Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse

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Louis IV
Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine
Grand Duke Ludwig IV of Hesse-Darmstadt and by Rhine.jpg
Ludwig IV, 1878
Reign 13 June 1877 – 13 March 1892
Predecessor Louis III
Successor Ernest Louis
Spouse Princess Alice of the United Kingdom
Alexandrina Hutten-Czapska (annulled)
Issue Princess Victoria
Princess Elisabeth
Princess Irene
Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse
Prince Friedrich
Princess Alix, Empress of all the Russias
Princess Marie
Full name
(German: Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Karl)
(English: Frederick William Louis Charles)
House House of Hesse-Darmstadt
Father Prince Charles of Hesse and by Rhine
Mother Princess Elisabeth of Prussia
Born (1837-09-12)12 September 1837
Darmstadt, Germany
Died 13 March 1892(1892-03-13) (aged 54)
Darmstadt, Germany
Burial Rosenhohe, Darmstadt
Religion Lutheranism
Grand Ducal Family of
Hesse and by Rhine
Wappen-HD.png
Louis IV
Children
   Victoria, Marchioness of Milford Haven
   Grand Duchess Elizaveta Feodorovna of Russia
   Irene, Princess Heinrich of Prussia
   Ernest Louis
   Prince Friedrich
   Alexandra Feodorovna, Empress of Russia
   Princess Marie

Louis IV (Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Karl) (12 September 1837 – 13 March 1892), was the Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine, reigning from 13 June 1877 until his death. Through his own and his children's marriages he was connected to the British Royal Family, to the Imperial House of Russia and other Royal Houses of Europe.

Early life[edit]

Louis was born at Darmstadt, Germany as the son of Prince Charles of Hesse and by Rhine (23 April 1809 – 20 March 1877) and Princess Elisabeth of Prussia (18 June 1815 – 21 March 1885), granddaughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia.

Marriage and children[edit]

On 1 July 1862, Louis married Princess Alice, the third child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. On the day of the wedding, the Queen issued Letters Patent granting her new son-in-law the style of Royal Highness. This style was only in effect in Great Britain, not the German confederation where Prince Ludwig was only a Grand Ducal Highness. The Queen subsequently created him a Knight of the Garter.

The couple had seven children:

Military career[edit]

During the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Louis commanded the Hessian cavalry in support of the Austrian side. In the 1870-71 Franco-Prussian War, Louis led the Hessian contingent of the armies of the North German Confederation.

Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine[edit]

On 13 June 1877, he succeeded his uncle as Grand Duke of Hesse, taking the name Ludwig IV.

Second marriage[edit]

Following the death of Princess Alice in 1878, Ludwig IV contracted a morganatic marriage on 30 April 1884 in Darmstadt with Alexandrina Hutten-Czapska (3 September 1854 – 8 May 1941), the former wife of Aleksander ...vich Kolemin, the Russian chargé d'affaires in Darmstadt. His second wife received the title Countess von Romrod. The marriage, which caused great concern within his family, was annulled within a year.

Death[edit]

Grand Duke Ludwig IV died on 13 March 1892 and was succeeded by his son, Ernest Louis. His remains are buried at Rosenhöhe, the mausoleum for the Grand Ducal House of Hesse outside of Darmstadt.

Titles, Styles, Honours & Arms[edit]

Styles of
Ludwig IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by the Rhine
Reference style His Royal Highness
Spoken style Your Royal Highness
Alternative style Sir

Titles[edit]

  • 12 September 1837 - 13 June 1877: His Grand Ducal Highness Prince Ludwig of Hesse
  • 1 July 1862 - 13 June 1877: (in the United Kingdom only) His Royal Highness Prince Ludwig of Hesse
  • 13 June 1877 - 13 March 1892: His Royal Highness The Grand Duke of Hesse

On 1 July 1862, the day of his wedding, Queen Victoria issued Letters Patent granting her new son-in-law the style of His Royal Highness. This style was only in effect in the United Kingdom and not in Hesse where Prince Ludwig was only styled as His Grand Ducal Highness. On his accession as Grand Duke on 13 June 1877 he also became styled as His Royal Highness in Hesse.

Honours[edit]

Ancestry[edit]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16. Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (=22, 26, 30)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17. Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken (=23, 27, 31)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Louis II, Grand Duke of Hesse
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18. Landgrave George William of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Landgravine Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19. Maria Luise Albertine of Leiningen-Falkenburg-Dagsburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Prince Charles of Hesse and by Rhine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20. Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Baden
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. Landgravine Caroline Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Princess Wilhelmine of Baden
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22. Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (=16, 26, 30)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Landgravine Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken (=17, 27, 31)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24. Prince Augustus William of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Frederick William II of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25. Duchess Louise Amalie of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Prince William of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26. Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (=16, 22, 30)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27. Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken (=17, 23, 31)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Princess Elisabeth of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28. Frederick IV, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Frederick V, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
29. Countess Ulrike Louise of Solms-Braunfels
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Landgravine Marie Anna of Hesse-Homburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30. Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (=16, 22, 26)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Landgravine Caroline of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31. Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken (=17, 23, 27)
 
 
 
 
 
 

Issue[edit]

Image Name Birth Death Notes
Victoria Hesse 1863.jpg
Princess Victoria 5 April 1863 24 September 1950 married Prince Louis of Battenberg, later Marquess of Milford-Haven; had issue. She was the maternal grandmother of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, who is the consort of Queen Elizabeth II.
Elizabeth Fyodorovna of Russia.jpg
Princess Elisabeth 1 November 1864 17 July 1918 Took the name Yelisaveta Fyodorovna on her baptism into the Russian Orthodox Church; married Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia (son of Alexander II of Russia); no issue
Irene hesse1.jpg
Princess Irene 11 July 1866 11 November 1953 married Prince Heinrich (son of Friedrich III of Germany); had issue
ErnstLodewijk.jpg
Prince Ernst Ludwig 25 November 1868 9 October 1937 Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine (13 March 1892 – 9 November 1918); married
  1. HRH Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha; divorced
  2. HH Princess Eleonore zu Solms-Hohensolms-Lich; had issue
Frittie.jpg
Prince Friedrich 7 October 1870 29 May 1873 Suffered from haemophilia and died from internal bleeding after a fall from a window
Alexandra Fyodorovna LOC 01137u.jpg
Princess Alix 6 June 1872 17 July 1918 Took the name Alexandra Feodorovna on her baptism into the Russian Orthodox Church; married Tsar Nicholas II of Russia; had issue
Maria de Hesse.jpeg
Princess Marie 24 May 1874 16 November 1878 Died of diphtheria


Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse
Born: 12 September 1837 Died: 13 March 1892
German royalty
Preceded by
Louis III
Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine
1877–1892
Succeeded by
Ernest Louis