The lotus effect refers to the very high water repellence (superhydrophobicity) exhibited by the leaves of the lotus flower (Nelumbo). Dirt particles are picked up by water droplets due to a complex micro- and nanoscopic architecture of the surface, which minimizes adhesion.
The phenomenon was first studied by Dettre and Johnson in 1964 using rough hydrophobic surfaces. Their work developed a theoretical model based on experiments with glass beads coated with paraffin or PTFE telomer. The self-cleaning property of superhydrophobic micro-nanostructured surfaces was studied by Barthlott and Ehler in 1977, and perfluoroalkyl and perfluoropolyether superhydrophobic materials were developed by Brown in 1986 for handling chemical and biological fluids. Other biotechnical applications have emerged since the 1990s.
Functional principle 
Due to their high surface tension, water droplets tend to minimize their surface by trying to achieve a spherical shape. On contact with a surface, adhesion forces result in wetting of the surface. Either complete or incomplete wetting may occur depending on the structure of the surface and the fluid tension of the droplet. The cause of self-cleaning properties is the hydrophobic water-repellent double structure of the surface. This enables the contact area and the adhesion force between surface and droplet to be significantly reduced resulting in a self-cleaning process. This hierarchical double structure is formed out of a characteristic epidermis (its outermost layer called the cuticle) and the covering waxes. The epidermis of the lotus plant possesses papillae with 10 to 20 µm in height and 10 to 15 µm in width on which the so-called epicuticular waxes are imposed. These superimposed waxes are hydrophobic and form the second layer of the double structure.
The hydrophobicity of a surface is related to[clarification needed] its contact angle. The higher the contact angle the higher the hydrophobicity of a surface. Surfaces with a contact angle < 90° are referred to as hydrophilic and those with an angle >90° as hydrophobic. Some plants show contact angles up to 160° and are called super-hydrophobic meaning that only 2–3% of a drop's surface is in contact. Plants with a double structured surface like the lotus can reach a contact angle of 170° whereas a droplet's actual contact area is only 0.6%. All this leads to a self-cleaning effect.
Dirt particles with an extremely reduced contact area are picked up by water droplets and are thus easily cleaned off the surface. If a water droplet rolls across such a contaminated surface the adhesion between the dirt particle, irrespective of its chemistry, and the droplet is higher than between the particle and the surface. As this self-cleaning effect is based on the high surface tension of water it does not work with organic solvents. Therefore, the lotus-effect is no protection against graffiti.
This effect is of a great importance for plants as a protection against pathogens like fungi or algae growth, and also for animals like butterflies, dragonflies and other insects not able to cleanse all their body parts. Another positive effect of self-cleaning is the prevention of contamination of the area of a plant surface exposed to light resulting in a reduced photosynthesis.
Technical application 
Some nanotechnologists have developed treatments, coatings, paints, roof tiles, fabrics and other surfaces that can stay dry and clean themselves in the same way as the lotus leaf. This can usually be achieved using special fluorochemical or silicone treatments on structured surfaces or with compositions containing micro-scale particulates. Super-hydrophobic coatings comprising Teflon microparticles have been used on medical diagnostic slides for over 30 years. It is possible to achieve such effects by using combinations of polyethylene glycol with glucose and sucrose (or any insoluble particulate) in conjunction with a hydrophobic substance.
As self-cleaning of superhydrophobic microscopic to nanoscopic surfaces is based on a purely physio-chemical effect it can be transferred onto technical surfaces on a biomimetic basis. One example of the products with superhydrophobic self-cleaning properties is the facade paint Lotusan.
Further applications have been marketed, such as self-cleaning glasses installed in the sensors of traffic control units on German autobahns developed by a cooperation partner (Ferro GmbH). Evonik AG has developed a spray for generating self-cleaning films on various substrata. Lotus effect superhydrophobic coatings applied to microwave antennas can significantly reduce rain fade and the buildup of ice and snow. "Easy to clean" products in ads are often mistaken in the name of the self-cleaning process of the lotus-effect. Patterned superhydrophobic surfaces also show promise for "lab-on-a-chip" microfluidic devices and can greatly improve surface-based bioanalysis.
Research history 
Although the self-cleaning phenomenon of the lotus was possibly known in Asia long before (reference to the lotus effect is found in the Bhagavad Gita) its mechanism was explained only in the early 1970s after the introduction of the scanning electron microscope. Studies were performed with leaves of Tropaeolum and lotus (Nelumbo). By the mid 1990s, Wilhelm Barthlott developed industrial products and trademarked the principle as the Lotus-Effect.
See also 
- Lafuma, A.; Quere, D. (2003). "Superhydrophobic states". Nature Materials 2 (7): 457–460. Bibcode:2003NatMa...2..457L. doi:10.1038/nmat924. PMID 12819775.
- Barthlott, Wilhelm; Ehler, N. (1977). "Raster-Elektronenmikroskopie der Epidermis-Oberflächen von Spermatophyten". Tropische und subtropische Pflanzenwelt (Akad. Wiss. Lit. Mainz) 19: 110.
- Brown Laboratory vessel having hydrophobic coating and process for manufacturing same U.S. Patent 5,853,894, Issued December 29, 1998
- Barthlott, Wilhelm; C. Neinhuis (1997). "The purity of sacred lotus or escape from contamination in biological surfaces". Planta 202: 1–8. doi:10.1007/s004250050096.
- Cheng, Y. T., Rodak, D. E. (2005). "Is the lotus leaf superhydrophobic?". Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 (14): 144101. Bibcode:2005ApPhL..86n4101C. doi:10.1063/1.1895487.
- Narhe, R. D., Beysens, D. A. (2006). "Water condensation on a super-hydrophobic spike surface". Europhys. Lett. 75 (1): 98–104. Bibcode:2006EL.....75...98N. doi:10.1209/epl/i2006-10069-9.
- Lai, S.C.S. "Mimicking nature: Physical basis and artificial synthesis of the Lotus effect".
- Koch, K.; Bhushan, B. & Barthlott, W. (2008). "Diversity of structure, Morphology and Wetting of Plant Surfaces. Soft matter". Soft Matter 4 (10): 1943. Bibcode:2008SMat....4.1943K. doi:10.1039/b804854a.
- von Baeyer, H. C. (2000). "The Lotus Effect". The Sciences 40: 12–15.
- Neinhuis, C.; Barthlott, W. (1997). "Characterization and distribution of water-repellent, self-cleaning plant surfaces". Annals of Botany 79 (6): 667–677. doi:10.1006/anbo.1997.0400.
- Barthlott, Wilhelm; Neinhuis, C. (2001). "The lotus-effect: nature's model for self cleaning surfaces". International Textile Bulletin 1: 8–12.
- Forbes, P. (2005). The Gecko's Foot, Bio-inspiration – Engineering New Materials and devices from Nature. London: Fourth Estate. p. 272. ISBN 0-00-717990-1.
- Forbes, P. (2008). "Self-Cleaning Materials". Scientific American 299 (2): 67–75.
- Solga, A.; Cerman, Z., Striffler, B. F., Spaeth, M. & Barthlott, W. (2007). "The dream of staying clean: Lotus and biomimetic surfaces". Bioinspiration & Biomimetics 2: 1–9.
- Mueller, T. (April 2008). "Biomimetics, Design by Nature". National Geographic Magazine: 68.
- Guo, Z.; Zhou, F., Hao, J., Liu, W. (2005). "Stable Biomimetic Super-Hydrophobic Engineering Materials". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127 (45): 15670–15671. doi:10.1021/ja0547836. PMID 16277486.
- Lotusan webpage
- Ressine, A.; Marko-Varga, G., Laurell, T. (2007). "Porous silicon protein microarray technology and ultra-/superhydrophobic states for improved bioanalytical readout". Biotechnology Annual Review. Biotechnology Annual Review 13: 149–200. doi:10.1016/S1387-2656(07)13007-6. ISBN 978-0-444-53032-5. PMID 17875477.
- Bhagavad Gita 5.10
- Also registered trademark No. 4790998 of Wilhelm Barthlott in Japan since 30 July 2004.
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