Loughinisland massacre

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Loughinisland massacre
Part of The Troubles
Loughinisland - geograph.org.uk - 199475.jpg
The Heights Bar (white building)
Location The Heights Bar, Loughinisland, County Down, Northern Ireland
Coordinates 54°20′17″N 5°49′30″W / 54.33806°N 5.82500°W / 54.33806; -5.82500Coordinates: 54°20′17″N 5°49′30″W / 54.33806°N 5.82500°W / 54.33806; -5.82500
Date 18 June 1994
10:10pm (GMT)
Attack type
Mass shooting
Weapons Assault rifles
Deaths 6 civilians
Non-fatal injuries
5 civilians
Perpetrator Ulster Volunteer Force

The Loughinisland massacre[1][2][3][4] took place on 18 June 1994 in the small village of Loughinisland, County Down, Northern Ireland. Members of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), a loyalist paramilitary group, burst into a pub with assault rifles and fired on the customers,[5] killing six civilians and wounding five. The pub was targeted because it was frequented mainly by Catholics,[6] and was crowded with people watching Ireland playing in the football World Cup.[6] It is thus sometimes called the World Cup massacre.[7][8][9] The attack was claimed as retaliation for the killing of three UVF members by the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA).

Allegations persist that police (Royal Ulster Constabulary) double agents or informers were linked to the massacre and that police protected those informers by destroying evidence and failing to carry out a proper investigation.[10]

At the request of the victims' families, the Police Ombudsman investigated the police. The Ombudsman concluded that there were major failings in the police investigation, but no evidence that police colluded with the UVF. However, the Ombudsman did not investigate the role of informers and the report was branded a whitewash. Ombudsman investigators demanded to be disassociated from the report because their original findings "were dramatically altered without reason", and they believed key intelligence had been deliberately withheld from them. This led to the report being quashed, the Ombudsman being replaced and a new inquiry ordered.[11]

Background[edit]

The UVF's goal was to combat Irish republicanism – particularly the Provisional IRA – and maintain Northern Ireland's status as part of the United Kingdom.[12] However, most of its victims were Irish Catholic civilians, who were often killed at random.[13] Whenever it claimed responsibility for attacks, the UVF usually claimed that those targeted were IRA members or were helping the IRA.[14] Other times, attacks on Catholic civilians were claimed as "retaliation" for IRA actions, since the IRA drew most of its support from the Catholic community.[15] Since the mid 1960s the UVF had carried out many gun and bomb attacks on Catholic-owned pubs and there had been many incidents of collusion between the UVF and members of the state security forces. During the early 1990s, loyalists drastically increased their attacks on the Catholic and Irish nationalist community and – for the first time since the conflict began – were responsible for more deaths than republicans.[16][17]

On 16 June 1994, the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) shot dead three UVF members – Trevor King, Colin Craig and David Hamilton – on the Shankill Road in Belfast.[18] The following day, the UVF launched two 'retaliatory' attacks. In the first, UVF members shot dead a Catholic civilian taxi driver in Carrickfergus.[18] In the second, they shot dead two Protestant civilians in Newtownabbey, whom they believed were Catholics.[18] The Loughinisland massacre, a day later, is believed to have been a further retaliation.[1]

Attack on The Heights Bar[edit]

The pub in 2009

On the evening of 18 June 1994, about 24 people[6][19] were gathered in The Heights bar and lounge watching the Republic of Ireland vs Italy in the football World Cup.[5]

At 10:10pm, two UVF members wearing boiler suits and balaclavas walked into the bar and opened fire on the crowd with assault rifles, spraying the small room with more than sixty bullets.[20] Six men were killed outright,[5][18] and five other people were wounded. Witnesses said the gunmen then ran to a getaway car, "laughing".[5][20] One described "bodies … lying piled on top of each other on the floor".[20] The dead were Adrian Rogan (34), Malcolm Jenkinson (52), Barney Greene (87), Daniel McCreanor (59), Patrick O'Hare (35) and Eamon Byrne (39), all Catholic civilians.[18] O'Hare was the brother-in-law of Eamon Byrne and Greene was one of the oldest people to be killed during the Troubles.[5][21]

The UVF claimed responsibility within hours of the attack. It claimed that an Irish republican meeting was being held in the pub and that the shooting was retaliation for the INLA attack.[22] However, police said there is no evidence that The Heights Bar had any links to republican paramilitary activity.[22] Journalist Peter Taylor suggested in his book Loyalists that it was not entirely certain that the UVF Brigade Staff (Belfast leadership) had sanctioned the attack, and that it was instead carried out by a local UVF unit. In the event of an "enemy" attack, these UVF units were given freedom to retaliate against what they deemed to be appropriate targets. An unnamed UVF member told Taylor that the UVF believed IRA members would be in the pub that evening.[23] The Brigade Staff later assured Progressive Unionist Party (PUP) leader David Ervine that there would never again be another attack such as Loughinisland.[23]

The attack received international media coverage and was widely condemned. Among those who sent messages of sympathy were Pope John Paul II, Queen Elizabeth II and US President Bill Clinton. Local Protestant families visited their wounded neighbours in hospital, expressing their shock and disgust.[20]

Provisional IRA response[edit]

The massacre ultimately led to a temporary return to tit-for-tat violence.[24] The following month, the IRA shot dead three high-ranking members of the Ulster Defence Association (UDA) – the other main loyalist paramilitary group alongside the UVF. It is claimed this was retaliation for the Loughinisland massacre.[25][26][27] The IRA stated that the men were directing the UDA's campaign of violence against the Catholic community.[28]

On 11 July the IRA shot dead Ray Smallwoods, a member of the UDA's Inner Council and spokesman of its political wing. Six days later, UDA gunmen tried to repeat the Loughinisland massacre when they attacked the Hawthorn Inn at nearby Annaclone. About 40 people were inside watching the football World Cup final. The pub's thick doors had been locked and so the gunmen instead fired through the windows, wounding seven people.[29] On 31 July, the IRA shot dead UDA commander Joe Bratty and his right-hand man Raymond Elder.[30]

Investigation and campaign by victims' families[edit]

The morning after the attack, the getaway car—a red Triumph Acclaim—was found abandoned in a field near Crossgar.[31] On 4 August, one of the vz. 58 rifles used in the attack was found hidden at a bridge near Saintfield along with a holdall containing boiler suits, balaclavas, gloves, three handguns and ammunition.[32]

In 2006, following claims that "an RUC agent" had supplied the getaway car to the gunmen, the victims' families lodged an official complaint about the investigation with the Police Ombudsman. The complaint included allegations "that the investigation had not been efficiently or properly carried out; no earnest effort was made to identify those responsible; and there were suspicions of state collusion in the murders". It was alleged that police agents or informers within the UVF were linked to the attack, and that the police's investigation was hindered by its desire to protect those informers. The victims' families also alleged that the police had failed to keep in contact with them about the investigation, even about significant developments.[33]

It was revealed that police had ordered the destruction of key evidence and documents. The car had been disposed of in April 1995, ten months into the investigation.[34] In 1998, police documents related to the investigation were destroyed at Gough Barracks RUC station, allegedly because of fears they were contaminated by asbestos. It is believed they included the original notes, made during interviews of suspects in 1994 and 1995.[35] A hair follicle had been recovered from the car but nobody had yet been charged, while the other items (balaclavas, gloves, etc.) had not been subjected to the advances in forensic science.[36] It was alleged that the rifle used in the attack had been part of a shipment smuggled into Northern Ireland for loyalists by British agent Brian Nelson.[37]

A key eyewitness claimed she gave police a description of the getaway driver within hours of the massacre, but that police failed to record important information she gave them and never asked her to identify suspects. A serving policeman later gave the woman's personal details to a relative of the suspected getaway driver. Police then visited her and advised her to increase her security for fear she could be shot.[38]

The Office of the Police Ombudsman, which investigated the police over the massacre

In 2008 it was revealed that, since the shootings, up to 20 people had been arrested for questioning but none had ever been charged.[39] In January 2010 a reserve Police Service of Northern Ireland officer (formerly an RUC officer) was arrested by detectives from the Police Ombudsman's Office and questioned over "perverting the course of justice" and "aiding the killers' escape".[40][41] Later that year, the Public Prosecution Service (PPS) concluded there wasn't enough evidence to prosecute. In reply, the Ombudsman's Office said it would consider disciplinary action against the officer.[41]

Police Ombudsman's report and aftermath[edit]

In September 2009 it was revealed that a Police Ombudsman's report on the killings was to be published on 15 September.[10] At the same time, some details of the report were made known. Police sources said the report will expose the role of four RUC informers in "ordering or organising" the attack.[10] The report was also said to highlight a series of major failings in the police investigation – including that not enough effort was made to identify those responsible, that police failed to speak to people of interest, that key evidence was destroyed and that there was poor record management.[36] However, shortly after these revelations, the Ombudsman postponed publication of the report as "new evidence" had emerged.[10]

The Ombudsman's report was finally published on 24 June 2011. It said that the police investigation had lacked "diligence, focus and leadership"; that there were failings in record management; that significant lines of enquiry were not identified; and that police failed to communicate effectively with the victims' families. However, it said that there was "insufficient evidence of collusion" and "no evidence that police could have prevented the attack". The report was harshly criticized for not investigating the role of RUC informers inside the UVF.[42] Social Democratic and Labour Party leader Margaret Ritchie said the findings were flawed and contrary "to a mountain of evidence of collusion". She added: "It completely lets down the victims' families and the wider community. Al Hutchinson paints a picture of an incompetent keystone cops type of police force when the reality was that the RUC and Special Branch were rotten to the core".[43] Niall Murphy, the solicitor for the victims' relatives, described the report's findings as "timid, mild and meek". He added: "The ombudsman has performed factual gymnastics to ensure there was no evidence of collusion in his conclusion". The relatives stated that they believe the report proves police colluded with those involved and made "no real attempt to catch the killers".[44]

After the report's publication, there were calls for Al Hutchinson to resign, and the victims' families began a High Court challenge to have the report's findings quashed.[45] In September 2011, the Criminal Justice Inspectorate (CJI) criticized Hutchinson and recommended that the Ombudsman's Office be suspended from investigating historic murders because its independence had been compromised. CJI inspectors found "major inconsistencies" in the Ombudsman's report. Ombudsman investigators had demanded to be disassociated from the report because their original findings "were dramatically altered without reason". Ombudsman investigators also believed that key intelligence had been deliberately withheld from them.[46] In 2012, Belfast High Court quashed the report's findings and Hutchinson was replaced by Michael Maguire, who ordered a new inquiry into the massacre.[11]

Commemoration[edit]

On the 18th anniversary of the attack, the Republic of Ireland football team again played Italy – this time in the Euro 2012 at Poznań, Poland. The Irish team wore black armbands during the match, to commemorate those killed while watching the same teams playing 18 years before. The idea was proposed by the Football Association of Ireland (FAI) and backed by UEFA. Some prominent loyalists berated the move. South Belfast UDA brigadier Jackie McDonald said that it was "bringing politics into sport" and would lead to "dire repercussions" for football. Another leading loyalist, Winston Churchill Rea, also raised concerns about the tribute.[47] However, the victims' families fully supported the gesture.[47]

On 29 April 2014, ESPN, as part of their 30 for 30 series, broadcast a documentary about the shootings, named "Ceasefire Massacre".[48]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b O'Brien, Brendan. The Long War: The IRA and Sinn Féin. Syracuse University Press, 1999. Page 314.
  2. ^ Elliott, Sydney. Conflict in Northern Ireland: an encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, 1999. Page 350.
  3. ^ Sluka, Jeffry. Death Squad: The Anthropology of State Terror. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000. Page 141.
  4. ^ Cusack, Jim. UVF. Poolbeg, 1997. Page 317.
  5. ^ a b c d e "The UVF's catalogue of atrocities". BBC News. 18 June 2009.
  6. ^ a b c The Economist newspaper. 25 June 1994. Pages 25-26. "For the 24 fans gathered in Heights Bar in the quiet village of Loughinisland in County Down, the cheering was followed by carnage. Two men walked into the pub and sprayed the room with bullets, killing six and wounding five, and then fled laughing. The Ulster Volunteer Force, a Protestant terrorist group, later claimed it had carried out the attack. It chose the pub only because it knew that those gathered to support Ireland's team would be Catholic".
  7. ^ Duggan, Keith. "Six men dead: the World Cup massacre". The Irish Times. 14 June 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
  8. ^ "Six shot dead in Ulster World Cup massacre". The Independent. 19 June 1994.
  9. ^ "1994 World Cup massacre of Irish fans by Loyalists will be major ESPN movie". IrishCentral. 12 January 2014.
  10. ^ a b c d "RUC informers 'knew about Loughinisland shootings'". The Observer. 13 September 2009.
  11. ^ a b "Loughinisland massacre: Court quashes Police Ombudsman report". BBC News, 20 December 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  12. ^ Country Reports on Terrorism: 2004. State Department, Office of the Coordinator for Conterterrorism. p.128
  13. ^ David McKittrick (12 March 2009). "Will loyalists seek bloody revenge?". The Independent. Retrieved 21 June 2011. 
  14. ^ Kentucky New Era, 14 April 1992
  15. ^ Mitchell, Thomas G (2000). "Chapter 7 subsection: The Loyalist terrorists of Ulster, 1969–94". Native vs. Settler. Greenwood Press. pp. 154–165. 
  16. ^ "Johnny Adair: Feared Loyalist Leader". BBC News, 6 July 2000. Retrieved on 27 February 2007.
  17. ^ Clayton, Pamela (1996). Enemies and Passing Friends: Settler ideologies in twentieth-century Ulster. Pluto Press. p. 156. "More recently, the resurgence in loyalist violence that led to their carrying out more killings than republicans from the beginning of 1992 until their ceasefire (a fact widely reported in Northern Ireland) was still described as following 'the IRA's well-tested tactic of trying to usurp the political process by violence'…" 
  18. ^ a b c d e "Sutton Index of Deaths, 1994". Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). Retrieved 19 February 2010. 
  19. ^ "Loughinisland suspect is detained in England". Belfast Newsletter. 1 July 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2010. 
  20. ^ a b c d McKittrick, David. Lost Lives: The Stories of the Men, Women and Children who Died as a Result of the Northern Ireland Troubles. Random House, 2001. p.1367
  21. ^ "Pair held over murders released". BBC News. 6 June 2006. Retrieved 23 January 2010. 
  22. ^ a b Police Ombudsman's report. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2013. p.11
  23. ^ a b Taylor, Peter (1999). Loyalists. London: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. p.230
  24. ^ McDonald and Cusack, pp. 259-70
  25. ^ H. McDonald & J. Cusack (2004) UDA –Inside the Heart of Loyalist Terror, Dublin, Penguin Ireland, p. 269
  26. ^ Brian Feeney,Sinn Féin: A Hundred Turbulent Years, Dublin: O'Brien Press, 2002, pp. 406-407
  27. ^ Biblio Country Reports, Issue 3. Commission of the European Communities. Library (Brussels, Belgium), p. 44
  28. ^ McDonald & Cusack, p. 313
  29. ^ "Publican averted Ulster massacre". The Independent. 19 July 1994.
  30. ^ A Draft Chronology of the Conflict - 1994
  31. ^ Police Ombudsman's report. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2013. p.3
  32. ^ Police Ombudsman's report. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2013. p.20
  33. ^ Police Ombudsman's report. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2013. pp.4-5
  34. ^ Police Ombudsman's report. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2013. p.17
  35. ^ Police Ombudsman's report. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2013. p.28
  36. ^ a b "Police Ombudsman postpones Loughinisland murders report". The Irish Times. 11 September 2009. Retrieved 23 January 2010. 
  37. ^ Police Ombudsman's report. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2013. p.21
  38. ^ "'Police ignored my evidence' says Loughinisland eyewitness". The Detail. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  39. ^ "Loughinisland investigation sees questioned man freed". Down Democrat. 9 July 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2010. 
  40. ^ "Officer arrested over Loughinisland misconduct probe". BBC News. 23 January 2010. Retrieved 23 January 2010. 
  41. ^ a b "Loughinisland officer could face disciplinary action". BBC News. 24 November 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  42. ^ "Where was Special Branch in Loughinisland massacre?". The Detail. 24 June 2011.
  43. ^ "Margaret Ritchie wants ombudsman Hutchinson resignation". BBC News. 24 June 2011.
  44. ^ "Loughinisland report: families devastated by findings". BBC News. 24 June 2011.
  45. ^ "Legal move in Loughinisland court case". BBC News. 20 February 2012.
  46. ^ "Police Ombudsman opening new investigation into Loughinisland". The Detail. 19 December 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  47. ^ a b "Ireland's Euro 2012 armband match tribute to UVF massacre victims slammed". Belfast Telegraph. Brian Rowan. 14 June 2012 Retrieved 19 June 2012
  48. ^ http://espn.go.com/30for30/film?page=ceasefiremassacre