 1982 season, first in the AFC, but lost in the second round of the playoffs to the Jets. The following season, the team finished 12–4 and won convincingly against the Steelers and Seattle Seahawks in the AFC playoffs. Against the Washington Redskins in Super Bowl XVIII, the Raiders built a 21–3 halftime lead en route to a 38–9 victory and their third NFL championship.
By the end of that 1983 season they had achieved something no other professional team of ANY sport had ever done. They had won, since the team's inception, over 80% of all the games they had played. Making them the winning-est professional team in history. A feat which to this day has yet to be duplicated.
The Raiders' fortunes declined after that, and from 1986–1989, Los Angeles finished no better than 8–8 and posted consecutive losing seasons for the first time since 1961–1962. Also 1986 saw Al Davis get into a widely publicized argument with RB Marcus Allen, whom he accused of faking injuries. The feud continued into 1987, and Davis retaliated by signing Bo Jackson in Allen's place. However, Jackson was also a left fielder for Major League Baseball's Kansas City Royals, and could not play full-time until baseball season ended in October. Even worse, another strike cost the NFL one game and prompted them to use substitute players. The Raiders fill-ins achieved a 1–2 record before the regular team returned. After a weak 5–10 finish, Tom Flores moved to the front office and was replaced by Denver Broncos offensive assistant coach Mike Shanahan. Shanahan led the team to a 7–9 season in 1988, and Allen and Jackson continued to trade places as the starting RB. Low game attendance and fan apathy were evident by this point, and in the summer of 1988, rumors of a Raiders return to Oakland intensified when a preseason game against the Houston Oilers was scheduled at Oakland Coliseum.
As early as 1986, Davis sought to abandon the Coliseum in favor of a more modern stadium. The neighborhood around Exposition Park was considered dangerous at the time (which caused the NFL to schedule the Raiders' Monday Night Football appearances as away games – the NFL would not even consider allowing the Raiders to use Anaheim Stadium for Monday night games). In addition to sharing the venue with the USC Trojans, the Raiders were less than ecstatic with the Coliseum as it was aging and still lacked the luxury suites and other amenities that Davis was promised when he moved the Raiders to Los Angeles. Finally, the Coliseum had 95,000 seats and the Raiders were rarely able to fill all of them even in their best years, and so most Raiders home games were blacked out in Southern California. Numerous venues in California were considered, including one near Hollywood Park in Inglewood and another in Carson. In August 1987, it was announced that the city of Irwindale paid Davis US$10 million as a good-faith deposit for a prospective stadium site. When the bid failed, Davis kept the non-refundable deposit.
Art Shell era (1989–1994)
Negotiations between Davis and Oakland commenced in January 1989, and on March 11, 1991, Davis announced his intention to bring the Raiders back to Oakland. By September 1991, however, numerous delays had prevented the completion of the deal between Davis and Oakland. On September 11, Davis announced a new deal to stay in Los Angeles, leading many fans in Oakland to burn Raiders paraphernalia in disgust.
After starting the 1989 season with a 1–3 record, Shanahan was fired by Davis, which began a long-standing feud between the two.[not in citation given] He was replaced by former Raider offensive lineman Art Shell, who had been voted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame earlier in the year. With the hiring, Shell became the first African American head coach in the modern NFL era, but the team still finished a middling 8–8.
In 1990, Shell led Los Angeles to a 12–4 record. They beat the Bengals in the divisional round of the playoffs, but Bo Jackson had his left femur ripped from the socket after a tackle. Without him, the Raiders were crushed in the AFC Championship by the Buffalo Bills. Jackson was forced to quit football as a result, although surgery allowed him to continue playing baseball until he retired in 1994.
The team's fortunes faded after the loss. They made two other playoff appearances during the 1990s, and finished higher than third place only three times. In 1991, they got into the postseason as a wild-card after a 9–7 regular season, but fell to Kansas City. 1992 saw them drop to 7–9. This period was marked by the injury of Jackson in 1991, the failure of troubled quarterback Todd Marinovich, the acrimonious departure of Marcus Allen in 1993, and the retirement of Hall of Fame defensive end Howie Long after the 1993 season, when the Raiders went 10–6 and lost to Buffalo in the divisional round of the playoffs. Shell was fired after posting a 9–7 record in the 1994 season.
Back To Oakland (1995–present)
On June 23, 1995, Davis signed a letter of intent to move the Raiders back to Oakland. The move was approved by the Alameda County Board of Supervisors the next month, as well as by the NFL. The move was greeted with much fanfare, and under new head coach Mike White the 1995 season started off well for the team. Oakland started 8–2, but injuries to starting quarterback Jeff Hostetler contributed to a six-game losing streak to end the season, and the Raiders failed to qualify for the playoffs for a second consecutive season.
In order to convince Davis to return, Oakland spent $220 million on stadium renovations. These included a new seating section — commonly known as "Mount Davis" — with 10,000 seats. It also built the team a training facility and paid all its moving costs. The Raiders pay just $525,000 a year in rent — a fraction of what the nearby San Francisco 49ers paid to play at Candlestick Park — and do not pay maintenance or game-day operating costs.
Jon Gruden era (1998–2001)
After two more unsuccessful seasons (7–9 in 1996 and 4–12 in 1997) under White and his successor, Joe Bugel, Davis selected a new head coach from outside the Raiders organization for only the second time when he hired Philadelphia Eagles offensive coordinator Jon Gruden who previously worked for the 49ers and Packers under head coach Mike Holmgren. Under Gruden, the Raiders posted consecutive 8–8 seasons in 1998 and 1999, and climbed out of last place in the AFC West.
Oakland finished 12–4 in the 2000 season, the team's most successful in a decade. Led by veteran quarterback Rich Gannon(MVP), Oakland won their first division title since 1990, and advanced to the AFC Championship, where they lost 16–3 to the eventual Super Bowl champion Baltimore Ravens.
The Raiders acquired all-time leading receiver Jerry Rice prior to the 2001 season. They had a great start during the mid-season going 10–3 but lost their last 3 games and finished the season with a record of a 10–6 in the wild card spot and won a second straight AFC West title. They defeated the New York Jets 38–24 in the wild card round but lost their divisional-round playoff game to the eventual Super Bowl champion New England Patriots, in a controversial game that became known as the "Tuck Rule Game." The game was played in a heavy snowstorm, and late in the fourth quarter Raiders star cornerback Charles Woodson blitzed Patriots quarterback Tom Brady causing an apparent fumble which was recovered by Raiders linebacker Greg Biekert. The recovery could have potentially led to a Raiders victory; however, the play was reviewed and determined to be an incomplete pass (it was ruled that Brady had pump faked and then "tucked" the ball into his body, which, by rule, cannot result in a fumble—though this explanation was not given on the field, but after the NFL season had ended). The Patriots retained possession and drove for a game-tying field goal. The game went into overtime and the Patriots won 16–13.
Bill Callahan era (2002–2003)
Shortly after the season, the Raiders made an unusual move that involved releasing Gruden from his contract and allowing the Tampa Bay Buccaneers to sign him. In return, the Raiders received cash and future draft picks from the Buccaneers. The sudden move came after months of speculation in the media that Davis and Gruden had fallen out with each other both personally and professionally. Bill Callahan, who served as the team's offensive coordinator and offensive line coach during Gruden's tenure, was named head coach.
Under Callahan, the Raiders finished the 2002 season 11–5, won their third straight division title, and clinched the top seed in the playoffs. Rich Gannon was named MVP of the NFL after passing for a league-high 4,689 yards. After beating the Jets and Titans by large margins in the playoffs, the Raiders made their fifth Super Bowl appearance in Super Bowl XXXVII. Their opponent was the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, coached by Gruden. The Raiders, who had not made significant changes to Gruden's offensive schemes, were intercepted five times by the Buccaneers en route to a 48–21 blowout. Some Tampa Bay players claimed that Gruden had given them so much information on Oakland's offense, they knew exactly what plays were being called.
Callahan's second season as head coach was considerably less successful. Oakland finished 4–12, their worst showing since 1997. After a late-season loss to the Denver Broncos, a visibly frustrated Callahan exclaimed, "We've got to be the dumbest team in America in terms of playing the game." At the end of the 2003 regular season Callahan was fired and replaced by former Washington Redskins head coach Norv Turner.
Coaching carousel (2004–2011)
Norv Turner era (2004–2005)
The team's fortunes did not improve in Turner's first year. Oakland finished the 2004 season 5–11, with only one divisional win (a one-point victory over the Broncos in Denver). During a Week 3 victory against the Buccaneers, Rich Gannon suffered a neck injury that ended his season and eventually his career. He never returned to the team and retired before the 2005 season. Kerry Collins, who led the New York Giants to an appearance in Super Bowl XXXV and signed with Oakland after the 2003 season, became the team's starting quarterback.
In an effort to bolster their offense, in early 2005 the Raiders acquired Pro Bowl wide receiver Randy Moss via trade with the Minnesota Vikings, and signed free agent running back Lamont Jordan of the New York Jets. After a 4–12 season and a second consecutive last place finish, Turner was fired as head coach.
Art Shell returns (2006)
On February 11, 2006 the team announced the return of Art Shell as head coach. In announcing the move, Al Davis said that firing Shell in 1995 had been a mistake. Under Shell, the Raiders lost their first five games in 2006 en route to a 2–14 record, the team's worst since 1962. Oakland's offense struggled greatly, scoring just 168 points (fewest in franchise history) and allowing a league-high 72 sacks. Wide receiver Jerry Porter was benched by Shell for most of the season in what many viewed as a personal, rather than football-related, decision. Shell was fired again at the end of the season. The Raiders also earned the right to the first overall pick in the 2007 NFL Draft for the first time since 1962, by virtue of having the league's worst record.
Lane Kiffin era (2007–2008)
On January 22, the team announced the hiring of 31-year-old USC offensive coordinator Lane Kiffin, the youngest coach in franchise history and the youngest coach in the NFL. In the 2007 NFL Draft, the Raiders selected LSU quarterback JaMarcus Russell with the #1 overall pick, despite a strong objection from Kiffin. Russell, arguably the biggest bust in NFL history, held out until September 12  and did not make his first career start until week 17. Kiffin coached the Raiders to a 4–12 record in the 2007 season. After a 1–3 start to 2008 and months of speculation and rumors, Davis fired Kiffin on September 30, 2008.
Tom Cable era (2008–2010)
Tom Cable was named as his interim replacement, and officially signed as the 17th head coach of the Oakland Raiders on Tuesday, February 3, 2009.
Their finish to the 2008 season would turn out to match their best since they lost the Super Bowl in the 2002 season. However, they still finished 5–11 and ended up third in the AFC West, the first time they did not finish last since 2002. They would produce an identical record in 2009; however, the season was somewhat ameliorated by the fact that four of the Raiders' five wins were against opponents with above .500 records.
In 2010, the Raiders became the first team in NFL history to go undefeated against their division yet miss the playoffs (6–0 in the AFC West, 8–8 overall, 3 games behind the Jets for the second Wild Card entry). On January 4, 2011, owner Al Davis informed head coach Tom Cable that his contract would not be renewed, ending his tenure with the organization. Many Raider players, such as punter Shane Lechler, were upset with the decision.
Hue Jackson era (2011)
On January 17, 2011, it was announced that offensive coordinator Hue Jackson was going to be the next Raiders head coach. A press conference was held on January 18, 2011, to formally introduce Jackson as the next Raiders head coach, the fifth in just seven years. Following Davis' death during the 2011 season, new owners Carol and Mark Davis decided to take the franchise in a drastically different direction by hiring a general manager. On New Year's Day of 2012, the Raiders played the San Diego Chargers, hoping to go to the playoffs for the first time since 2002, the game ended with a 38–26 loss. Their season ended with another disappointing 8–8 record.
The Reggie McKenzie/Dennis Allen era begins (2012–present)
On January 6, 2012, the Raiders named Green Bay Packers director of football operations Reggie McKenzie as the team's first General Manager since Al Davis. Given full autonomy over personnel decisions by the Davis family, McKenzie, in his first day on the job, fired head coach Hue Jackson after only one season on January 10, seeking to hire his own head coach instead. In the process, the Raiders lost their sixth head coach in the past ten seasons, none of whom lasted more than two seasons. Two weeks later, McKenzie hired Broncos defensive coordinator Dennis Allen as head coach. Most of the coaching staff has been replaced by new position and strength and conditioning coaches.
The Raiders began 2012 by running a nose tackle when they run a 4-3 defense. They lost their home opener on Monday Night Football against San Diego 22–14. The Raiders finished the season with a 4–12 record.
In the 2013 offseason, the Raiders began making major roster moves. These included the signing of linebackers Kevin Burnett, Nick Roach, and Kaluka Maiava, defensive tackles Pat Sims and Vance Walker, cornerbacks Tracy Porter and Mike Jenkins, defensive end Jason Hunter, and safety Usama Young and the release of wide receiver Darrius Heyward-Bey, safety Michael Huff, linebacker Rolando McClain and defensive tackle Tommy Kelly.  Starting quarterback Carson Palmer was traded to the Arizona Cardinals in exchange for a sixth-round draft pick and a conditional seventh-round draft pick. Shortly before, they had traded a fifth-round pick and an undisclosed conditional pick in exchange for Matt Flynn. In addition to signing Matt Flynn, the Raiders also welcomed back Charles Woodson, signing him to a 1-year deal in mid May. The Oakland Raiders finished the 2013 Season with a record of 4-12.
The Oakland Raiders finished the 1967 season with a 13–1–0 record and won the 1967 AFL Championship.
|American Football League Championships|
|1967||John Rauch||Oakland, CA||Houston Oilers||40-7||VIII|
Super Bowl Championships
The Raiders have won a total of 3 Super Bowls. They won their first Super Bowl under John Madden.
|Super Bowl Championships|
|1976||John Madden||Pasadena, CA||Minnesota Vikings||32-14||XI|
|1980||Tom Flores||New Orleans, LA||Philadelphia Eagles||27-10||XV|
|1983||Tom Flores||Tampa, FL||Washington Redskins||38-9||XVIII|
Logos and uniforms
When the team was founded in 1959, a "name the team" contest was held by the Oakland Tribune. The winning name was the Oakland Señors. After a few weeks of being the butt of local jokes (and accusations that the contest was fixed, as Chet Soda was fairly well known within the Oakland business community for calling his acquaintances "señor"), the fledgling team (and its owners) changed the team's name nine days later  to the Oakland Raiders, which had finished third in the naming contest. The original team colors were black, gold and white. The now-familiar team emblem of a pirate (or "raider") wearing a football helmet was created, reportedly a rendition of actor Randolph Scott.
The original Raiders uniforms were black and gold, while the helmets were black with a white stripe and no logo. The team wore this design from 1960 to 1962. When Al Davis became head coach and general manager in 1963, he changed the team's color scheme to silver and black, and added a logo to the helmet. This logo is a shield that consists of the word "RAIDERS" at the top, two crossed cutlasses with handles up and cutting edge down, and superimposed head of a Raider wearing a football helmet and a black eye patch covering his right eye. Over the years, it has undergone minor color modifications (such as changing the background from silver to black in 1964), but it has essentially remained the same.
The Raiders' current silver and black uniform design has essentially remained the same since it debuted in 1963. It consists of silver helmets, silver pants, and either black or white jerseys. The black jerseys have silver numbers, while the white jerseys have black numbers with silver outline. Originally, the white jerseys had silver numbers with a thick black outline, but they were changed to black with a silver outline for the 1964 season. In 1970, the team used silver numerals for the season. However, in 1971 the team again displayed black numerals and have stayed that way ever since (with the exception of the 1994 season as part of the NFL's 75th Anniversary where they donned the 1963 helmets with the 1970 silver away numbers).
The Raiders wore their white jerseys at home for the first time in their history on September 28, 2008 against the San Diego Chargers. The decision was made by Lane Kiffin, who was coaching his final game for the Raiders, and was purportedly due to intense heat. The high temperature in Oakland that day was 78 degrees.
Beginning with the 2012 NFL season, the Raiders will wear black cleats as a tribute to Al Davis.
After splitting the first home season between Kezar Stadium and Candlestick, the Raiders moved exclusively to Candlestick Park in 1961, where total attendance for the season was about 50,000, and finished 2–12. Valley threatened to move the Raiders out of the area unless a stadium was built in Oakland, so in 1962 the Raiders moved into 18,000-seat Frank Youell Field (later expanded to 22,000 seats), their first home in Oakland. It was a temporary home for the team while the 53,000 seat Oakland Coliseum was under construction; the Coliseum was completed in 1966. The Raiders have shared the Coliseum with the Oakland Athletics since the A's moved to Oakland from Kansas City in 1968, except for the years the Raiders called Los Angeles home (1982–94).
The Raiders did play one regular season game at California Memorial Stadium in Berkeley, CA. On September 23, 1973 they played the Miami Dolphins in Berkeley due to a scheduling conflict with the Athletics. The team defeated the Dolphins 12–7, ending Miami's winning streak.
During the Los Angeles years, the Raiders played in the 93,000 seat Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum.
New stadium proposals
Due to the age of the O.co Coliseum, the Raiders being secondary tenants to the Athletics, the fact that it is not ideally suited to hosting either baseball or football games and the fact that the Raiders' lease will expire at the end of 2014, the Raiders have been linked to a number of new stadium projects.
There have been ongoing discussions for the Raiders to share the stadium being built in Santa Clara, California with the San Francisco 49ers. However, the 49ers went ahead without the Raiders and broke ground on the new $1.2 billion Santa Clara stadium on April 19, 2012 and have since sold $670 million worth of seats including 70% of club and luxury suites, making it unlikely that the Raiders would continue to explore the idea of sharing the stadium as they would now be secondary tenants with little to no commercial rights over the highly lucrative luxury suites. Raiders' owner Mark Davis further increased the unlikelihood of the Raiders and the 49ers sharing the Santa Clara stadium when he told NFL Network reporter Ian Rapoport that he has no plans to share the Santa Clara stadium but that he did recognize the Raiders' need for a new home and that he hoped the new home would be in Oakland.
Return to Los Angeles
The Raiders, along with the San Diego Chargers and St. Louis Rams, have also been linked with a return to L.A. and its proposed new $1.2 billion privately funded stadium in downtown Los Angeles. The stadium project, spearheaded by Anschutz Entertainment Group and to be named Farmers Field in a sponsorship agreement with Farmers Insurance Exchange, is for a 72,000 seat roofed stadium to be built next to the Staples Center. Construction of the stadium is contingent on a franchise committing to relocating to Los Angeles. There is also a plan by Majestic Realty Chairman and CEO Edward P. Roski to move the Raiders to the proposed Los Angeles Stadium in Industry. After assessing multiple sites in Los Angeles County, the proposal settled on Industry over the available land to develop and its location to the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The currently titled Los Angeles Stadium is part of a 600-acre (240 ha) entertainment and retail development, which will include concert halls, hotels, retail and convention space in addition to 25,000 on-site parking spaces. Following two environmental impact reports (EIR) being finalized in 2009, the privately financed project is cleared to begin construction pending the resolution of the NFL's collective bargaining agreement dispute with the Player's Association. Roski had previously partnered with AEG in the development and construction of Staples Center in 1999 and again in 2002 for AEG's first stadium proposal on the current location of its 2010 proposal.
New stadium in Oakland
On March 7, 2012, Oakland mayor Jean Quan unveiled an ambitious project to the media that was designed to improve the sports facilities of all three major league sports teams in the city (the Raiders, the MLB's Athletics and the NBA's Golden State Warriors) as well as attract new businesses to the city. The project, dubbed Coliseum City, entails the redevelopment of the existing Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum complex. The redevelopment will see the construction of two new stadiums on the present location; a baseball only stadium and a football only stadium, while the Oracle Arena, home of the Warriors, will be either rebuilt or undergo extensive renovations. A sum of $3.5 million was committed to preliminary planning on the project. However, no officials from either of Oakland's major league teams were present at the media conference.
According to the San Francisco Business Times, Oakland’s assistant city administrator, Fred Blackwell, said the Bay Investment Group LLC, an entity being formed by ColonyCapital LLC and Rashid Al Malik (chairman and CEO of HayaH Holdings), and the city have numerous details to continue working out for the prospective $2 billion Coliseum City project, which covers 800 acres surrounding the Oakland Coliseum Complex. The development team also includes JRDV Urban International, HKS Architects, and Forest City Real Estate Services. In an ideal situation, construction could start by the end of 2014.
It was announced on October 8, 2013 that the Raiders would be one of three teams to play a home game at Wembley Stadium in London, England during the 2014-15 season. The Raiders will play against the Miami Dolphins on September 28, 2014.
It was also announced on March 5, 2014 that the Raiders could leave Oakland and move to Portland, Oregon. Portland's only professional sports teams are the NBA's Trail Blazers and MLS' Portland Timbers. The state of Oregon also has a pair of teams in the NCAA: the Oregon Ducks and the Oregon State Beavers. A group of NFL fans known as "NFL to Portland" created a petition on change.org to the state's governor to "actively explore bringing an NFL team to Oregon."
San Antonio, Texas
On July 29, 2014, it was reported by the San Antonio Express-News that Mark Davis met with officials from the city of San Antonio, Texas to discuss the possibility of relocating the Raiders to San Antonio after the 2014-15 NFL season. Davis confirmed that he did speak with San Antonio city officials while visiting San Antonio to honor former Raiders wide receiver Cliff Branch's induction into a local Hall of Fame, but did not comment on whether he was considering relocation to San Antonio. San Antonio is home to the 65,000 seat stadium known as the Alamodome, where the Raiders would play until a new stadium was to be built.
The nickname Raider Nation refers to the die hard fans of the team spread throughout the United States and the world. Members of the Raider Nation who attend home games are known for arriving to the stadium early, tailgating, and dressing up in face masks and black outfits. The Raider Nation is also known for the Black Hole, a specific area of the Coliseum (sections 104–107) frequented by the team's rowdiest and most fervent fans.
Al Davis created the phrase Raider Nation in 1968. In September 2009, Ice Cube recorded a song for the Raiders named "Raider Nation". In 2010, he took part in a documentary for ESPN's 30 for 30 series titled Straight Outta L.A.. It mainly focuses on N.W.A. and the effect of the Raiders image on their persona.
The Oakland Raiderettes are the cheerleading squad for the Oakland Raiders. They were established in 1961 as the Oakland Raiderettes. During the team's time in Los Angeles they were the Los Angeles Raiderettes. They have been billed as "Football's Fabulous Females".
Radio and television
Raiders' Radio Network
Raider games are broadcast in English on 16 radio stations in California, including flagship station KGMZ 95.7 (FM) "The Game" in San Francisco. Additionally, games are broadcast on 20 radio stations in Nevada, Oregon, Colorado, Idaho, Hawaii, Virginia, Texas, Arkansas, Nebraska and Georgia. Greg Papa is the play-by-play announcer, with former Raider coach and quarterback Tom Flores doing commentary. George Atkinson and Jim Plunkett offer pre- and post-game commentary. Compass Media Networks is responsible for producing and distributing Raiders radio broadcasts.
Bill King is the Voice of the Raiders. Hired in 1966, he called approximately 600 games. The Raiders awarded him all three rings. King left after the 1992 season. It's Bill's radio audio heard on most of the NFL Films highlight footage of the Raiders. King's call of the Holy Roller (American football) has been labeled (by Chris Berman, among others) as one of 5 best in NFL history. King died in October 2005 from complications after surgery. Scotty Sterling, an Oakland Tribune sportswriter served as the "color man" with King. The Raider games were called on radio from 1960–62 by Bud (Wilson Keene) Foster and Mel Venter; from 1963–65 by Bob Blum and Dan Galvin.
The Raiders are a beneficiary of league scheduling policies. Both the Raiders and the San Francisco 49ers share the San Francisco Bay Area market, and said market is on the West Coast of the United States. This means that the Raiders cannot play home games or most division games in the early 10:00 a.m. Pacific time slot, nor can they play interconference home games at the same time or network as the 49ers. As a result, both teams generally have more limited scheduling options, and also benefit by receiving more prime time games than usual (click here for further information).
The Oakland Raiders have four primary rivals: their divisional rivals (Denver Broncos, Kansas City Chiefs, and San Diego Chargers) and their geographic rival, the San Francisco 49ers. They also have rivalries with other teams that arose from playoff battles in the past, most notably with the Pittsburgh Steelers and the New England Patriots. The Seattle Seahawks has an old rivalry with Oakland as well, but the rivalry became less relevant when the Seahawks moved to the NFC West as part of the NFL's 2002 realignment.
The Broncos and Raiders have been divisional rivals since the two teams began play in the AFL in 1960. The Raiders had 14-game winning streak against the Broncos from 1965–1971, lasted until October 22, 1972 when the Broncos defeated the Raiders 23–30. While the Raiders still hold the advantage in the all-time series 60–46–2, the Broncos amassed 21 wins in 28 games, from the 1995 season and the arrival of Broncos head coach Mike Shanahan, through the 2008 season. Shanahan coached the Raiders before being fired just four games into the 1989 season, which has only served to intensify this rivalry. On Sunday, October 24, 2010, the Raiders beat the Broncos (59–14), giving the Raiders the most points scored in a game in the team's history. The Broncos' first ever Super Bowl appearance (in the 1977 season) was made possible by defeating Oakland in the AFC Championship.
The Chiefs and Raiders have had several memorable matches and have a bitter divisional rivalry. Oakland lost the 1969 AFL Championship against Kansas City, who went on to beat the Minnesota Vikings and win the Super Bowl. Kansas City leads the overall series 54–50–2.
The San Diego Chargers' rivalry with Oakland dates to the 1963 season, when the Raiders defeated the heavily favored Chargers twice, both come-from-behind fourth quarter victories. One of the most memorable games between these teams was the "Holy Roller" game in 1978, in which the Raiders fumbled for a touchdown in a very controversial play. On November 22, 1982, the Raiders hosted their first Monday Night football game in Los Angeles against the San Diego Chargers. The Chargers led the game in the 1st half 24–0 until the Raiders came into the 2nd half and made a huge comeback and defeated the San Diego Chargers 28–24. The Raiders hold the overall series advantage at 57–47–2.
Battle of the Bay rivalry
The San Francisco 49ers, located on the other side of San Francisco Bay, are the Raiders' geographic rivals. The first exhibition game played in 1967, ended with the NFL 49ers defeating the AFL Raiders 13–10. After the 1970 merger, the 49ers won in Oakland 38–7. As a result, games between the two are referred to as the "Battle of the Bay." Since the two teams play in different conferences, regular-season matchups are at least every four years. Fans and players of the winning team can claim "bragging rights" as the better team in the area.
The all-time regular season series is currently tied with 6 wins for both teams. San Francisco won the latest matchup 17–9 on October 17 in Week 6 of the 2010 regular season. The next game between the two will be in 2014.
On August 20, 2011, in the third week of the preseason, the preseason game between the rivals was marked by fights in restrooms and stands at Candlestick Park, including a shooting outside the stadium in which several were injured. The NFL has decided to cancel all future preseason games between the Raiders and 49ers.
The rivalry between the Raiders and New England Patriots dates to their time in the AFL, but was intensified during a 1978 preseason game, when Patriots wide receiver Darryl Stingley was permanently paralyzed after a vicious hit delivered by Raiders free safety Jack Tatum. Before that, New England also lost a playoff game in 1976 to the Raiders; the game is unofficially known as "The Ben Dreith Game" due to a controversial penalty by head referee Dreith. The two teams met in a divisional-round playoff game in 2002, which became known as the "Tuck Rule Game". Late in the game, an incomplete pass, ruled a fumble, by Patriots quarterback Tom Brady was overturned, and New England went on to win in overtime and eventually won the Super Bowl against the heavily favored St. Louis Rams, the Raiders' former crosstown rivals in Los Angeles. Since that game, the Patriots have won two of the last three regular season contests between the two teams. The first contest being the following year during the 2002 season in Oakland, with the Raiders winning 27–20; they met in the 2005 season opener in New England with the Patriots ruining Randy Moss' debut as a Raider 30–20; the Patriots defeated the Raiders 49–26 in December 2008 in Bill Belichick's 100th regular season win as Patriots coach; the most recent meeting saw the Patriots win 31–19 during the 2011 season.
The New York Jets began a strong rivalry with the Raiders in the AFL during the 1960s that continued through much of the 1970s, fueled in part by Raider Ike Lassiter breaking star quarterback Joe Namath's jaw during a 1967 game (though Ben Davidson wrongly got blamed), the famous Heidi Game during the 1968 season, and the Raiders' bitter loss to the Jets in the AFL Championship later that season. The rivalry waned in later years, but saw a minor resurgence in the 2000–02 period. The Jets edged the Raiders in the final week of the 2001 season 24–22 on a last-second John Hall field goal; the Raiders hosted the Jets in the Wild Card round the following Saturday and won 38–24. In the 2002 season the Raiders defeated the Jets 26–20 in December, then defeated them again in the AFC Divisional Playoffs, 30–10. The Raiders lost the most recent matchup 37–27 on December 8, 2013.
Rivalries that have waned in recent[when?] years have been with the Miami Dolphins and Houston Oilers/Tennessee Titans. The Raiders faced the Dolphins twice in the early 1970s; the Dolphins defeated the Raiders in the 1973 AFC Championship Game 27–10 on their way to Super Bowl VIII. The next year in the divisional playoffs the Raiders trailed Miami 26–21; in the final minute the Raiders drove to the Miami eight-yard line; a desperation pass by Ken Stabler was caught in traffic by Clarence Davis in the play known as the "Sea Of Hands."
The Pittsburgh Steelers' rivalry with the Raiders has historically been very tight – as of the 2013 season the Raiders lead the rivalry 12 wins to 9, and their playoff rivalry is tied 3–3. The rivalry was extremely intense during the 1970s. The Steelers knocked the Raiders out of the playoffs in three of four consecutive seasons in the early 1970s (the first loss was the "Immaculate Reception" game) until the Raiders finally beat the Steelers in the 1976 AFC Championship (and went on to win Super Bowl XI). During the 1975 AFC Championship game, Raiders strong safety George Atkinson delivered a hit on Pittsburgh wide receiver Lynn Swann that gave him a concussion. When the two teams met in the 1976 season opener, Atkinson hit Swann again and gave him another concussion. After the second incident, Steelers head coach Chuck Noll referred to Atkinson as part of the "criminal element" in the NFL. Atkinson filed a $2 million defamation lawsuit against Noll and the Steelers, which he lost. The two clubs' three most recent contests harkened back to the rivalry's history of bitterness and close competition. On December 6, 2009 the 3–8 Raiders helped spoil the defending champions' quest for the playoffs as the game lead changed five times in the fourth quarter and a Louis Murphy touchdown with 11 seconds to go won it 27–24 for the Raiders. Oakland was then beaten 35–3 by Pittsburgh on November 21, 2010; this game brought out the roughness of the rivalry's 1970s history when Steelers quarterback Ben Roethlisberger was punched by Raiders defensive end Richard Seymour following a touchdown. Most recently, on September 23, 2012 the Raiders erased a 31–21 Steelers lead and won 34–31 on a last-second 43-yard field goal by Sebastian Janikowski. On October 27, 2013, the Raiders hosted the Steelers in Oakland. On the first play of the game, quarterback Terrelle Pryor rushed for a 93-yard touchdown, an NFL record for a quarterback. The Raiders held a 21–3 lead throughout 3 quarters of the game (including a Steelers 9-minute third quarter drive which ended with a missed field goal), but Ben Roethlisberger started a series of scoring drives that racked the score up to 21–18. Down to 33 seconds left on the clock with no timeouts, Roethlisberger threw a pass to Emmanuel Sanders for 33 yards, but time expired and gave Oakland the victory 21–18.
The Raiders faced the Houston Oilers throughout the AFL era and twice in AFL playoffs in the late 1960s, winning 40–7 in 1967 on their way to Super Bowl II and 56–7 in the 1969 divisional playoffs. Oakland defeated the Oilers in the 1980 Wild Card playoffs 27–7 and defeated the Titans in the 2002 AFC Championship Game 41–24; the combined scores of these four games is 164–45.
Historic Battle for LA rivalry
As mentioned earlier, the Oakland Raiders and St. Louis Rams had a rivalry during the 13 years both teams shared the Los Angeles market. The teams met six times in the regular season in this period, Raiders won the 1st meeting 37–31 when both teams met in this period in December 18, 1982, the Raiders winning four times during the battle of LA.
Raiders vs. opponents
- Regular season record (all-time): 434–375–11(.536) as of week 17 of the 2013 NFL season.
- Playoff record (all-time): 25–18 (last appearance after 2002 season)
- The Kansas City Chiefs were known as the Dallas Texans.
- The New York Jets were known as the New York Titans.
- The Tennessee Titans were known as the Houston Oilers.
|Raiders vs. NFL|
|Opponent||First meeting||Regular season||Playoffs|
|Green Bay Packers||1968||5||6||0||.455||0||1||.000|
|Kansas City Chiefs||1960||50||55||2||.477||1||2||.333|
|New England Patriots||1960||14||15||1||.467||1||2||.333|
|New Orleans Saints||1971||5||6||1||.458||0||0||--|
|New York Giants||1973||7||5||0||.583||0||0||--|
|New York Jets||1960||21||16||2||.564||2||2||.500|
|San Diego Chargers||1960||58||48||2||.546||1||0||1.000|
|San Francisco 49ers||1970||6||6||0||.500||0||0||--|
|St. Louis Rams||1972||8||4||0||.667||0||0||--|
|Tampa Bay Buccaneers||1976||6||2||0||.750||0||1||.000|
Ownership, administration and financial operations
Founding of the franchise
A few months after the first AFL draft in 1959, the owners of the yet-unnamed Minneapolis-Saint Paul franchise accepted an offer to join the established National Football League as an expansion team (now called the Minnesota Vikings) in 1961, sending the AFL scrambling for a replacement. At the time, Oakland seemed an unlikely venue for a professional football team. The city had not asked for a team, there was no ownership group and there was no stadium in Oakland suitable for pro football (the closest stadiums were in Berkeley and San Francisco) and there was already a successful NFL franchise in the Bay Area in the San Francisco 49ers. However, the AFL owners selected Oakland after Los Angeles Chargers owner Barron Hilton threatened to forfeit his franchise unless a second team was placed on the West Coast. Accordingly, the city of Oakland was awarded the eighth AFL franchise on January 30, 1960, and the team inherited the Minneapolis club's draft picks.
Upon receiving the franchise, Oakland civic leaders found a number of businesspeople willing to invest in the new team. A limited partnership was formed to own the team headed by managing general partner Y. Charles (Chet) Soda (1908–89), a local real estate developer, and included general partners Ed McGah (1899–1983), Robert Osborne (1898–1968), F. Wayne Valley (1914–86), restaurateur Harvey Binns (1914–82), Don Blessing (1904–2000), and contractor Charles Harney (1902–62) as well as numerous limited partners.
The Raiders finished their first campaign with a 6–8 record, and lost $500,000. Desperately in need of money to continue running the team, Valley received a $400,000 loan from Buffalo Bills founder Ralph C. Wilson Jr.
After the conclusion of the first season Soda dropped out of the partnership, and on January 17, 1961, Valley, McGah and Osborne bought out the remaining four general partners. Soon after, Valley and McGah purchased Osborne's interest, with Valley named as the managing general partner.
In 1962, Valley hired Al Davis, a former assistant coach for the San Diego Chargers, as head coach and general manager. In April 1966, Davis left the Raiders after being named AFL Commissioner. Two months later, the league announced its merger with the NFL. With the merger, the position of commissioner was no longer needed, and Davis entered into discussions with Valley about returning to the Raiders. On July 25, 1966, Davis returned as part owner of the team. He purchased a 10% interest in the team for US $18,000, and became the team's third general partner — the partner in charge of football operations.
In 1972, with Wayne Valley out of the country for several weeks attending the Olympic Games in Munich, Davis's attorneys drafted a revised partnership agreement that gave him total control over all of the Raiders' operations. McGah, a supporter of Davis, signed the agreement. Under partnership law, by a 2–1 vote of the general partners, the new agreement was thus ratified. Valley was furious when he discovered this, and immediately filed suit to have the new agreement overturned, but the court sided with Davis and McGah.
Current ownership structure
Legally, the club is a limited partnership with nine partners — Davis' heirs and the heirs of the original eight team partners. From 1972 onward, Davis had exercised near-complete control as president of the team's general partner, A.D. Football, Inc. Although exact ownership stakes are not known, it has been reported that Davis owned 47% of the team shares before his death in 2011.
Ed McGah, the last of the original eight general partners of the Raiders, died in September 1983. Upon his death, his interest was devised to a family trust, of which his son, E.J. McGah, was the trustee. The younger McGah was himself a part-owner of the team, as a limited partner, and died in 2002. Several members of the McGah family filed suit against Davis in October 2003, alleging mismanagement of the team by Davis. The lawsuit sought monetary damages and to remove Davis and A. D. Football, Inc. as the team's managing general partner. Among their specific complaints, the McGahs alleged that Davis failed to provide them with detailed financial information previously provided to Ed and E.J. McGah. The Raiders countered that—under the terms of the partnership agreement as amended in 1972—upon the death of the elder McGah in 1983, his general partner interest converted to that of a limited partner. The team continued to provide the financial information to the younger McGah as a courtesy, though it was under no obligation to do so.
The majority of the lawsuit was dismissed in April 2004, when an Alameda County Superior Court judge ruled that the case lacked merit since none of the other partners took part in the lawsuit. In October 2005, the lawsuit was settled out of court. The terms of the settlement are confidential, but it was reported that under its terms Davis purchased the McGah family's interest in the Raiders (approximately 31 percent), which gave him for the first time a majority interest, speculated to be approximately 67 percent of the team. As a result of the settlement, confidential details concerning Al Davis and the ownership of the Raiders were not released to the public. His ownership share went down to 47% when he sold 20% of the team to Wall Street investors 
In 2006, it was reported that Davis had been attempting to sell the 31% ownership stake in the team obtained from the McGah family. He was unsuccessful in this effort, reportedly because the sale would not give the purchaser any control of the Raiders, even in the event of Davis's death.
Al Davis died on October 8, 2011, at 82. According to a 1999 partnership agreement, Davis' interest passed to his wife, Carol.[dead link] After Davis' death, Raiders chief executive Amy Trask said that the team "will remain in the Davis family." Al and Carol's son, Mark, inherited his father's old post as managing general partner and serves as the public face of the ownership.
According to a 2006 report released by Forbes Magazine, the Raiders' overall team value of US $736 million ranks 28th out of 32 NFL teams. The team ranked in the bottom three in league attendance from 2003–05, and failed to sellout a majority of their home games. One of the reasons cited for the poor attendance figures was the decision to issue costly Personal Seat Licenses (PSLs) upon the Raiders' return to Oakland in 1995. The PSLs, which ranged in cost from $250 to $4,000, were meant to help repay the $200 million it cost the city of Oakland and Alameda County to expand Overstock.com Coliseum. They were only valid for 10 years, however, while other teams issue them permanently. As a result, fewer than 31,000 PSLs were sold for a stadium that holds twice that amount. Since 1995, television blackouts of Raiders home games have been common.
In November 2005, the team announced that it was taking over ticket sales from the privately run Oakland Football Marketing Association (OFMA), and abolishing PSLs.[dead link] In February 2006, the team also announced that it would lower ticket prices for most areas of Overstock.com Coliseum. Just prior to the start of the 2006 NFL season, the Raiders revealed that they had sold 37,000 season tickets, up from 29,000 the previous year. Despite the team's 2–14 record, they sold out six of their eight home games in 2006.[not in citation given]
The Raiders and Al Davis have been involved in several lawsuits throughout their history, including ones against the NFL. When the NFL declined to approve the Raiders' move from Oakland to Los Angeles in 1980, the team joined the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Commission in a lawsuit against the league alleging a violation of antitrust laws. The Coliseum Commission received a settlement from the NFL of $19.6 million in 1987. In 1986, Davis testified on behalf of the United States Football League in their unsuccessful antitrust lawsuit against the NFL. He was the only NFL owner to do so.
After relocating back to Oakland, the team sued the NFL for interfering with their negotiations to build a new stadium at Hollywood Park prior to the move. The Raiders' lawsuit further contended that they had the rights to the Los Angeles market, and thus were entitled to compensation from the league for giving up those rights by moving to Oakland. A jury found in favor of the NFL in 2001, but the verdict was overturned a year later due to alleged juror misconduct. In February 2005, a California Court of Appeal unanimously upheld the original verdict.
When the Raiders moved back from Los Angeles in 1995, the city of Oakland and the Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum Authority agreed to sell Personal Seat Licenses (PSLs) to help pay for the renovations to their stadium. But after games rarely sold out, the Raiders filed suit, claiming that they were misled by the city and the Coliseum Authority with the false promise that there would be sellouts. On November 2, 2005, a settlement was announced, part of which was the abolishment of PSLs as of the 2006 season.
Trademark and trade dress dilution
In 1996, the team sued the NFL in Santa Clara County, California, in a lawsuit that ultimately included 22 separate causes of action. Included in the team's claims were claims that the Tampa Bay Buccaneers' pirate logo diluted the team's California trademark in its own pirate logo and for trade dress dilution on the ground that the League had improperly permitted other teams (including the Buccaneers and Carolina Panthers) to adopt colors for their uniforms similar to those of the Raiders. Among other things, the lawsuit sought an injunction to prevent the Buccaneers and Panthers from wearing their uniforms while playing in California. In 2003, these claims were dismissed on summary judgment because the relief sought would violate the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution.
In 2003, a number of current and former Oakland players such as Bill Romanowski, Tyrone Wheatley, Barrett Robbins, Chris Cooper and Dana Stubblefield were named as clients of the Bay Area Laboratory Co-Operative (BALCO). BALCO was an American company led by founder and owner Victor Conte. In 2003, journalists Lance Williams and Mark Fainaru-Wada investigated the company's role in a drug sports scandal later referred to as the BALCO Affair. BALCO marketed tetrahydrogestrinone ("the Clear"), a then-undetected, performance-enhancing steroid developed by chemist Patrick Arnold. Conte, BALCO vice president James Valente, weight trainer Greg Anderson and coach Remi Korchemny had supplied a number of high-profile sports stars from the United States and Europe with the Clear and human growth hormone for several years.
Headquartered in Burlingame, California, BALCO was founded in 1984. Officially, BALCO was a service business for blood and urine analysis and food supplements. In 1988, Victor Conte offered free blood and urine tests to a group of athletes known as the BALCO Olympians. He then was allowed to attend the Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea. From 1996 Conte worked with well-known American football star Bill Romanowski, who proved to be useful to establish new connections to athletes and coaches.
Pro Football Hall Of Famers
The Pro Football Hall of Fame has inducted twelve players who made their primary contribution to professional football while with the Raiders, in addition to owner Al Davis and head coach John Madden. The Raiders' total of 22 Hall of Famers.
- Hall of Famers who made the major part of their primary contribution for the Raiders are listed in bold.
- Hall of Famers who spent only a minor portion of their career with the Raiders are listed in normal font.
|Oakland/Los Angeles Raiders Hall of Famers|
|77||Ron Mix||Offensive Tackle||1971||1979|
|14, 25||Fred Biletnikoff||Wide Receiver||1965–1978||1988|
|78||Art Shell||Offensive Tackle||1968–1982||1989|
|29||Eric Dickerson||Running Back||1992||1999|
|75||Howie Long||Defensive End||1981–1993||2000|
|87||Dave Casper||Tight End||1974–1980, 1984||2002|
|32||Marcus Allen||Running Back||1982–1992||2003|
|80||James Lofton||Wide Receiver||1987–1988||2003|
|76||Bob Brown||Offensive Tackle||1971–1973||2004|
|--||John Madden||Head Coach||1969–1978||2006|
|80||Jerry Rice||Wide Receiver||2001–2004||2010|
|99||Warren Sapp||Defensive Tackle||2004–2007||2013|
The Raider organization does not retire the jersey numbers of former players on an official or unofficial basis. The number 00, worn by Jim Otto for his entire career, is no longer allowed by the NFL. It was originally permitted for him only by the AFL as a marketing gimmick since his jersey number 00 is a homophone pun of his name (aught-O).
There is speculation that the team may have removed number 2 from circulation, however, as it was last worn by JaMarcus Russell in 2009 before being released, due to the stigma of Russell being one of the biggest draft busts in the history of professional sports. When the team drafted Terrelle Pryor in the 2011 Supplemental Draft, he was issued #6 despite #2 (the number he wore at Ohio State) not being used, and Pryor was not given an explanation why he did not receive the number. In the preseason week 3 of the 2013-2014 season, the Raiders decided to give Terrelle Pryor the #2 jersey.
LA/Oakland Raiders Individual Awards
Oakland/Los Angeles Raiders Career Leaders
- Passing Yards: 19,078 Ken Stabler (1970–1979)
- Passing Touchdowns: 150 Ken Stabler (1970–1979)
- Rushing Yards: 8,545 Marcus Allen (1982–1992)
- Rushing Touchdowns: 79 Marcus Allen (1982–1992)
- Receptions: 1,070 Tim Brown (1988–2003)
- Receiving Yards: 14,734 Tim Brown (1988–2003)
- Receiving Touchdowns: 99 Tim Brown (1988–2003)
- Total Touchdowns: 104 Tim Brown (1988–2003)
- Points: 1,489 Sebastian Janikowski (2000–present)
- Field Goals Made: 345 Sebastian Janikowski (2000–present)
- Total Punt Yardage: 48,215 Shane Lechler (2000–2012)
- Punting Average: 47.5 Shane Lechler (2000–2012)
- Kickoff Return Yards: 4,841 Chris Carr (2005–2007)
- Punt Return Yards: 3,272 Tim Brown (1988–2003)
- Pass Interceptions: 39 Willie Brown (1967–1978), Lester Hayes (1977–1986)
- Sacks: 107.5 Greg Townsend (1983–1997)
- Winningest Coach: 103 John Madden (1969–1978)
Oakland/Los Angeles Raiders Single-season Leaders
- Passing Yards: 4,689 Rich Gannon (2002) – NFL MVP
- Passing Touchdowns: 34 Daryle Lamonica (1969)
- Rushing Yards: 1,759 Marcus Allen (1985) – NFL MVP / NFL Offensive Player of the Year
- Rushing Touchdowns: 16 Pete Banaszak (1975)
- Receptions: 104 Tim Brown (1997)
- Receiving Yards: 1,408 Tim Brown (1997)
- Receiving Touchdowns: 16 Art Powell (1963)
- Total Touchdowns: 18 Marcus Allen (1984)
- Points: 142 Sebastian Janikowski (2010)
- Field Goals Made: 35 Jeff Jaeger (1993)
- Total Punt Yardage: 4,909 Shane Lechler (2009)
- Punting Average: 51.1 Shane Lechler (2009)
- Kickoff Return Yards: 1,762 Chris Carr (2006)
- Punt Return Yards: 692 Fulton Walker (1985)
- Pass Interceptions: 13 Lester Hayes (1980) – NFL Defensive Player of the Year
- Sacks: 16.0 Derrick Burgess (2005)
Oakland/Los Angeles Raiders All-Pros
The following Raiders players have been named to the All-Pro:
- QB Daryle Lamonica, Rich Gannon (2), Ken Stabler (1)
- RB Marcus Allen, Clem Daniels (2)
- FB Hewritt Dixon, Marcel Reece (1)
- WR Cliff Branch (3), Fred Biletnikoff (2), Art Powell (1)
- TE Dave Casper (4), Todd Christensen (2), Billy Cannon (1)
- T Art Shell (2), Harry Schuh, Lincoln Kennedy (1)
- G Gene Upshaw (5), Steve Wisniewski (2)
- C Jim Otto (10), Barret Robbins (1)
- DE Howie Long (2), Ben Davidson (1)
- DT Tom Keating, Dan Birdwell, Bill Pickel, Chester McGlockton, Darrell Russell (1)
- LB Ted Hendricks (2), Rod Martin, Archie Matsos (1)
- CB Willie Brown (4), Dave Grayson (3), Fred Williamson, Kent McCloughan, Mike Haynes, Nnamdi Asomugha (2), Lester Hayes, Charles Woodson (1)
- S Tom Morrow, Ronnie Lott, Rod Woodson (1)
- K Jeff Jaeger (1)
- P Shane Lechler (6), Ray Guy (3), Jeff Gossett (1)
Oakland/Los Angeles Raiders Pro Bowlers
The following Raiders players have been named to the Pro Bowl:
- QB Daryle Lamonica, Ken Stabler, Rich Gannon (4), Cotton Davidson, Tom Flores, George Blanda, Jeff Hostetler (1)
- RB Marcus Allen (5), Clem Daniels (4), Marv Hubbard (3), Kenny King, Greg Pruitt, Bo Jackson (1)
- FB Hewritt Dixon (4), Marcel Reece (2), Alan Miller (1)
- WR Tim Brown (9), Fred Biletnikoff (6), Art Powell, Cliff Branch (4), Warren Wells (2), Jerry Rice (1)
- TE Dave Casper, Todd Christensen (5), Raymond Chester (4), Billy Cannon, Ethan Horton, Zach Miller (1)
- T Art Shell (8), Harry Schuh, Lincoln Kennedy (3), Henry Lawrence (2), Bob Brown (1)
- G Steve Wisniewski (8), Gene Upshaw (7), Wayne Hawkins (5), Max Montoya, Kevin Gogan (1)
- C Jim Otto (12), Don Mosebar (3), Dave Dalby, Barret Robbins (1)
- DE Howie Long (8), Ben Davidson (3), Greg Townsend, Derrick Burgess (2), Ike Lassiter (1)
- DT Chester McGlockton (4), Tom Keating, Darrell Russell, Richard Seymour (2), Dave Costa, Dan Birdwell, Otis Sistrunk (1)
- LB Phil Villapiano, Ted Hendricks (4), Dan Conners (3), Rod Martin (2), Archie Matsos, Gus Otto, Matt Millen (1)
- CB Willie Brown (7), Lester Hayes, Terry McDaniel (5), Charles Woodson (4), Fred Williamson, Dave Grayson, Mike Haynes, Nnamdi Asomugha (3), Kent McCloughan (2)
- S Jack Tatum (3), George Atkinson, Vann McElroy (2), Ronnie Lott, Rod Woodson (1)
- K Jeff Jaeger, Sebastian Janikowski (1)
- P Ray Guy (7), Shane Lechler (7), Jeff Gossett (1)
- LS Jon Condo (2)
Oakland Raiders roster
Head coaches and staff
Oakland Raiders staff
Notes and references
- Tafur, Vittorio (October 9, 2011). "Davis family will retain ownership of Raiders". The San Francisco Chronicle. p. B-9. Archived from the original on October 9, 2011.
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- "Memories of Sid Gillman". Chargers.com. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-02-01.
- Burke, Monte (2006-09-18). "A New Test For an Old Raider". Forbes Magazine. Retrieved 2007-01-25.
- Dickey, Just Win, Baby, p. 41.
- "National Football League lore – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 2012-09-03.
- Newhouse, Dave. "1980 Raiders were outcasts, champions". Archived from the original on 2007-01-23. Retrieved 2007-01-25.
- Dickey, Just Win, Baby. p. 168.
- Dickey, Just Win, Baby. p. 172.
- "Al Davis biography". HickokSports.com. Retrieved 2007-01-30.
- Puma, Mike (2003-12-01). "Good guys wear black". ESPN Classic. Retrieved 2007-01-30.
- Dickey, Just Win, Baby. p. 234.
- Dickey, Just Win, Baby. p. 230.
- Dickey, Just Win, Baby. p. 232.
- "Al Davis may retire if Raiders win". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Associated Press. 2003-01-23. Retrieved 2007-01-29.
- Plaschke, Bill. "Shades of Gray". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 2007-01-29.
- Dickey, Just Win, Baby. pp. 234–239.
- Dickey, Just Win, Baby. pp. 240–244.
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- Poole, Monte (2005-06-22). "Raiders headed home 10 years ago". Oakland Tribune. Retrieved 2007-02-02.
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- "Grid Team Named-- They're Senors", Oakland Tribune, April 5, 1960, p37. Soda said, "My own personal choice would have been Mavericks, but I believe we came up with a real fine name." The selection committee narrowed the choices down to Admirals, Lakers, Diablos, Seawolves, Gauchos, Nuggest, Señors Dons, Costers, Grandees, Sequoias, Missiles, Knights, Redwoods, Clippers, Jets and Dolphins.
- "Now It's Hi, Raiders! (Bye, Senors)", Oakland Tribune, April 14, 1960, p1
- Dickey, Just Win, Baby, p. 8.
- Otto, The Pain of Glory, p. 69.
- "Raiders uniform/helmet design, 1960–62". Retrieved 2007-01-25.
- "Raiders uniform/helmet design, 1963". Retrieved 2007-01-25.
- White, David (2008-09-29). "Hard-tackling safety produces one of his own". The San Francisco Chronicle.
- Paul Lukas. "Uni Watch: Comprehensive NFL preview". ESPN.
- Dickey, Just Win, Baby, p. 10.
- Kukura, Joe. "NFL May Bribe Raiders, 49ers Into Shotgun Wedding". Nbcbayarea.com. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
- Taylor Price (April 19, 2012). "49ers break ground on Santa Clara stadium". 49ers.com. Retrieved November 29, 2012.
- Mike Florio (September 10, 2012). "Niners strike gold with new stadium". profootballtalk.nbcsports.com. Retrieved November 29, 2012.
- NFL.com (October 16, 2012). "Oakland Raiders have no plans to share stadium with 49ers". NFL.com. Retrieved November 29, 2012.
- Arash Markazi (August 10, 2011). "LA council passes AEG's stadium plan". ESPN.go.com. Retrieved November 29, 2012.
- "Oakland's Coliseum City project could cost $2 billion".
- "NFL to play 3 games in London". ESPN. The Associated Press. October 8, 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
- "Petition | Actively explore bringing an NFL team to Oregon".
- "Portland Raiders? Oregon NFL fans want it".
- Baugh, Josh (2014-07-29). "S.A. may be home of Los Raiders". MySA: San Antonio's Home Page. Retrieved 2014-07-30.
- "Raiders owner confirms talks with San Antonio". Associated Press (AP). 2014-07-30. Retrieved 2014-07-30.
- "Just do it, baby – ESPN Classic". Espn.go.com. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
- Zamora, Jim Herron (2003-01-24). "Raider Nation's citizens span globe–Mystique, power of Silver and Black quicken the pulse of teaming hordes". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2007-01-25.[dead link]
- Minkoff, Alysse. "Sweetheart of the Hole". Page2. Retrieved 2007-01-31.
- Mills, Roger (2003-01-25). "Super Bowl XXXVII: Raider nation". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 2007-01-31.
- Thomas, Jim (2007-12-17). "Entering the 'black hole'". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved 2007-02-02.[dead link]
- "Raider Nation!". . 10-12-2009.
- "ESPN 30 for 30". 30for30.espn.com. 1994-06-17. Retrieved 2012-09-03.
- Lloyd, Robert (2010-05-11). "Television review: 'Straight Outta L.A.'". Los Angeles Times.
- "Raiders Topple 49ers 35–24 in Battle of the Bay". Raiders.com. Archived from the original on 2006-10-18. Retrieved 2007-02-04.[dead link]
- "49ers And Raiders Stagger Into Battle". KGO-TV. Associated Press. 2006-10-07. Retrieved 2007-02-04.
- Halley, Jim (2005-09-08). "Patriots-Raiders: No love lost over time". USA Today. Retrieved 2007-01-31.
- LaMarre, Tom (2001-12-31). "Jets-Raiders series boasts several classics". NFL.com. Archived from the original on 2007-05-05. Retrieved 2007-01-31.
- McDonald, Jerry (2003-11-04). "Raiders and Jets renew a peculiar rivalry". NFL.com. Retrieved 2007-01-31.
- "Epic Rivalries: Raiders vs. Jets". 2005-12-07. Archived from the original on 2006-10-26. Retrieved 2007-01-31.
- Smizik, Bob (2006-10-29). "Raiders of the lost rivalry". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 2007-01-31.
- "Pro Football Hall of Fame – Oakland Raiders". Retrieved 2007-01-19.
- Dickey, Just Win, Baby, p. 7.
- Dickey, Just Win, Baby, pp. 7–8.
- Harney was the builder of San Francisco's Candlestick Park, built on a bleak parcel of land he owned; to date, the road leading to the stadium is known as Harney Way. With a push from Harney, the Raiders were allowed to play their final three 1960 home games at Candlestick.
- Steve Sabol (Executive Producer) (2004). Raiders – The Complete History (DVD). NFL Productions LLC.
- Dickey, Just Win, Baby, pp. 98–101.
- Zeigler, Mark (2009-10-31). "Silence of elders tells on Raiders". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 2009-10-31.
- Rosynsky, Paul T (2003-10-15). "Raiders co-owner wants to boot Davis". Oakland Tribune. Archived from the original on 2007-10-13. Retrieved 2007-01-29.
- Chapman, Glenn (2004-04-03). "Judge rules Davis will remain a Raider". Oakland Tribune. Retrieved 2007-01-29.[dead link]
- Rosynsky, Paul T (2005-10-21). "Raiders ownership suit settled". Oakland Tribune. Retrieved 2007-01-29.[dead link]
- Gay, Nancy (2006-11-25). "No takers for 31% share of Raiders". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2007-01-29.[dead link]
- "NFL Team Valuations – #28 Oakland Raiders". Forbes Magazine. 2006-08-31. Retrieved 2007-01-25.
- Fitzgerald, Tom (2005-11-03). "Raiders reach pact with Oakland/No more PSLs – team will take over marketing duties". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2007-01-25.[dead link]
- Young, Eric (2006-02-15). "Raiders cut ticket prices at Coliseum". Silicon Valley / San Jose Business Journal. Retrieved 2007-01-25.
- Young, Eric (2006-11-06). "Raiders post solid numbers already". San Francisco Business Times. Retrieved 2007-01-25.
- Soliday, Bill (2006-12-15). ""Gabriel's release, return mystery" (sellout info in Notes)". Contra Costa Times. Retrieved 2007-01-25.
- "NFL History (1971–1980)". Retrieved 2007-01-25.
- "N.F.L. Settles Coliseum Suit". The New York Times. 1987-11-05. Retrieved 2007-01-25.
- Puma, Mike. "Just do it, baby". ESPN Classic. Retrieved 2007-01-30.
- "Appellate court rules for NFL in Raiders case". NFL.com. Retrieved 2007-02-02.
- Fitzgerald, Tom (2005-11-03). "Raiders reach pact with Oakland-No more PSLs – team will take over marketing duties". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2007-02-02.[dead link]
- "Winning the Big Game" (PDF).
- Mark Fainaru-Wada, Lance Williams: Barry Bonds: Anatomy of a scandal. San Francisco Chronicle, 25. December 2003
- "Oakland Raiders | Raiders in the Hall of Fame". Raiders.com. Retrieved 2012-09-03.
- Alder, James. "Football 101 – Uniform Numbering System". About.com. Retrieved 2007-01-31.
- Williamson, Bill. "Pryor doesn't follow Russell's footsteps". Espn.go.com. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
- McHugh, Patrick (2011-08-28). "Raiders Don't Allow Terrelle Pryor to Wear No. 2, Last Worn by Draft Bust JaMarcus Russell". Nesn.com. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
- "Terrelle Pryor joins Oakland Raiders in final training camp drills – ESPN". Espn.go.com. 2011-08-26. Retrieved 2012-09-03.
- "Career Leaders". Raiders.com. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
- http://www.pro-football-reference.com/teams/rai/single-season-passing.htm Oakland/Los Angeles Raiders Passing Single-season Register
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oakland Raiders.|
- Official website
- Oakland Raiders at the National Football League official website
- Oakland Raiders at Pro-football-reference.com
- Oakland Raiders Former Players at oncearaider.com