Louis Buchalter

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Louis Buchalter
Louis Buchalter.jpg
Louis "Lepke" Buchalter in 1939
Born (1897-02-06)February 6, 1897
Manhattan, New York City, New York
Died March 4, 1944(1944-03-04) (aged 47)
Sing Sing Prison, New York, United States
Nationality American
Occupation Hitman, racketeer, bootlegger, extortionist
Criminal penalty
Death
Spouse(s) Betty Buchalter
Conviction(s) Breaking and entering, narcotics trafficking, racketeering, murder

Louis "Lepke" Buchalter (February 6, 1897 – March 4, 1944) was an American mobster and head of the Mafia hit squad Murder, Inc. during the 1930s. Buchalter was one of the premier labor racketeers in New York City during that era.

Buchalter became the only major mob boss to receive the death penalty in the United States after being convicted of murder.[1]

Background[edit]

Buchalter was born in the Lower East Side section of Manhattan in February 1897. His mother, Rose Buchalter, called him "Lepkeleh" ("Little Louis" in Yiddish), which later became "Lepke". Louis Buchalter had one sister and three brothers; one brother eventually became a dentist, another brother a college professor and rabbi, and the third brother a pharmacist.[2] His father, Barnett Buchalter, was a Russian immigrant who operated a hardware store on the Lower East Side.[3]

In 1909, when Buchalter was 12, his father died. In 1910, Buchalter finished elementary school and started a job selling theatrical goods. Soon after, his mother moved to Arizona for health reasons, leaving Buchalter in the care of his sister Sarah. However, Buchalter was beyond her control.[4]

On September 2, 1915, Buchalter was arrested in New York for the first time for burglary and assault, but the case was discharged.[5] When arrested as a child for breaking and entering, he was wearing stolen shoes, both for the same foot and an unmatched pair.

In late 1915 or early 1916, Buchalter went to live with his uncle in Bridgeport, Connecticut.[4] On February 29, 1916, Lepke was arrested in Bridgeport on burglary charges and was sent to the Cheshire Reformatory for juvenile offenders in Cheshire, Connecticut until July 12, 1917.[4] After a dispute with his uncle over wages, Buchalter moved back to New York City.

On September 28, 1917, Buchalter was sentenced in New York to 18 months in state prison at Sing Sing in Ossinning, New York, on a grand larceny conviction.[5] After a transfer to Auburn Prison in Auburn, New York, Buchalter was released on January 27, 1919.[6] On January 22, 1920, Buchalter returned to Sing Sing on a 30 month sentence for attempted burglary.[5] He was released on March 16, 1922[6]

Rise to power[edit]

Upon Buchalter's 1922 release from prison, he started working with his childhood friend, mobster Jacob "Gurrah" Shapiro. Through force and fear, they began gaining control of the garment industry unions. Buchalter then used the unions to threaten strikes and demand weekly payments from factory owners while dipping into union bank accounts.[citation needed] Buchalter's control of the unions evolved into a protection racket, extending into areas such as bakery trucking. The unions were profitable for him and he kept a hold over them even after becoming an important figure in organized crime. Buchalter later formed an alliance with Tommy Lucchese, a leader of the Lucchese crime family, and together they controlled the garment district.[7]

Buchalter and Shapiro moved into new and fashionable luxury buildings on Eastern Parkway (135) with family who were active synagogue goers (Union Temple and Kol Israel Synagogue of Brooklyn). In later years, Buchalter and his family lived in a penthouse in the exclusive Central Park West section of Manhattan.[8]

In 1927, Buchalter and Shapiro were arrested for the attempted murder of bootlegger Jack Diamond, a criminal rival. However, the charges were later dropped due to a lack of evidence.[5]

Buchalter was a quiet man who for years managed to avoid the public spotlight. In conversations with his criminal associates, Buchalter preferred listening over talking. Buchalter generously compensated his gang members and took them to hockey games, boxing matches, and even winter cruises.[9] On August 20, 1931, Buchalter married Betty Wasserman, a British-born widow of Russian descent, at New York City Hall.[10] Buchalter adopted Betty's child from her previous marriage.[11]

Murder, Inc.[edit]

A November 1937 FBI wanted poster for Buchalter and Shapiro.

In the early 1930s, Buchalter created an effective process for performing contract killings for Cosa Nostra mobsters; it had no name, but the press 10 years later called it Murder, Inc. The Cosa Nostra mobsters wanted to insulate themselves from any connection to these murders. Buchalter's partner, mobster Albert Anastasia, would relay a contract request from the Cosa Nostra to Buchalter. In turn, Buchalter would assign the job to Jewish and Italian street gang members from Brooklyn.

None of these contract killers had any connections with the major crime families. If they were caught, they could not implicate their Cosa Nostra employers in the crimes. Buchalter used the same killers for his own murder contracts also. The Murder Inc. killers were soon completing jobs all over the country for their mobster bosses[12]

In 1935, Buchalter arranged his most significant murder: the powerful New York gangster Dutch Schultz. Schultz had proposed to the newly created National Crime Syndicate, a confederation of mobsters, that New York District Attorney Thomas Dewey be murdered. Many Syndicate members hated Dewey, but they denied Schultz's request. An enraged Schultz said he would kill Dewey anyway and walked out of the meeting. The remaining attendees decided to murder Schultz instead and assigned the job to Buchalter.[13] On October 23, 1935, Schultz was shot and killed in a Newark, New Jersey tavern.[14] In 1941, Buchalter killer Charles Workman was charged in the Schultz murder.[15]

In 1935, law enforcement estimated that Buchalter and Shapiro had 250 men working for them, and that Buchalter was grossing over $1 million ($17,000,000 in current dollar terms) per year. They controlled rackets in the trucking, baking, and garment industries throughout New York.[5]

Downfall[edit]

On September 13, 1936, Murder Inc. killers, acting on Buchalter's orders,[1] gunned down Joseph Rosen, a Brooklyn candy store owner. Rosen was a former garment industry trucker whose union Buchalter took over in exchange for ownership of the candy store.[1] Rosen had aroused Buchalter's ire by failing to heed warnings to leave town. Although no proof exists that Rosen was cooperating with District Attorney Thomas Dewey, Buchalter nevertheless believed it to be true.[1] At the time, no one was indicted in the Rosen murder.

On November 8, 1936, Buchalter and Shapiro were convicted of violating federal anti-trust laws in the rabbit-skin fur industry in New York.[16] While out on bail, both Buchalter and Shapiro disappeared. On November 13, both men were sentenced while absent to two years in federal prison.[17] The two appealed the verdict, but in June 1937, both convictions were upheld.[18]

Manhunt[edit]

Before they could be taken into custody, both Buchalter and Shapiro disappeared. On November 9, 1937, the federal government offered a $5,000 reward for information leading to his capture.[19]

On December 1, 1937, the fugitive Buchalter was indicted in federal court on conspiracy to smuggle heroin into the United States. The scheme involved heroin hidden in the trunks of young women and couples traveling by ocean liner from China to France, then to the port of New York. Lepke bribed U.S. customs agents not to inspect the trunks.[20]

On April 14, 1938, Shapiro surrendered to authorities in New York.[18] However, Buchalter remained a fugitive.

Over the next two years, an extensive manhunt was conducted in both the United States and Europe, with reports of Buchalter hiding in Poland and Palestine. On July 29, 1939, Thomas Dewey requested that the City of New York offer a $25,000 reward for Buchalter's capture, citing a string of unsolved gangland murders.[21] On August 24, 1939, Buchalter surrendered to FBI chief J. Edgar Hoover in front of a Manhattan hotel. The surrender deal was allegedly negotiated by the columnist and radio broadcaster Walter Winchell.[22] It was later revealed that Buchalter had been hiding in New York City during his entire time as a fugitive.[4]

After Buchalter was convicted on the federal narcotics trafficking charges, federal authorities turned him over to New York State for trial on labor extortion charges. On April 5, 1940, Buchalter was sentenced to 30 years to life in state prison on those charges. However, Buchalter was sent to Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary in Kansas to serve his federal sentence of 14 years for narcotics trafficking.[4]

On August 20, 1940, Buchalter was indicted on murder charges in Los Angeles for the killing of Harry Greenberg, a mob associate of casino owner Meyer Lansky and mobster Bugsy Siegel.[23] However, Buchalter never went to trial on this killing.

Murder trial[edit]

On May 9, 1941, Buchalter was arraigned in New York state court on the 1936 Rosen murder along with three other murders.[24] Buchalter's order for the Rosen hit had been overheard by mobster Abe Reles, who turned state's evidence in 1940 and implicated Buchalter in four murders. Returned from Leavenworth to Brooklyn to stand trial for the Rosen slaying, Buchalter's position was worsened by the testimony of Albert Tannenbaum. Four hours into deliberation, at 2 am on November 30, 1941, the jury found Buchalter guilty of first degree murder.[8] On December 2, 1941, Lepke was sentenced to death along with his lieutenants Emanuel "Mendy" Weiss and Louis Capone.[25] Buchalter's lawyers immediately filed an appeal.

Buchalter during his sentencing

In October 1942, the New York Court of Appeals voted four to three to uphold Buchalter's conviction and death sentence. (People v. Buchalter, 289 N.Y. 181) Two dissenting judges thought the evidence was so weak that errors in the judge's instructions to the jury as to how to evaluate certain testimony were harmful enough to require a re-trial. The third dissenter agreed, but added that, in his opinion, there was insufficient evidence to sustain a guilty verdict, so the indictment should be dismissed altogether (failure of proof means no retrial). Buchalter's lawyers now appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court.

The United States Supreme Court granted Buchalter's petition to review the case. In 1943, the Court affirmed the Buchalter conviction seven to zero, with two justices abstaining. (319 U.S. 427 (1943)). His appeals were now exhausted.

Execution[edit]

When the US Supreme Court confirmed Buchalter's conviction, he was serving his racketeering sentence at Leavenworth Federal Prison. New York State authorities demanded that the federal government turn over Buchalter for execution. On January 21, 1944, after many delays and much controversy, federal agents finally turned Buchalter over to state authorities, who immediately transported him to Sing Sing prison.[26] Buchalter made several pleas for mercy, but they were rejected.

On March 4, 1944, Louis Buchalter was executed in the electric chair in Sing Sing.[27] He had no final words. A few minutes before Buchalter's execution, his lieutenants Weiss and Capone were also executed.

Louis Buchalter was buried at the Mount Hebron Cemetery in Flushing, Queens.[28]

In popular culture[edit]

During the late 1950s and early 1960s, Buchalter was portrayed by David J. Stewart in the 1960 film Murder Inc.,[29] Gene Roth and Joseph Ruskin in the The Untouchables television series of 1959, as well as by John Vivyan and Shepherd Sanders in The Lawless Years television series.

The 1975 film Lepke, starring Tony Curtis, was based on Buchalter's life.[30] Other portrayals include the 1981 film Gangster Wars by Ron Max. Buchalter was also mentioned in "The Legend of Tennessee Moltisanti", episode eight of the first season of the popular HBO television series The Sopranos.

The poet Robert Lowell encountered Buchalter in prison during the 1940s, when Lowell was incarcerated for being a conscientious objector. Lowell described Buchalter (whom he calls "Czar Lepke") in his poem "Memories of West Street and Lepke", published in his book Life Studies (1959).[31]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d http://www.NYCGangland.com
  2. ^ "Lepke sentenced to 30 years to life". New York Times. April 6, 1940. Retrieved 9 June 2013. 
  3. ^ "Louis Lepke Buchalter Part 1". FBI Records: The Vault. Retrieved 7 July 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d e "Lepke surrenders to FBI". New York Times. August 25, 1939. Retrieved 8 June 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "$2,000,000 racket aim of Dewey raid". New York Times. October 16, 1935. Retrieved 7 June 2013. 
  6. ^ a b "FBI Records: The Vault". Louis Lepke Buchalter. Retrieved 7 July 2013. 
  7. ^ Ryan, p.118
  8. ^ a b "Lepke convicted with two aides; all face death". New York Times. November 30, 1941. Retrieved 9 June 2013. 
  9. ^ "Lepke a gang leader who liked his privacy". New York Times. August 13, 1939. Retrieved 18 August 2013. 
  10. ^ "Louis Lepke Buchalter". FBI Records - the Vault. Retrieved 7 July 2013. 
  11. ^ "Louis Lepke Buchalter Part 2". FBI Records: The Vault. Retrieved 7 July 2013. 
  12. ^ The Five Families. MacMillan. Retrieved 2008-06-22. 
  13. ^ Gribben, Mark. "Murder, Inc.: Dutch gets his". Crime Library. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  14. ^ "Schultz is shot, one aide killed, and 3 wounded". New York Times. October 24, 1935. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  15. ^ "Schultz murder laid to Lepke aide". New York Times. March 28, 1941. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  16. ^ "Dewey hails verdict in fur racket case". New York Times. November 9, 1936. Retrieved 7 June 2013. 
  17. ^ "Lepke and Gurrah get 2year terms". New York Times. November 13, 1936. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
  18. ^ a b "Jacob (Gurrah Jake) Shapiro gives up here after eluding worldwide hunt for a year". New York Times. April 15, 1938. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  19. ^ "Reward is offered for Lepke, Gurrah". New York Times. November 9, 1937. Retrieved 9 June 2013. 
  20. ^ "Three customs men held in Lepke narcotics plot". New York Times. December 1, 1937. Retrieved 9 June 2013. 
  21. ^ "$25,000 for Lepke dead or alive now planned by Dewey". July 29, 1939. Retrieved 9 June 2013. 
  22. ^ ROTHSTEIN, MERVYN (June 12, 1990). "That Loathsome Winchell. A Natural for a Book.". New York Times. Retrieved 9 June 2013. 
  23. ^ "Lepke is indicted in coast slaying". New York Times. August 21, 1940. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  24. ^ "Lepke arraigned on murder charges". New York Times. May 10, 1941. Retrieved 9 June 2013. 
  25. ^ "Lepke and two aide sentenced to die". New York Times. December 3, 1941. Retrieved 9 June 2013. 
  26. ^ "Lepke is turned over to state". New York Times. January 22, 1944. Retrieved 8 June 2013. 
  27. ^ "Lepke, Pals Die In Chair At Sing Sing". Associated Press. March 5, 1944. Retrieved 2012-08-18. "Director Louis lepke Buchalter of million-dollar rackets in extortion, vice, labor intimidation and murder died in New York State's electric chair tonight. ..." 
  28. ^ "Louis "Lepke" Buchalter". Find-a-Grave. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  29. ^ "Murder, Inc.". IMdB. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  30. ^ "Lepke (19750". TMC (Turner Classic Movies). Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  31. ^ Lowell, Robert Memories of West Street and Lepke

Further reading[edit]

  • Ryan, Patrick J. Organized crime: a reference handbook. ABC-CLIO, 1995. ISBN 0874367468
  • Nash, Arthur. New York City Gangland. Arcadia, 2010. ISBN 0738573140
  • Messick, Hank. Lansky. London: Robert Hale & Company, 1973. ISBN 0-7091-3966-7
  • Kavieff, Paul R. The Life and Times of Lepke Buchalter: America's Most Ruthless Labor Racketeer, Barricade Books, 2006. ISBN 1-56980-291-2
  • Almog, Oz, Kosher Nostra Jüdische Gangster in Amerika, 1890–1980 ; Jüdischen Museum der Stadt Wien ; 2003, Text Oz Almog, Erich Metz, ISBN 3-901398-33-3

External links[edit]