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Lost Cosmonauts, or Phantom Cosmonauts, is a conspiracy theory alleging that Soviet cosmonauts entered outer space, but without their existence having been acknowledged by either the Soviet or Russian space authorities.
Proponents of the Lost Cosmonauts theory concede that Yuri Gagarin was the first man to survive space travel, but claim that the Soviet Union attempted to launch two or more manned space flights prior to Gagarin's, and that at least two cosmonauts died in the attempts. Another cosmonaut, Vladimir Ilyushin, is believed to have landed off-course and been held by the Chinese government. The Government of the Soviet Union supposedly suppressed this information, to prevent bad publicity during the height of the Cold War.
The evidence cited to support Lost Cosmonaut theories is generally not regarded as conclusive, and several cases have been confirmed as hoaxes. In the 1980s, American journalist James Oberg researched space-related disasters in the Soviet Union, but found no evidence of these Lost Cosmonauts. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, much previously restricted information is now available, including on Valentin Bondarenko, a would-be cosmonaut whose death during training on Earth the Soviet government covered up. Even with the availability of published Soviet archival material and memoirs of Russian space pioneers, no hard evidence has emerged to support the Lost Cosmonaut stories.
Purported Czech information leak 
In December 1959, an alleged high-ranking Czech Communist leaked information about many purported unofficial space shots. Aleksei Ledovsky was mentioned as being launched inside a converted R-5A rocket. Three more names of alleged cosmonauts claimed to have perished under similar circumstances were Andrei Mitkov, Sergei Shiborin and Maria Gromova. Also in 1959, pioneering space theoretician Hermann Oberth claimed that a pilot had been killed on a sub-orbital ballistic flight from Kapustin Yar in early 1958. He provided no source for the story. In December 1959, the Italian news agency Continentale repeated the claims that a series of cosmonaut deaths on suborbital flights had been revealed by a high-ranking Czech communist. No other evidence of Soviet sub-orbital manned flights ever came to light.
High-altitude equipment tests 
A 1959 edition of Ogoniok published an article and photos of three high-altitude parachutists: Colonel Pyotr Dolgov, Ivan Kachur and Alexey Grachov. Official records state that Dolgov was killed on November 1, 1962, while carrying out a high-altitude parachute jump from a Volga balloon gondola. Dolgov jumped at an altitude of 28,640 meters (93,970 feet). The helmet visor of Dolgov's Sokol pressure suit hit part of the gondola as he exited, de-pressurizing the suit and killing him. Kachur is known to have disappeared around this time; his name has become linked to this equipment.  Grachov is thought to have been involved, with Dolgov and Kachur, in testing the high-altitude equipment. Russian journalist Yaroslav Golovanov suggested that high-altitude testing was exaggerated into a story that those parachutists died on a space flight. In late 1959, Ogoniok carried pictures of a man identified as Comrade Gennady Zavadovsky testing high-altitude equipment (perhaps with Grachov and others). Zavadovsky would later appear on lists of dead cosmonauts, without a date of death or accident description.
Russian journalist Yaroslav Golovanov, who researched the lost cosmonaut claims in his book "Cosmonaut #1", found and interviewed the real Alexey Timofeyevich Belokonov, a retired high-altitude parachutist. In this interview, Belokonov revealed more about his colleagues Dolgov, Kachur, Mikhailov, Grachov, Zavodovsky and Ilyushin, and confirmed they never flew to space. According to Belokonov, in 1963, after New York Journal American published an article on lost cosmonauts, listing the parachutists among them, Soviet newspapers Izvestia and Krasnaya Zvezda published a refutation that included testimonies and photographs of actual Belokonov, Kachur, Grachov and Zavodovsky. Parachutists also wrote an angry letter to New York Journal American editor William Randolph Hearst, Jr., which he ignored.
In 1960, Robert A. Heinlein wrote in his article Pravda means 'Truth' (reprinted in Expanded Universe) that on May 15, 1960, while traveling in Vilnius, in the Soviet Union, he was told by Red Army cadets that the Soviet Union had launched a man into orbit that day, but that later the same day it was denied by officials. Heinlein speculated that Korabl-Sputnik 1 was an orbital launch, later said to be unmanned, and that the retro-rockets had fired at the wrong altitude, making recovery efforts unsuccessful.
According to Gagarin's biography these rumours were likely started as a result of two Vostok missions, equipped with dummies (Ivan Ivanovich) and human voice tape recordings, to check if the radio worked, that were made just prior to Gagarin's flight.
In a U.S. press conference on February 23, 1962, Col. Barney Oldfield revealed that a space cabin had indeed been orbiting the earth since 1960, as it had become jammed into its booster rocket. According to the NASA NSSDC Master Catalog, Korabl Sputnik 1, designated at the time 1KP or Vostok 1P, did launch on May 15, 1960 (one year before Gagarin). It was a prototype of the later Zenit and Vostok manned launchers. The onboard TDU had ordered the retrorockets to fire, but due to a malfunction of the attitude control system, the spacecraft was oriented upside-down, and the firing put the craft into a higher orbit. The re-entry capsule lacked a heatshield as there were no plans to recover it. Engineers had planned to use the vessel's telemetry data to determine if the guidance system had functioned correctly, so recovery was unnecessary.
The Torre Bert Recordings 
On May 19, 1961, the Torre Bert listening station in northern Italy purportedly picked up a transmission of a woman's voice, sounding confused and frightened as her craft began to break up upon reentry. One argument against this claim is that a transmission could not be heard of the re-entry stage of a flight, as there is a communications blackout when a vehicle enters Earth's atmosphere. Additionally, the voice on the recording does not adhere to Soviet cosmonauts' standard communications protocol. According to the official records, there were no launches from any Soviet launch sites that could have corresponded to this event. The two closest events were suborbital test launches of the R-16 ICBM on the 16th and the 24th.
Another recording from Torre Bert purports to be the sounds of labored breathing and a failing heartbeat. This combined with reports in the French and Italian press, claiming that Sputnik 7 was a manned mission, gave rise to claims that a cosmonaut named Gennady Mikhailov was the first man in orbit and died there due to heart failure. According to the TASS news agency it was a failed Venus probe. Opponents of this theory claim these recordings are of highly doubtful veracity, as data on heart rate and breathing patterns were not transmitted via audio on Vostok spacecraft, but via telemetric data. However, breathing into a mic and an audible heartbeat monitor would still allow this theory.
The third Torre Bert recording claims to have heard a couple launched on February 17, 1961, aboard a Lunik spacecraft orbiting the earth, reporting "Everything is satisfactory, we are orbiting the earth" at regular intervals. On February 24, 1961, there were some garbled verbal transmissions about something the couple could see outside their ship, that they urgently had to communicate to Earth. What happened is unclear, but communication was lost. Around the same time the listening station at Torre Bert reportedly picked up an SOS signal from a craft in space. As the signal got weaker, it was assumed whatever craft it was disappeared into deep space. Alexey Belokonev is reportedly one of three (two men and a woman) cosmonauts aboard a November 1962 flight. The Torre Bert tower in Italy allegedly picked up a frantic set of messages relayed by the three occupants. 'Conditions growing worse why don't you answer? . . . we are going slower . . . the world will never know about us. . . .'
Vladimir Ilyushin 
Vladimir Ilyushin, son of Soviet airplane designer Sergey Ilyushin, was a Soviet pilot and is purported to have been a cosmonaut, alleged by some to have actually been the first man in space on April 7, 1961—an honor generally attributed to Yuri Gagarin on April 12, 1961.
The theories surrounding this alleged orbital flight are that a failure aboard the spacecraft caused controllers to bring the descending capsule down several orbits earlier than intended, resulting in its landing in the People's Republic of China. The pilot was then held by Chinese authorities for a year before being returned to the Soviet Union. The international embarrassment that would have resulted from such an incident is cited as the Soviets' reason for not publicizing this flight—they reportedly focused their publicizing efforts on the subsequent successful flight of Yuri Gagarin instead.
However, there are reasons to disbelieve this allegation. Although both were Communist governments, relations between the Soviet Union and China were strained. The propaganda value of a Soviet pilot captured flying over Chinese territory would have given little reason for Chinese authorities to cooperate in a cover-up. Also, "bringing the capsule down several orbits earlier than intended" does not make sense, considering that the Vostok mission involved a single orbit.
This theory originated on April 10, 1961, with Dennis Ogden, the Moscow correspondent of the British Communist newspaper Daily Worker, and was actually based on Ilyushin's medical treatment and care in China. According to many Soviet sources, and to the article in Komsomolskaya Pravda dated July 11, 2005, Ilyushin was a famous test pilot but he was never involved in the space program. On June 5, 1960, his legs were seriously injured in a car accident. Ilyushin underwent medical treatment for a year in Moscow, then was sent to Hangzhou, China, for rehabilitation under specialists in Traditional Chinese medicine. This explanation was also confirmed by the Soviet defector Leonid Vladimirov, an engineer who had personal contacts with Ilyushin in 1960, in his 1973 book The Russian Space Bluff, published in Frankfurt (Russian translation of the book).
The theory gained some credibility in 1999 due to a documentary on the subject titled The Cosmonaut Cover-up. Interviewed in English, Sergei Khrushchev, son of former Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, said that it[clarification needed] was true and that Vladimir Ilyushin was actually held in China for over a year as a "guest" of the People's Republic of China. He was later returned to the Soviet Union, but by then the Gagarin legend was in place and the bizarre incident was covered up. The main reason for concealment was to not let the West see the schism between China and the USSR.
Vladimir Ilyushin never confirmed this theory, dying in 2010.
Moon-shot allegations 
The Soviet Union lost the manned moon-landing phase of the Moon race to the United States. However, some sources claim that just before the historic Apollo 11 flight to the moon, the Soviets undertook an adventurous attempt to beat the Americans. Despite the unsuccessful first test launch of the new Soviet N1 rocket on January 20, 1969, it is alleged that a decision was made to send a manned Soyuz 7K-L3 craft to the moon using an N1. This attempt is alleged to have occurred on July 3, 1969, when it ended in explosion destroying the launch pad and killing cosmonauts on board. Official sources state that the L3 was not ready for manned missions. Its moon-landing module, the LK, had been tested a few times but its orbiter, the 7K-LOK, had not been successfully tested by the closing of the moon-landing program at the end of 1974. The closing of the program was officially denied and maintained top secret until 1989.
This claim correlates with the late hoax about unsuccessful moon-shot flight of Andrei Mikoyan. However, in reality, the second launch, like the first, was a test of the booster and was therefore unmanned. Even if cosmonauts had been on board, they would have been rescued by its launch escape system, which carried the dummy payload to safety 2 km from the pad. One mission in the Soyuz program, Soyuz T-10-1, did see the spacecraft and cosmonauts rescued safely from a failed booster rocket by its launch escape system; it is the only documented case of such a system in use with a manned spacecraft.
There are also rumors, materialized in later Omon Ra novel by Russian fiction writer Pelevin, that Soviet automatic sample-return craft, Luna, and remote-controlled automatic moon rover, Lunokhods, were, due to failures in automation, manned by cosmonauts who had agreed to take part in suicide missions. However, there is not enough space in either the Luna or Lunokhod for even one cosmonaut, even excluding life support system space. There had been a plan to develop modified Lunokhods with additional controls for use as a transport in manned moon-landing missions but this plan ended with the moon-landing program.
Among the Lunas, a June 14, 1969 test failed to launch, and a July 13, 1969 test, Luna 15, launched but failed to land on the moon. Among the rovers, there was a failed launch on February 19, 1969, and two successful launches on November 10, 1970, and January 8, 1973.
Confirmed hoaxes 
A number of claims have been confirmed as hoaxes:
Ivan Istochnikov 
Officially Soyuz 2 was an unmanned spacecraft that was the docking target for Soyuz 3. However, Mike Arena, an American journalist, allegedly found in 1993 that Ivan Istochnikov and his dog Kloka were manning Soyuz 2, and disappeared on October 26, 1968, with signs of having been hit by a meteorite. They had been "erased" from history by the Soviet authorities, who could not tolerate such a failure.
The entire story was found to be a hoax perpetrated by Joan Fontcuberta as a 'modern art exercise' that included falsified mission artifacts, various digitally manipulated images, and immensely detailed feature-length biographies that turned out to be riddled with hundreds of historical as well as technical errors. The exhibit was shown in Madrid in 1997 and the National Museum of Catalan Art in 1998. Brown University later purchased several articles, and put them on display themselves.
The name Ivan Istochnikov is a Russian translation of Joan Fontcuberta's name; translated to English from Russian reads "John of the Source".
Pavel Popovich and Vitali Sevastyanov 
NASA radio monitoring service intercepted conversations between Pavel Popovich and Vitali Sevastyanov and a control center. The conversations appeared to originate from a Soviet Zond 6 spacecraft that was launched on November 10, 1968, and successfully flew for 7 days around the Moon. This was at a time of intense competition during the moon flyby phase of the Moon race between the USSR and the U.S. The Soviet L1/Zond spacecraft was almost ready for manned missions, although testing was not yet complete, and it was not unimaginable that the USSR might undertake a manned flyby using the L1/Zond spacecraft in order to beat the Americans.
It was soon clear, however, that these were test transmissions between two ground control centers with the Zond 6 intercepting and relaying the transmissions.
After the successful U.S. Apollo 8 manned flight around the Moon, the Soviet manned flyby missions lost political urgency. The first manned flight of L1/Zond spacecraft with Alexey Leonov and Valery Bykovsky planned for the end of 1968 was canceled and Zond spacecraft made only a few unmanned, automatic flights after that.
Andrei Mikoyan 
Andrei Mikoyan was reportedly killed together with a second crew member in an attempt to reach the Moon ahead of the Americans in early 1969. Due to system malfunction, they failed to get into lunar orbit and shot past the Moon.
This story undoubtedly influenced the plot of an episode of the television series The Cape. The episode "Buried in Peace" first aired on October 28, 1996. In it, a shuttle crew on a mission to repair a communications satellite encounters a derelict Soviet spacecraft with a dead crew—the result of a secret attempt to send a manned mission to the moon 30 years earlier, before the United States. Tom Nowicki played Major Andrei Mikoyan in the story.
This story correlates with another claim about the unsuccessful second manned test flight of the N1 rocket.
In popular culture 
- A 1989 installment of Philip Bond's "Wired World", published in the UK comics anthology Deadline magazine, features a cosmonaut who crash lands in a London park where the main characters are picnicking.
- Victor Pelevin's anti-Soviet 1992 novel Omon Ra is based on depiction of Soviet space flights as a planned homicide. Some of these "flights" are also not really flights, but fakes in the sake of Soviet propaganda.
- In the 2002 movie K-19: The Widowmaker while enjoying some vodka an officer relates a tale of a Lost Cosmonaut before Gagarin who died when his life support system failed.
- In the 2004 video game Metal Gear Solid 3 one of the game's bosses, The Fury, is a lost cosmonaut who was badly burned upon re-entry and served as a secret elite combat operative in Soviet jungles.
- A 2005 Russian mockumentary movie First on the Moon (Первые на Луне) features the fictional story of a 1938 Soviet landing on the Moon.
- The 2007 Jed Mercurio novel Ascent features a cosmonaut who makes a successful - albeit suicidal - moon landing ahead of the Apollo landings.
- The 2011 science fiction horror film Apollo 18 depicts NASA astronauts landing on the moon in 1974 and finding a dead cosmonaut along with a wrecked Soviet landing module.
- The upcoming Spanish science fiction feature film The Cosmonaut is inspired by accounts of lost cosmonauts.
See also 
- Judica-Cordiglia brothers, Italians who claimed to have recorded the dying moments of several Russian cosmonauts.
- Soviet manned lunar programs, the U.S.S.R.'s plans to send a mission to the moon.
- Moon landing conspiracy theories, similar theories surrounding the American lunar programme under NASA.
- List of spaceflight-related accidents and incidents
- See Oberg's Uncovering Soviet Disasters (1988) ISBN 0-394-56095-7, 156–76
- The first Soviet cosmonaut team: their lives, legacy, and historical impact, p. 226. Colin Burgess, Rex Hall. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-84823-5 (2009)
- "Oberth Believes Astronauts Lost", Gadsden Times - Associated Press, December 10, 1959
- Yaroslav Golovanov Cosmonaut #1, Izvestia, 1986.
- Robert A. Heinlein at www.firearmsrights.com[dead link]
- Bizony, Piers (1998). Starman: Truth Behind the Legend of Yuri Gagarin. Bloomsbury. ISBN 0-7475-3688-0.
- "Sputnik 4". National Space Science Data Center. NASA. Retrieved 2009-08-12.
- Asif Siddiqi, "Sputnik and the Soviet Space Challenge", 2000, p. 251
- The First Woman in Space
- Encyclopedia Astronautica 1961
- Lost in Space | Articles | Features | Fortean Times UK
- Encyclopedia Astronautica Belokonyov
- KP.RU // Гагарин был двенадцатым? at www.kp.ru
- Ильюшин - сын Ильюшина at www.rg.ru
- Ëåîíèä Âëàäèìèðîâ Ñîâåòñêèé êîñìè÷åñêèé áëåô02 at epizodsspace.testpilot.ru
- Asif Siddiqi, "The Soviet Space Race with Apollo" (2000), p. 688-91
- Ivan Istochnikov: El cosmonauta fantasma, El Mundo Magazine, May 25, 1997. Following the links, we find the announcement of the Fontcuberta exposition.
- Sputnik Foundation. Notice the "PURE FICTION" text in red text over a red background.[dead link]
- Istochnikov at the Encyclopedia Astronautica.
- Ivan corresponds etymologically to the first name John, and istochnik (источник) is Russian for source . "Istochnikov" is genitive plural for istochnik, and so it translates as "of the Source"
- Cuarto Milenio, page of the 11 June 2006 program at the Cuatro site.
- El cosmonauta fantasma, a blog entry at the El Correo newspaper. An excerpt from Cuarto Milenio hosted in YouTube is included. From the same author, there is an article in Hoy.
- Encyclopedia Astronautica: Phantom cosmonauts
- James Oberg (1988). Uncovering Soviet Disasters: Exploring the Limits of Glasnost, Random House, ISBN 0-394-56095-7
- Yaroslav Golovanov Cosmonaut #1, Izvestia, 1986.
- Pavel Toufar, 2002/2003, Kruty vesmir, Akcent, ISBN 80-7268-245-8, 58–258
- Pavel Toufar, 2001, Vzestup a pad Jurije Gagarina, Regia, ISBN 80-86367-11-8
- Alexander Zheleznyakov, Gagarin was still the first (same in Russian)
- "Komsomolskaya pravda" newspaper (in Russian)
- A.Pervushin "Terrible secret" of soviet space (in Russian)
- Uchitelskaya gazeta (in Russian)
- Ren-TV story (in Russian)
- Lost Cosmonauts
- Encyclopedia Astronautica: Phantom cosmonauts
- Straight Dope on "lost" cosmonauts
- Oberg chapter on Dead Cosmonauts