^"Louis-Jean Malvy". Brigham Young University. Retrieved 2010-10-30. "Malvy became a deputy in the Chamber of Deputies in 1906 as a Radical-Socialist, and served in several minor ministerial positions before the war. He became Minister of the Interior in Viviani's first ministry, retaining that post in Viviani's second ministry, both Briand's wartime ministries and the short-lived Ribot ministry; that is until the summer of 1917."