Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse

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Louis I
Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine
prev. Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
Ludwik I, Wielki Książę Hesji-Darmstadt.JPG
Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine
Reign 1806 - 6 April 1830
Predecessor New title
Successor Louis II
Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
Reign 1790 - 1806
Predecessor Louis IX
Successor Title abolished
Spouse Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt
Issue Grand Duke Louis II of Hesse
House House of Hesse-Darmstadt
Father Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
Mother Caroline of Zweibrücken
Born (1753-06-14)14 June 1753
Prenzlau, Brandenburg
Died 16 April 1830(1830-04-16) (aged 76)
Darmstadt, Hesse
Grand Ducal Family of
Hesse and by Rhine
Wappen-HD.png
Louis I
Children
   Louis II
   Louise, Princess Louis of Anhalt-Köthen
   Prince Georg
   Prince Friedrich
   Prince Emil
   Prince Gustav

Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse (14 June 1753, Prenzlau – 6 April 1830, Darmstadt) was Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (as Louis X) and later the first Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine.

Biography[edit]

Louis was the son of Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and succeeded his father in 1790. He presided over a significant increase in territory for Hesse-Darmstadt during the imperial reorganizations of 1801-1803, most notably the Duchy of Westphalia, hitherto subject to the Archbishop of Cologne. Allied to Napoleon, Louis in 1806 was elevated to the title of a Grand Duke of Hesse and joined the Confederation of the Rhine, leading to the dissolution of the Empire. At the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, Louis had to give up his Westphalian territories, but was compensated with the district of Rheinhessen, with his capital Mainz on the left bank of the Rhine. Because of this addition, he amended his title to Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine.

In 1844, a 33-meter column called Langer Ludwig (meaning Long Louis), was set up In his commemoration in the middle of the Luisenplatz, the largest square of Darmstadt.

Issue[edit]

In 1776, he became engaged to Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg, eldest daughter of Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg. The engagement was broken off so that Sophia Dorothea could marry Louis's recently widowed brother-in-law Tsarevich Paul Petrovich, son and heir of Catherine II "the Great", Empress of Russia. He received a monetary compensation when the engagement was broken. On 19 February 1777, Louis married his first cousin, Landgravine Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt ( 15 February 1761 – 24 October 1829), a daughter of Landgrave George William of Hesse-Darmstadt. Together, they had six children:

  • Louis, later Grand Duke Louis II of Hesse (26 December 1777 – 16 June 1848). Married Wilhelmine of Baden and had issue.
  • Louise (16 January 1779 – 18 April 1811). Married Louis of Anhalt-Köthen and had issue.
  • George (31 August 1780 – 17 April 1856). Married, morganatically, Caroline Török de Szendrö and had issue.
  • Frederick (14 May 1788 – 16 March 1867)
  • Emil (3 September 1790 – 30 April 1856)
  • Gustav (18 December 1791 – 30 January 1806)

Ancestry[edit]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16. Louis VI, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Ernest Louis, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17. Elisabeth Dorothea of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18. Albrecht V, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Dorothea Charlotte of Brandenburg-Ansbach
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19. Sophie Margaret of Oettingen-Oettingen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20. Johann Reinhard II, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Johann Reinhard III, Count of Hanau
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. Anna Magdalene of Birkenfeld-Bischweiler
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22. Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Dorothea Friederike of Brandenburg-Ansbach
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Johanne Elisabeth of Baden-Durlach
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24. Christian I, Count Palatine of Birkenfeld
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Christian II of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25. Magdalene Katharine of Zweibrücken
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26. Johann Jakob, Count of Rappoltstein
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Katharina Agathe of Rappoltstein
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27. Anna Klaudie of Salm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28. Gustav Adolf, Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Ludwig Kraft, Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
29. Eleonore Klare of Hohenlohe
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30. Heinrich Friedrich, Count of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Philippine Henriette of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31. Juliana Dorothea of Castell-Remlingen
 
 
 
 
 
 
Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse
Cadet branch of the House of Hesse
Born: 14 June 1753 Died: 6 April 1830
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Louis IX
Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
1790 - 1806
Succeeded by
Title abolished
Preceded by
New title
Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine
1806-1830
Succeeded by
Louis II