Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé
|Reign||27 January 1740 – 13 May 1818|
|Louis Joseph de Bourbon|
|Father||Louis Henri, Duke of Bourbon|
|Mother||Caroline of Hesse-Rotenburg|
9 August 1736|
Hôtel de Condé, Paris, France
|Died||13 May 1818
Palais Bourbon, Paris, France
|Burial||Basilica of Saint Denis|
De Bourbon, born on 9 August 1736 at Chantilly, was the only son of Louis Henri de Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon (1692–1740) and Landgravine Caroline of Hesse-Rotenburg (1714–41). As a junior member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a Prince du Sang. His father Louis Henri, was the eldest son of Louis de Bourbon, Prince of Condé (known as Monsieur le Duc) and his wife Louise Françoise de Bourbon, daughter of Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan.
During his father's lifetime, the infant Louis Joseph was known as the Duke of Enghien, (duc d'Enghien). At the age of 4, following his father's death in 1740, and his mother's death in 1741, he was placed under the care of his paternal uncle, Louis, Count of Clermont, his father's youngest brother.
He had an older half sister, Henriette de Bourbon, Mademoiselle de Verneuil (1725–1780) who was in turn the half sister of the Mailly sisters, future mistresses of Louis XV and descendants of Hortense Mancini.
Through his mother, he was a first cousin of Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia, Princess Eleonora of Savoy and Princess Maria Luisa of Savoy (both rejected brides of Louis XV) as well as the princesse de Lamballe. His paternal cousins included the Duchess of Orléans (mother of Philippe Égalité) and sister of the Prince of Conti. Viktoria of Hesse-Rotenburg, the Princess of Soubise was another first cousin.
As a young man, he married Charlotte Élisabeth Godefride de Rohan (1737–1760), the daughter of King Louis XV's friend, the Prince de Soubise. Charlottes mother Anne Marie Louise de La Tour d'Auvergne was a daughter of the Duke of Bouillon. The couple were married at Versailles on 3 May 1753.
Together, they had three children (a daughter who died young); a son, Louis Henri Joseph, and a daughter, Louis Adélaide. In 1764, he renovated and expanded the Palais Bourbon and decided to leave the Hôtel de Condé where he was born. The latter residence was bought by Louis XV in 1770 only to later end up as the site of the Odéon Theatre.
In 1770, his son married Bathilde d'Orléans, daughter of Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans and sister of Philippe Égalité. The marriage was supposed to heal relations between the Condé line and the Orléans which were both descended from illegitimate daughters of Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan.
Among many other estates, Louis Joseph inherited the famous Château de Chantilly, the main seat of the Condé line. At Chantilly, the prince conducted a number of improvements and embellishments in the years before the French Revolution. He decided to build the Château d'Enghien on the grounds of the estate. Designed to house guests when entertaining at Chantilly, the Chateau d'Enghien was constructed in 1769 by the architect Jean François Leroy. It was later renamed the Château d'Enghien in honour of his grandson Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien who was born at Chantilly in 1772. He also commissioned a large garden in the English style as well as a Hameau much like the contemporary Marie Antoinette had created at Versailles and the Petit Trianon.
After the fall of the Bastille in 1789, Louis Joseph decided to leave France with his son and grandson. This decision proved fortunate, since during the Reign of Terror that followed many of the Bourbons still living in France were arrested, put on trial and guillotined: King Louis XVI, Queen Marie Antoinette and the Duke of Orleans (Philippe Égalité) were executed in 1793, and the king's sister, Madame Élisabeth, was beheaded in 1794.
Army of Condé
During the French Revolution, the prince was a dedicated supporter of the monarchy and one of the principal leaders of the counter-revolutionary movement. He established himself at Coblenz in 1791, where he helped to organize and lead a large counter-revolutionary army of émigrés. In addition to containing the prince's grandson, the Duke of Enghien, and the two sons of his cousin, the late king's brother, the Comte d'Artois, the corps included many young aristocrats who eventually became leaders during the Bourbon Restoration years later.
The Army of Condé initially fought in conjunction with the Austrians. Later, due to differences with the Austrian plan of attack, however, the Prince de Condé entered with his corps into English pay in 1795. In 1796, the army fought in Swabia. In 1797, Austria signed the Treaty of Campo Formio with the First French Republic, formally ending its hostilities against the French. With the loss of its closest allies, the army transferred into the service of the Russian tsar, Paul I and was stationed in Poland, returning in 1799 to the Rhine under Alexander Suvorov. In 1800 when Russia left the Allied coalition, the army re-entered English service and fought in Bavaria.
The army was disbanded in 1801 without having achieved its principal ambition, restoring Bourbon rule in France. After the dissolution of the corps, the prince spent his exile in England, where he lived with his second wife, Maria Caterina Brignole, the divorced wife of Honoré III, Prince of Monaco, whom he had married in 1798. She died in 1813.
With the defeat of Napoleon, Louis Joseph returned to Paris, where he resumed his courtly duties as grand maître in the royal household of Louis XVIII. He died in 1818 and was succeeded by his son, Louis Henri. His daughter, Louise Adélaïde de Bourbon, who was a nun and had become the abbess of Remiremont Abbey, survived until 1824. He was buried at the Basilica of St Denis.
- Marie de Bourbon, Mademoiselle de Bourbon (16 February 1755 - 22 June 1759) died in infancy.
- Louis Henri Joseph de Bourbon, Prince of Condé, Duke of Bourbon (13 April 1756 - 30 August 1830) married Bathilde d'Orléans and had issue.
- Louise Adélaïde de Bourbon (5 October 1757 - 10 March 1824) died unmarried.
|Ancestors of Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé|
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 9 August 1736 – 27 January 1740 His Serene Highness the Duke of Enghien
- 27 January 1740 – 13 May 1818 His Serene Highness the Prince of Condé
References and notes
- "BIOGRAPHICAL ETCHING.". The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser. 15 January 1820. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- The Palais Bourbon, built by his grandmother Louise Françoise de Bourbon, daughter of Louis XIV and La Montespan
- It was at the Hôtel de Condé that the Marquis de Sade was born, his mother was a Lady in waiting to Louis Joseph's mother Caroline
- Louis Joseph's grandmother, Mademoiselle de Nantes was the older sister of Louis Philippe's grandmother Mademoiselle de Blois, children of La Montespan
- The famous victim of Napoleon I of France
Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé
Cadet branch of the House of BourbonBorn: 9 August 1736 Died: 13 May 1818
Louis Henri de Bourbon
|Prince of Condé
27 January 1740 – 13 May 1818
Louis Henri de Bourbon
Media related to Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé at Wikimedia Commons