Lot (biblical person)
Lot (Hebrew: לוֹט, Modern Lot Tiberian Lôṭ ; "veil"; "hidden, covered") is a person in the Bible. He is mentioned in the Book of Genesis chapters 11–14 and 19. Notable episodes in his life include his travels with his uncle Abram (Abraham), a patriarch of Israel, his flight from the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, and the seduction by his daughters so that they could bear children.
Christians and Muslims revere Lot as a righteous man of God. According to Christianity, Jesus is a descendent of Lot through David's great-grandmother Ruth, who is descended from Lot's son Moab. The Qur'an does not include any references to Lot's drunkenness nor his incestuous relations. Since he is regarded as a prophet of Islam, any suggestion toward drunkenness or incestuous behavior is considered false.
Lot in Genesis 
Lot's background 
|Generation||Genealogy of Terah and Lot ()|
|4th Gen||1st Daughter||2nd Daughter|
|5th Gen||Moab||Ben-Ammi (Ammon)|
|See also Haran#Family tree chart|
Lot and his father Haran were born and raised in Ur of the Chaldees ( ) in the region of Sumeria on the Euphrates River of lower Mesopotamia, roughly four thousand years ago. Haran died in that land before his father Terah. ( )
Terah", Lot's grandfather, who arranged for their large family to set a course for Canaan where they could reestablish a new home. Among the family members that Lot travelled with was his uncle Abram, (later called Abraham), one of the three patriarchs of Israel.gives the "generations of
En route to Canaan, the family stopped in the Paddan Aram region, about halfway along the Fertile Crescent between Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean. They settled at the site called Haran where Lot's grandfather, Terah, lived the rest of his days. He was 205 years old when he died. (Genesis 11:32)
ORD at the age of 75, in continuing his journey to the land of promise. Though Abram's father, Terah, stayed behind, his nephew Lot went with him.reveals Abram's obedience to the L
After dwelling in the land of Canaan for a little while, there was a famine, and they journeyed further south into Egypt.
Lot in the plain of Jordan 
Negev to the hills of Bethel.discusses Abram and Lot's return to Canaan after the famine had passed and the lands became fertile again. They traveled back through the
Although Abram gave Lot the choice of going north (the left hand), in which case he would go south (the right hand), or if Lot chose south, Abram would go north, Lot instead looked before him beyond Jordan and saw a well watered plain, and chose that land, for it was like "the garden of the LORD", before the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah and the formation of the salt sea. ( ) Abram then headed south to Hebron, staying within the land of Canaan. ( )
Lot had encamped on the green Jordan plain among the cities of the plain and initially pitched his tent toward Sodom. About eight years before he moved there, the kings of the five cities had become vassal states of an eastern alliance of four kingdoms under the leadership of Chedorlaomer king of Elam, whom they served for twelve years, but "the thirteenth year they rebelled." ( ) The following year the four armies with Chedorlaomer returned and at the Battle of the Vale of Siddim, the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fell in defeat.
When Abram heard what had happened to his "brother" Lot, he armed a rescue force of three hundred and eighteen of his trained servants and pursued and caught up to the armies of the four kings in the area of Dan.
Lot flees Sodom 
Twenty four years after Abram and Lot began their sojourning, the LORD changed Abram's name to Abraham, and gave him the covenant of circumcision.
Genesis 19:1 ¶ And there came two angels to Sodom at even; and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom: and Lot seeing them rose up to meet them; and he bowed himself with his face toward the ground;
2 And he said, Behold now, my lords, turn in, I pray you, into your servant's house, and tarry all night, and wash your feet, and ye shall rise up early, and go on your ways. And they said, Nay; but we will abide in the street all night.
3 And he pressed upon them greatly; and they turned in unto him, and entered into his house; and he made them a feast, and did bake unleavened bread, and they did eat.
After supper that night before bedtime, the men of the city, young and old, gathered around Lot's house demanding he bring his two guests out that they might "know" them. Lot went out and closed the door behind him and prayed that they not do such wicked things, and offered them his virgin daughters, that had not "known" man, that they might know them instead, and do with as they pleased. His response infuriated the men of Sodom who accused him of being judgmental and they threatened to do worse to him than they would have done to the men.
Before they could harm Lot and break into the house, the "men" pulled Lot back in and struck the intruders with blindness, and revealed to Lot that they were angels sent to destroy the place. This allowed a window of opportunity for Lot to make preparations for him and his family to leave. When he went out to his sons in law that married his daughters, to warn them to flee, they treated him as one that mocked.
As the day began to dawn, the angels urged him to hasten and leave, and when he yet lingered, the angels took hold of the hands of Lot, his wife and two daughters and transported them beyond the city and set them down, and the angel told Lot: "Escape for thy life; look not behind thee, neither stay thou in all the plain; escape to the mountain, lest thou be consumed."
Genesis 19:23 ¶ The sun was risen upon the earth when Lot entered into Zoar.
24 Then the LORD rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the LORD out of heaven;
25 And he overthrew those cities, and all the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and that which grew upon the ground.
26 But his wife looked back from behind him, and she became a pillar of salt.
From where Abraham was that morning, in an elevated region, he could see the dense smoke billowing up into the heavens from the ruined cities.
Instead of both brimstone and fire, Josephus has only lightning as the cause of the fire that destroyed Sodom: "God then cast a thunderbolt upon the city, and set it on fire, with its inhabitants; and laid waste the country with the like burning, as I formerly said when I wrote the Jewish War."
Lot and his daughters 
An account of Lot and his daughters in
Genesis 19:30 And Lot went up out of Zoar, and dwelt in the mountain, and his two daughters with him; for he feared to dwell in Zoar: and he dwelt in a cave, he and his two daughters.
31 And the firstborn said unto the younger, Our father is old, and there is not a man in the earth to come in unto us after the manner of all the earth:
32 Come, let us make our father drink wine, and we will lie with him, that we may preserve seed of our father.
33 And they made their father drink wine that night: and the firstborn went in, and lay with her father; and he perceived not when she lay down, nor when she arose.
34 And it came to pass on the morrow, that the firstborn said unto the younger, Behold, I lay yesternight with my father: let us make him drink wine this night also; and go thou in, and lie with him, that we may preserve seed of our father.
35 And they made their father drink wine that night also: and the younger arose, and lay with him; and he perceived not when she lay down, nor when she arose.
36 Thus were both the daughters of Lot with child by their father.
The presumptive incest between Lot and his daughters has raised many questions, debates, and theories as to what the real motives were, who really was at fault, and the level of bias the author of Genesis Chapter 19 had. However, such biblical scholars as Jacob Milgrom, Victor P. Hamilton, and Calum Carmichael postulate that the Levitical laws could not have been developed the way they were, without controversial issues surrounding the patriarchs of Israel, especially regarding incest. Carmichael even attributes the entire formulation of the Levitical laws to the lives of the founding fathers of the nation, including the "righteous" Lot (together with Abraham, Jacob, Judah, Moses, and David), who were outstanding figures in Israelite tradition.
According to the scholars mentioned above, the patriarchs of Israel are the key to understanding how the priestly laws concerning incest developed. Incest amongst the patriarchs includes Abraham's marriage to his half-sister Sarai;
Other scholars also state that the Levitical laws against incest were created to separate the lifestyle of the Israelite from the sinful lifestyle of the cursed people of Canaan,
Religious views 
Jewish view 
In the Bereshith of the Torah, Lot is first mentioned at the end of the weekly reading portion, Parashat Noach. The weekly reading portions that follow, concerning all of the accounts of Lot's life, are read in the Parashat Lekh Lekha and Parashat Vayera. In the Midrash, a number of additional stories concerning Lot are present, not found in the Tanakh, as follows:
- Abraham took care of Lot after Haran was burned in a gigantic fire in which Nimrod, King of Babylon, tried to kill Abraham.
- While in Egypt, the midrash gives Lot much credit because, despite his desire for wealth, he did not inform Pharaoh of Sarah's secret, that she was Abraham's wife.
Christian view 
Despite Lot's flaws, Christians view him as a righteous man and draw upon New Testament scriptures that make direct references to his day, such as:
- In Pharisees asked Jesus when the Kingdom of God would come. This triggered a topic that Jesus addressed his disciples about, concerning "the days of the Son of Man". In his discourse, he likened this time to the days of Lot and reminded his followers about what happened to this man's wife, saying, Remember Lot's wife. , the
- Simon Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, reminded his readers about Sodom and Gomorrha and spoke of Lot as being a righteous man amongst the wicked:
- "2:6 And turning the cities of Sodom and Gomorrha into ashes condemned [them] with an overthrow, making [them] an ensample unto those that after should live ungodly; 2:7 And delivered just Lot, vexed with the filthy conversation of the wicked: 2:8 (For that righteous man dwelling among them, in seeing and hearing, vexed [his] righteous soul from day to day with [their] unlawful deeds;)"
Islamic view 
In Islamic tradition, Lut lived in Ur and was a nephew of Ibrahim (Abraham). He migrated with Ibrahim to Canaan and was commissioned as a prophet to the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. His story is used as a reference by Muslims to demonstrate Islam's strong disapproval of homosexuality. He was commanded by Allah to go to the land of Sodom and Gomorrah to preach monotheism and to stop them from their lustful and violent acts. Lut's messages were ignored by the inhabitants, prompting Sodom and Gomorrah's destruction. Though Lut left the city, his wife stayed behind and was destroyed.
The Qur'an dictates that all prophets are examples of moral and spiritual rectitude. Since Lut is viewed as a prophet, any suggestion toward drunkenness or incestuous behavior is considered false.
See also 
- "King James Bible". Strong's Hebrew Dictionary. htmlbible.com. p. 3875 (lowt).
- 2Peter 2:7 And delivered just Lot, vexed with the filthy conversation of the wicked: 8 (For that righteous man dwelling among them, in seeing and hearing, vexed his righteous soul from day to day with their unlawful deeds;)
- Drummond, Dorothy Weitz, 2004, Holy land, whose land?: modern dilemma, ancient roots, p.75
- Drummond, 2004, p.76, par.2
- Years reckoned by comparing Bible marginal (Ussher) dates: Lot's move to Sodom area margin B.C.1918. Battle of Siddim margin B.C.1913, the 14th year, making 1926 the first of the fourteen and 1926-1918=8 years before Lot moved there.
- Flavius Josephus, Antiquities, Book 1, Chapter 11, Section 4, Sentence 3. Also:
"It is related how, for the impiety of its inhabitants, it was burnt by lightning; in consequence of which there are still the remainders of that Divine fire" Josephus, Wars Book 4, Chapter 8, Section 4
- "Artemisia Gentileschi"; Mary D Garrard; Rizzoli Art Series, 1993. ISBN 0-8478-1652-4
"The seduction of Lot became a popular topic in Baroque Art: if in general the women are portrayed as seductresses and the mood as ribald, the female artist Artemisia Gentileschi's portrait diverges sharply, showing the women fully clothed and the mood as solemn."
- Milgrom. Leviticus 17-22, 1515-1520
- Victor P. Hamilton. The Book of Genesis Chapters 18-50
- Carmichael. Legend and Incest
- Johnson M. Kimuhu. Leviticus: the priestly laws and prohibitions from the perspective of ancient Near East and Africa, Studies in biblical literature: Volume 115, 2008. pg. 31-33
- Kimuhu. Leviticus Studies, Vol. 115, 2008. pg. 31
- Katherine B. Low (Fall 2010). "The Sexual Abuse of Lot's Daughters: Reconceptualizing Kinship for the Sake of Our Daughters". Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion (Indiana University Press) 26 (2): 37–54 accessdate=July 9, 2012.
- Prophets (a.s.) - when & where[dead link]
- Quran 26:161
- Hasan, Masudul (1987). History of Islam, Volume 1. Islamic Publications. p. 26. Retrieved July 9, 2012. Quote: Lut was a nephew of the Prophet Abraham. He migrated with Abraham from Iraq to Canaan in Palestine. He was commissioned as a prophet to the cities of Sodom and Gomarrah, situated to the east of the Dead Sea. The people of these cities were guilty of unspeakable crimes. They were addicted to homo sexuality and highway robberies. Lut warned the people but they refused to listen to him. He prayed to Allah to punish the people. Lut left the city with his followers at night. As soon as he left, Allah raised a [shower of brim stones?]-end quote, text garbled.
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- Our People: A History of the Jews - Abram and Lot
- Beach, Chandler B., ed. (1914). "Lot". The New Student's Reference Work. Chicago: F. E. Compton and Co.