Cullen's family came from New Ross in County Wexford. He took a Master's degree at University College Galway with a thesis on smuggling in 18th century Galway, where he was also the auditor of the History Society in 1953/54. Then he took a doctorate at the London School of Economics.
In 1963, he joined the history department at Trinity College as a lecturer. In 1972, he was appointed professor of Irish History; and he became a Senior Fellow. In 1970 he was a co-founder of the Economic and Social History Society of Ireland. A speaker of Japanese, he has also written a history of Japan between 1582 and 1941. His book "An Economic History of Ireland Since 1660" has been reprinted and used widely as a textbook for students of Irish history.
Cullen's close study of economic trends has led to a more nuanced understanding of aspects of Irish life in 1700-1850. A traditional view had been that the economic decline of Dublin from 1801 was linked to the 1800 Act of Union with Britain, and the loss of the Parliament of Ireland and local political control. Cullen considered that the decline was inevitable, given the new steam-powered industrial revolution, and would have happened even if no union had occurred, and if Grattan's parliament had managed to secure a high level of Irish autonomy.
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- Anglo-Irish Trade 1600-1800, 1968
- The Formation of the Irish Economy, 1969
- An Economic History of Ireland Since 1660, 1972
- Négoce et industrie en France et en Irlande aux XVIIIe et XIXe siècles: actes du Colloque franco-irlandais d'histoire, Bordeaux, mai, 1978, 1980
- The Emergence of Modern Ireland 1600-1900, 1981
- The Hidden Ireland: Reassesment of a Concept, 1988
- Hidden Ireland: Reassessment of a Concept, 1988
- Culture et pratiques politiques en France et en Irlande XVIe-XVIIIe siècle: actes colloque de Marseille 28 septembre-2 octobre 1988, 1990
- A History of Japan 1582-1941: Internal and External Worlds, 2003
- 2003 "Riverdance Originators Among Five Distinguished Honorary Degree Recipients," University News (National University of Ireland Maynooth), June 2003, p. 2; retrieved 2012-11-9.
- Library of Congress Authority File, Cullen, Louis Michael; retrieved 2012-11-9.
- ESHSI foundation 1970; downloaded Feb 2010
- See Anglo-Irish Trade 1600-1800 p.9.
- WorldCat Identities: Cullen, L. M. (Louis M.); retrieved 2012-11-9.