Lothair of France
Lothair, born near the end of 941, was the son of Louis IV and Gerberga of Saxony. He succeeded his father in 954 at the age of thirteen and was crowned at the Abbey of Saint-Remi by Artald of Reims, Archbishop of Reims. Lothair's mother made an arrangement with her brother-in-law Hugh the Great, Duke of the Franks and Count of Paris, who had been an adversary to Lothair's father. In exchange for supporting Lothair's rule Hugh was given rule over Aquitaine and much of Burgundy as more or less a viceroy. Lothair inherited a kingdom where the great magnates took lands, rights and offices almost without any regard for the king's authority. Magnates like Hugh the Great and Herbert II, Count of Vermandois were always a veiled threat.
In 955, Lothair and Hugh together took Poitiers by siege. With Hugh the Great's death in 956, Lothair, only fifteen, came under the guardianship of his maternal uncle Bruno, archbishop of Cologne. With Bruno's advice, Lothair mediated between Hugh's sons, Hugh Capet and the younger Otto Henry. The king gave Paris and the ducal title to Capet, although he later invested Otto with the Duchy of Burgundy in 960.
In 962, Baldwin III of Flanders, son, co-ruler, and heir of Arnulf I died and Arnulf bequeathed Flanders to Lothair. On Arnulf's death in 965, Lothair invaded Flanders and took many cities, but was eventually repulsed by the supporters of Arnulf II. He temporarily remained in control of Arras and Douai.
Lothair attempted to increase his influence in Lorraine, once held by his family, and in turn Emperor Otto II encouraged resistance to Lothair's overtures. In 978 Lothair then mounted an expedition into Lorraine accompanied by Hugh Capet and upon their crossing the Meuse river Otto fled. Lothair then sacked the imperial Palace of Aachen reversing the direction of the bronze eagle of Charlemagne to face east instead of west.[b]
Otto took his revenge in the autumn by invading France. He penetrated as far as Paris, stopping at Reims and at Abbey of St. Medard, Soissons for devotions. After three days of destruction Emperor Otto was driven back by Hugh Capet and his rearguard was defeated by Lothair's own forces while crossing the Aisne. Peace was concluded between Lothair and Otto II in July 980 at Margut-sur-Chiers.
When Otto II died on 7 December 983, Henry II, Duke of Bavaria abducted Otto's three-year-old son Otto III in hopes of being proclaimed king himself. Archbishop Adalbero of Reims pressed for King Lothair to take charge of the situation but the plan failed by mid-984 when Empress Theophanu and Archbishop Willingis of Mainz were finally able to rescue Otto III and regain control of Germany.
In 985, when the caliph of Córdoba, Al-Mansur, sacked Barcelona, Lothair was ill and could offer no assistance to the Count Borrel II upon receiving his envoys at Verdun. This contributed to the final rift between the Hispanic March and the French crown during the reign of his successors. At this point Lothair's power seemed markedly less than that of Hugh Capet. In a letter Gerbert of Aurillac wrote to the Archbishop Adalbero that "Lothair is king of France in name alone; Hugh is, however, not in name but in effect and deed." Not long after, Archbishop Adalbero began openly pressing pro-Ottonian views and was trying to influence Hugh Capet into relations with Otto III. In February 986, summoning Archbishop Adalbero to an assembly at Compiègne under false pretenses, he charged the surprised archbishop with treason. But the assembly was interrupted and dispersed by the approach of Hugh Capet and his army before a verdict could be reached. Two weeks later, on 2 March 986 Lothair died at Laon.
Lothair also had two illegitimate sons:
|Ancestors of Lothair of France|
- As the transition from elected kings to hereditary kings took place, fathers undertook to crown their successors before their deaths. See earlier Charlemagne's crowning of his sons, and later Hugh Capet's crowning of his son Robert. Lewis, Andrew W. (1978). "Anticipatory Association of the Heir in Early Capetian France". The American Historical Review 83: 906–927. JSTOR 1867651. In general see Bouchard, Constance Brittain (2001). Those of My Blood: Creating Noble Families in Medieval Francia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-3590-6.
- Richer of Reims stated: "The bronze eagle, that Charlemagne had put on top of the palace in a flight attitude, has been turned back towards the East. The Germans had turned it towards the West to symbolize that their cavalry could beat the French whenever they wanted..." See: Richer of Saint-Rémy, Histoire de France, (888-995), ed. R. Latouche (Paris: Les Belles Lettres 1964), p. 89.
- Jonathan Jarrett, "Caliph, King, or Grandfather: Strategies of Legitimization on the Spanish March in the Reign of Lothar III", The Mediaeval Journal, 1, 2 (2011):1–22.
- He was the fourth Lothair to rule in the former Carolingian empire (after Lothair I, Lothair II of Lotharingia and Lothair II of Italy), but only the third to rule over part of what became France.
- Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Neue Folge, Band II (Marburg, Germany: J. A. Stargardt, 1984), Tafel 1
- The Annals of Flodoard of Reims, 916–966, eds & trans. Steven Fanning: Bernard S. Bachrach (New York; Ontario, Can: University of Toronto Press, 2011), p. 60
- The Annals of Flodoard of Reims, 916–966, eds & trans. Steven Fanning: Bernard S. Bachrach (New York; Ontario, Can: University of Toronto Press, 2011), p. xix
- Bourchard, Constance Brittain (1999). "Burgundy and Provence: 879-1032". In Reuter, Timothy; McKitterick, Rosamond; Abulafia, David. The New Cambridge Medieval History: Vol. III, c.900 - c.1024 III (first ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 328–345, page 336. ISBN 0521364477. Volume III, Table of Contents
- George Holmes, The Oxford Illustrated History of Medieval Europe (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), p. 163
- Bradbury, Jim (2007). "Chapter 3: The new principalities, 800–1000". The Capetians: Kings of France, 987–1328. London: Hambledon Continuum. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-85285-528-4.
- Sullivan, Richard E. (1989). "The Carolingian Age: Reflections on Its Place in the History of the Middle Ages". Speculum 64: 267–306. doi:10.2307/2851941. JSTOR 2851941.
- Pierre Riché, The Carolingians; A Family Who Forged Europe, trans. Michael Idomir Allen (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993), pp. 264–65
- Jim Bradbury, The Capetians: Kings of France, 987-1328 (London: Hambledon Continuum, 2007), p. 43
- Pierre Riché, The Carolingians; A Family Who Forged Europe, trans. Michael Idomir Allen (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993), pp. 276-77
- Pierre Riché, The Carolingians; A Family Who Forged Europe, trans. Michael Idomir Allen (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993), p. 277
- Pierre Riché, The Carolingians; A Family Who Forged Europe, trans. Michael Idomir Allen (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993), p. 266
- Andrew W Lewis, Royal Succession in Capetian France: Studies on Familial Order and the State (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), p. 15
- Pierre Riché, The Carolingians; A Family Who Forged Europe, trans. Michael Idomir Allen (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993), p. 278
- Jim Bradbury, The Capetians: Kings of France, 987-1328, (London: Hambledon Continuum, 2007), p. 42
- Eleanor Shipley Duckett, Death and life in the tenth century (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1967), p. 118.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Gwatkin, H. M., Whitney, J. P. (ed) et al. (1926) The Cambridge Medieval History: Volume III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Hallam, Elizabeth M. and Everard, Judith (2001). Capetian France, 987–1328 (second ed.). Harlow, UK: Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-40428-1.
|King of Western Francia