Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth
|Louise de Kérouaille|
|Duchess of Portsmouth|
The Duchess of Portsmouth by Sir Peter Lely, circa 1671
IssueCharles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond
Louise Renée de Penancoët de Kérouaille
|Father||Guillaume de Kérouaille|
|Mother||Marie de Ploeuc de Timeur|
|Born||6 September 1649|
|Died||14 November 1734 (aged 85)
|Buried||Church of the Carmelite Convent|
Louise Renée de Penancoët de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth (6 September 1649 – 14 November 1734) was a mistress of Charles II of England. Through her son by Charles II, Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, she is ancestress of both wives of Prince Charles: Diana, Princess of Wales, and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall.
She was the daughter of Guillaume de Penancoët, Seigneur de Kérouaille (d. 1690) and wife (married on 27 February 1645) Marie de Ploeuc de Timeur (d. January 1709), paternal granddaughter of René de Penancoët, Seigneur de Kérouaille et Villeneuve, and wife (married on 12 October 1602) Julienne Emery du Pont-l'Abbé, Dame du Chef du Bois, and maternal granddaughter of Sébastien de Ploeuc, Marquis de Timeur, and wife (married on 8 January 1617) Marie de Rieux (d. 1628). The name Kérouaille was derived from an heiress whom an ancestor François de Penhoët had married in 1330.
The family were nobles in Brittany, and their name was so spelt by themselves. The form "Quérouaille" was commonly used in England, where it was corrupted into Carwell or Carewell, perhaps with an ironic reference to the care that the duchess took to fill her pocket. In France, it was variously spelt Quérouaille, Kérouaille and Kéroualle. All are derivations of the original Briton name Kerouazle, which is the most common form in Brittany.
She had a sister, Henriette Mauricette de Penancoët de Kérouaille, who married firstly in 1674 Philip Herbert, 7th Earl of Pembroke and secondly in 1685 Jean-Timoléon Gouffier, marquis de Thais, ancestors among others of the Comtes de Bourbon-Busset. Her aunt Renée Mauricette de Ploeuc de Timeur married Donatien de Maillé, Marquis de Carman (d. 1652), and among others they were great-grandparents in the male line of the mother of the Marquis de Sade.
Mistress to royalty
Louise was placed early in her life in the household of Henrietta Anne Stuart, the Duchess of Orléans, sister of Charles II and sister-in-law of Louis XIV of France. Saint-Simon asserts that her family threw her in the way of Louis in the hope that she would become a royal mistress. In 1670, she accompanied the duchess of Orléans on a visit to Charles II at Dover. The sudden death of the duchess, attributed on dubious evidence to poison, left her unprovided for, but the king appointed her a lady-in-waiting to his own queen, Catherine of Braganza.
It was later said that she had been selected by the French court to fascinate the king of England, but for this there seems to be no evidence. Yet when there appeared a prospect that the king would show her favour, the intrigue was vigorously pushed by the French ambassador, Colbert de Croissy, aided by the secretary of state, Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington, and his wife.
Louise, who concealed great cleverness and a strong will under an appearance of languor and a rather childish beauty (John Evelyn, the diarist, speaks of her "baby face"), yielded only when she had already established a strong hold on the king's affections and character. Her son Charles (1672–1723) was created Duke of Richmond in 1675.
The support she received from the French envoy was given on the understanding that she should serve the interests of her native sovereign. The bargain was confirmed by gifts and honours from Louis XIV and was loyally carried out by Louise. However, she was much disliked by the people in England. Louis gave her a pair of earrings worth the astonishing sum of eighteen thousand pounds, his most expensive gift to England that year, and certainly more lavish than anything he had ever given Charles's queen.
However, the hatred openly avowed for her in England was due as much to her own activity in the interest of France as to her notorious promiscuity. Nell Gwynne, another of Charles' mistresses, called her "Squintabella", and when mistaken for her, replied, "Pray good people be civil, I am the Protestant whore." According to Gwynne, Louise's underclothing was unclean.
The titles of Baroness Petersfield, Countess of Fareham and Duchess of Portsmouth were granted to her for life on 19 August 1673. Her pensions and money allowances of various kinds were enormous. In 1681 alone she received an eye-popping £136,000. The French court gave her frequent presents, and in December 1673 conferred upon her the fief Duchess of Aubigny in the Peerage of France at the request of Charles II.
At about this time she was instrumental in bringing to Charles' attention a young Frenchman who proposed a solution to the longitude problem. While the Frenchman's proposal was ineffective, it led Charles to establish the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and appoint John Flamsteed as Astronomer Royal.
The Duchess' thorough understanding of the king's character enabled her to retain her hold on him to the end. She contrived to escape uninjured during the crisis of the "Popish Plot" in 1678: she found an unexpected ally in Queen Catherine, who was grateful for the kindness and consideration which Louise had always shown her. She was strong enough to maintain her position during a long illness in 1677, and a visit to France in 1682. One of the King's nicknames for her was 'Fubbs', meaning plump or chubby. This female form was much in vogue at the time, and in 1682 a new royal yacht, HMY Fubbs, was built, referring to the Duchess's nickname. In February 1685 she assisted in measures to see that the king, who was sympathetic to Roman Catholicism, did not die without Roman confession and absolution. That Charles was truly attached to her is shown by his dying instruction to his brother to "do well by Portsmouth", making her one of three women in his life, along with the Queen and Nell Gwynne, who were in his thoughts at the end.
After the king's death, later life
Soon after the king's death, the Duchess quickly fell from favour, and retired to France, where, except for one short visit to England during the reign of James II, she remained. Her pensions and a grant on the Irish revenue given her by Charles II were lost either in the reign of James II or at the Revolution of 1688.
During her last years she lived at Aubigny, and was harassed by debt. The French king, Louis XIV, and after his death the regent Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, gave her a pension, and protected her against her creditors. The Duchess died in Paris on 14 November 1734, aged 85.
Some of Louise's descendants, Diana, Princess of Wales, Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, and Sarah, Duchess of York, would eventually play major roles in the lives of later princes of the United Kingdom, Charles, Prince of Wales and Andrew, Duke of York.
In Film & Television
- In the 1911 film, Sweet Nell of Old Drury, Louise is portrayed by Dorothy Clarke
- In the 1934 film, Nell Gwyn, Louise is portrayed by Jeanne De Casalis
- In an episode in 1954 of the TV Series, BBC Sunday-Night Theatre, Louise is portrayed by Susan Lyall Grant
- In the 1969 mini-series, The First Churchills, Louise is portrayed by Consuela Chapman
- In the 2003 mini-series, Charles II: The Power & The Passion, Louise is portrayed by Mélanie Thierry
- In the 2009 film, Broadside, Louise is portrayed by Selina MacDonald
- Louise figures, together with Barbara Villiers and Nell Gwyn, in Bernard Shaw's late play In Good King Charles's Golden Days.
- Louise is mentioned in the children's novel, Eliza Rose, by Mary Hooper, as a minor role.
- Louise appears in Dark Angels by Karleen Koen, although her character goes by Renee.
- Louise is the primary character in The French Mistress by Susan Holloway Scott
- Louise is a major character in The Empress of Ice Cream by Anthony Capella.
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (January 2014)|
- "Louise De Kéroualle". Find a grave. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- Herman 'Ladies have a great influence, Over the mind of the queen of England', p. 162
- Herman Legitimate Bastards, p. 188
- Evremond. p. 146.
- Herman 'I am the Protestant Whore', pp. 177–180
- Herman. Bribes and Gifts. p. 149.
- Derek Parker (2000) Nell Gwynn
- Herman. Titles. p. 141.
- Herman. Pensions and Cash. p. 147.
- Farrell. pp. 125–127.
- Madge. Royal Yachts of the World. p. 34.
- Herman Death of the King-'Let not poor Nelly starve', pp. 200–202
- "Family of Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth". Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- H. Forneron, Louise de Keroualle, Paris, 1886.
- Mrs Colquhoun Grant, From Brittany to Whitehall, London, 1909.
- Dava Sobel, Longitude: The True Story of a Lone Genius Who Solved the Greatest Scientific Problem of His Time
- Madge, Tim (1997). Royal Yachts of the World. Thomas Reed Publications. ISBN 0-901281-74-3.
- Herman, Eleanor (2005). Sex with Kings: 500 Years of Adultery, Power, Rivalry, and Revenge. New York: Harpercollins. ISBN 0-06-058544-7
- Saint-Evremond, Charles S. The Letters of Saint Evremond.
- Farrell, Maureen. William Whiston. (1981). Arno Press. ISBN 978-0-405-13854-6
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Louise De Keroualle, Duchess Of Portsmouth". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press