||This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2012)|
|Stable release||9.8 + Fixpack 6 / 2002|
|Operating system||Microsoft Windows, Mac OS|
Lotus 1-2-3 is a spreadsheet program from Lotus Software (now part of IBM). It was the IBM PC's first "killer application"; its huge popularity in the mid-1980s contributed significantly to the success of the IBM PC in the corporate environment.
The Lotus Development Corporation was founded by Mitchell Kapor, a friend of the developers of VisiCalc. 1-2-3 was originally written by Jonathan Sachs, who had written two spreadsheet programs previously while working at Concentric Data Systems, Inc. To aid its growth, in the UK, and possibly elsewhere, Lotus 1-2-3 was the very first computer software to use television consumer advertising.
1-2-3 was released on January 26, 1983 and immediately overtook Visicalc in sales. Unlike Microsoft Multiplan, it stayed very close to the model of VisiCalc, including the "A1" letter and number cell notation, and slash-menu structure. It was cleanly programmed and relatively bug-free, as well as speed gained from being written completely in x86 assembly language (this remained the case for all versions until 3.0 when Lotus switched to C) and wrote directly to video memory rather than use the slow DOS and/or BIOS text output functions.
This reliance on the specific hardware of the IBM PC led to 1-2-3 being utilized as one of the two stress test applications for true 100% compatibility when PC clones started to appear in the early 1980s. 1-2-3 was used to test general application compatibility, with Microsoft Flight Simulator being used to test graphics compatibility. Because spreadsheets use large amounts of memory, 1‐2‐3 spurred the drive for greater RAM capacities in PCs and especially the advent of "expanded memory" which allowed greater than 640k to be accessed.
Lotus 123 became the first "killer app" for PC compatibles, especially as it was available exclusively on that platform and no other computers. Many thousands of PCs were sold solely for the purpose of running 123, and its near-monopoly of the spreadsheet market remained unchallenged for a decade.
User features 
The name "1-2-3" stemmed from the product's integration of three main capabilities. Along with being a spreadsheet, it also offered integral charting/graphing and rudimentary database operations.
Data features included sorting data in any defined rectangle, by order of information in one or two columns in the rectangular area. Justifying text in a range into paragraphs allowed it to be used as a primitive word processor.
It had keyboard-driven pop-up menus as well as one-key commands, making it fast to operate. It was also user-friendly, introducing an early instance of context-sensitive help accessed by the F1 key.
Macros in version one and add-ins (introduced in version 2.0) contributed much to 1-2-3's popularity, allowing dozens of outside vendors to sell macro packages and add-ins ranging from dedicated financial worksheets like F9 to full-fledged word processors. In the single-tasking MS-DOS, 1-2-3 was sometimes used as a complete office suite. All major graphics standards were supported; initially CGA and Hercules, and later EGA, AT&T, and VGA. Early versions used the filename extension "WKS". In version 2.0, the extension changed first to "WK1", then "WK2". This later became "WK3" for version 3.0 and "WK4" for version 4.0.
Version 2 introduced macros with syntax and commands similar in complexity to an advanced BASIC interpreter, as well as string variable expressions. Later versions supported multiple worksheets and were written in C. The charting/graphing routines were written in Forth by Jeremy Sagan (son of Carl Sagan) and the printing routines by Paul Funk (founder of Funk Software).
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Lotus 1-2-3 inspired imitators, the first of which was Mosaic Software's "The Twin", written in the fall of 1985 largely in the C language, followed by VP-Planner, which was backed by Adam Osborne. These were able to not only read 1-2-3 files, but also execute many or most macro programs by incorporating the same command structure. Copyright law had first been understood to only cover the source code of a program. After the success of lawsuits which claimed that the very "look and feel" of a program were covered, Lotus sought to ban any program which had a compatible command and menu structure. Program commands had not been considered to be covered before, but the commands of 1-2-3 were embedded in the words of the menu displayed on the screen. 1-2-3 won its case against Mosaic Software. However when they sued Borland over its Quattro Pro spreadsheet in Lotus v. Borland, the courts ruled that it was not a copyright violation to merely have a compatible command menu or language. In 1995, the First Circuit found that command menus are an uncopyrightable "method of operation" under section 102(b) of the Copyright Act. The 1-2-3 menu structure (example, slash File Erase) was itself an advanced version of single letter menus introduced in VisiCalc.
Microsoft's early spreadsheet Multiplan eventually gave way to Excel, which debuted on the Macintosh in 1985. It arrived on PCs with the release of Windows 2.x in 1987, but as Windows was not yet popular, it posed no serious threat to Lotus's stranglehold on spreadsheet sales. However, Lotus suffered technical setbacks in this period. Version 3 of Lotus 1-2-3, fully rewritten from its original macro assembler into the more portable C language, was delayed by more than a year as the totally new 1-2-3 had to be made portable across platforms and fully compatible with existing macro sets and file formats. The inability to fit the larger code size of compiled C into lower-powered machines forced the company to split its spreadsheet offerings, with 1-2-3 release 3 only for higher-end machines, and a new version 2.2, based on the 2.01 assembler code base, available for PCs without extended memory. By the time these versions were released in 1989, Microsoft was well on its way to breaking through Lotus's market share. During the early 1990s, Windows grew in popularity and along with its Excel, which gradually displaced Lotus from its leading position. A planned total revamp of 1-2-3 for Windows fell apart and all that the company could manage was a Windows adaptation of their existing spreadsheet with no changes except using a graphical interface. Additionally, several versions of 1-2-3 had different features and slightly different interfaces.
1-2-3's intended successor, Lotus Symphony, was Lotus's entry into the anticipated "integrated software" market. It intended to expand the rudimentary all-in-one 1-2-3 into a fully-fledged spreadsheet, graph, database and word processor for DOS, but none of the integrated packages ever really succeeded. 1-2-3 migrated to the Windows platform, where it remains available as part of Lotus SmartSuite.
See also 
- Darrow, Barbara (February 1, 2002), "Whatever Happened To Lotus 1-2-3?", CRN, retrieved 2007-10-31.
- "The History of Notes and Domino", Developer Works, IBM, 14 Nov 2007, retrieved 20 Dec 2005
- Campbell-Kelly, Martin (7 May 2004), Oral history interview with Jonathan Sachs, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.
- Lewis, Peter H (1988-03-13). "The Executive computer; Lotus 1-2-3 Faces Up to the Upstarts". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-10-14. "Release 3.0 is being written in the computer language known as C, to provide easy transportability among PCs, Macs and mainframes."
- Lockwood, Russ (December 1984). "Zenith Z-151; choice of U.S. Air Force and Navy". Creative Computing. p. 50. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
- Alsop, Stewart (31 January 1994). "A public Windows pane to make compatibility clearer". InfoWorld. p. 102. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
- Dvorak, John C (12 May 1986). "Springtime In Atlanta Beats Fall In Las Vegas". InfoWorld. p. 66. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
- Satchell, Stephen (27 January 1986). "The Corona ATP Is Faster Than The IBM PC AT, But It Has Flaws". InfoWorld. pp. 47, 50. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
- Mace, Scott; Sorensen, Karen (5 May 1986). "Amiga, Atari Ready PC Emulators". InfoWorld. p. 5. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
- Satchell, Stephen (14 January 1985). "AT&T 6300 Personal Computer". InfoWorld. pp. 49, 53–54. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
- "WKS File Extension – Open .WKS files", File info.
- "WK1 File Extension – Open .WK1 files", File info.
- "WK2 File Extension – Open .WK2 files", File info.
- "WK3 File Extension – Open .WK3 files", File info.
- "WK4 File Extension – Open .WK4 files", File info.
- Lotus (website), IBM.
- "Review of Lotus 123 version 1.0", Byte magazine, December 1982.
- KV Lotus (EXE) (free viewer for Lotus SmartSuite products), IBM.
- "Lotus 1-2-3", File Format Documentation, Schnarff.
- Lotus 1-2-3 V.1.00 for Mac OS (screenshots), DE: Knubbel Mac.
- Lotus SmartSuite for Windows 9.8 and fix packs (fix list), IBM.