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Born in Bloomington, McLean County, Illinois, Fitzhenry attended the public and high schools of Bloomington and, engaged in journalism before receiving an LL.B. from Illinois Wesleyan University Law School in 1897. He was admitted to the bar in 1897 and commenced private practice in Bloomington from 1897 to 1907, and was city attorney of Bloomington from 1907 to 1911.
Fitzhenry was an unsuccessful candidate for election in 1910 to the Sixty-second Congress, but was elected as a Democrat to the Sixty-third Congress (March 4, 1913-March 3, 1915). He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1914 to the Sixty-fourth Congress, and thereafter resumed the practice of law in Bloomington, from 1915 to 1918. He was an unsuccessful candidate for election as a justice of the State supreme court in 1915.
On July 1, 1918, FitzHenry was nominated by President Woodrow Wilson to a seat on the United States District Court for the Southern District of Illinois vacated by J. Otis Humphrey. FitzHenry was confirmed by the United States Senate on July 6, 1918, and received his commission the same day. On June 3, 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt nominated FitzHenry for elevation to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit vacated by George True Page. FitzHenry was confirmed to this seat by the United States Senate on June 10, 1933, and received his commission on June 16, 1933. He served in that capacity until his death, in Normal, Illinois. He was interred in Bloomington Cemetery, Bloomington, Illinois.
- Louis Fitzhenry at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Louis Fitzhenry at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.