Louviers

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Louviers
27-Louviers-rue-ancienne.jpg
Coat of arms of Louviers
Coat of arms
Louviers is located in France
Louviers
Louviers
Coordinates: 49°13′N 1°10′E / 49.22°N 1.17°E / 49.22; 1.17Coordinates: 49°13′N 1°10′E / 49.22°N 1.17°E / 49.22; 1.17
Country France
Region Upper Normandy
Arrondissement Évreux
Canton Louviers-Nord and Louviers-Sud
Intercommunality Communauté d'agglomération Seine-Eure
Government
 • Mayor (2014–2020) François-Xavier Priollaud
Area1 27.06 km2 (10.45 sq mi)
Population (2011)2 17,697
 • Density 650/km2 (1,700/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 27375 / 27400
Elevation 11–149 m (36–489 ft)
(avg. 15 m or 49 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Louviers is a commune in the Eure department in Haute-Normandie in north-western France.

Louviers is 100 km (62 mi) from Paris and 30 km (19 mi) from Rouen.

Population[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1793 9,520 —    
1800 6,819 −28.4%
1806 8,472 +24.2%
1821 9,892 +16.8%
1831 9,885 −0.1%
1836 9,927 +0.4%
1841 9,998 +0.7%
1846 10,295 +3.0%
1851 10,577 +2.7%
1856 10,611 +0.3%
1861 10,841 +2.2%
1866 11,707 +8.0%
1872 11,360 −3.0%
1876 10,973 −3.4%
1881 10,753 −2.0%
1886 10,553 −1.9%
1891 9,979 −5.4%
1896 10,199 +2.2%
1901 10,219 +0.2%
1906 10,302 +0.8%
1911 10,209 −0.9%
1921 10,345 +1.3%
1926 10,340 −0.0%
1931 10,357 +0.2%
1936 10,239 −1.1%
1946 9,624 −6.0%
1954 10,746 +11.7%
1962 13,160 +22.5%
1968 15,326 +16.5%
1975 18,333 +19.6%
1982 19,000 +3.6%
1990 18,658 −1.8%
1999 18,328 −1.8%
2006 18,259 −0.4%
2011 17,697 −3.1%

History[edit]

Prehistory[edit]

In the area around Louviers, cut stones from the Paleolithic era have been found. Some of these are in the town's museum, alongside fragments of a mammoth tusk found not far from the cemetery. Other evidence of human presence in the area at different periods of prehistory includes the menhir of Basse-Cremonville and the Neolithic tomb which was close to it. Various objects from these periods - weapons, vases, stone and bronze tools - have also been found in the area.

Ancient Gaul and Roman Gaul[edit]

A few elements dating from the period of Ancient Gaul have been found at Louviers: a Celtic grave found in 1863 against the wall of the Église Notre-Dame, and several Gallic coins. A hypothesis of a fortified Gallic village has been formulated, but not proven. The Louviers of Roman Gaul is, however, better known. It was not, however, unimportant, as judged by the fact that it appeared in neither the Antonine Itinerary nor the Tabula Peutingeriana.

Middle ages[edit]

Under the Merovingians, Louviers had at least two cemeteries, but it is only from the 9th Century that certain historical events can be dated.

  • On 10 February 856, King Charles II (Charles the Bald), father of the future Louis II (in French, Louis le Bègue), promised his son in marriage to a daughter of Erispoe, king of Brittany. In return, Erispoe gave to Charles the duchy of Mans. This arrangement greatly displeased the Breton vassals, and was perhaps one of the reasons for the plot which followed the death of the Breton king the following year.
  • In 965, Richard I, Duke of Normandy gave the churches of Louviers and Pinterville, the fisheries of the water-mills of Louviers, and forty sols of rent on these mills to the Abbey of Saint-Taurin, which he had just founded at Évreux. It is the first time, at the end of the period, that the name of Louviers appears in an official deed.
  • In 1184, the "mills of the king" burnt down, and were rebuilt.
  • Starting from around the beginning of the 13th century, the church, Église Notre-Dame de Louviers, was built. By 1240, the principal parts were finished: the choir, the nave and the transept surmounted by a lantern tower.
  • The town continued to prosper up to the middle of the 14th century, thanks to its cloth industry, and it is possible that the population exceeded 10,000. Evidence of this wealth includes the construction of a buildings: a bishop's manor, houses of wood and of wattle and daub, and stone dwellings for the master drapers and the rich merchants.
  • In 1346 and again in 1356, the town was again captured and sacked. It was occupied for four years up to 1360. On 16 May of that year, Edward the Black Prince, solemnly pronounced, in the name of his father, Edward III of England, the ratification of the treaty which, in exchange for one quarter of the kingdom of France, set at liberty John II of France (French: Jean le Bon), who had been a prisoner in Poitiers.
  • In 1364, the people of Louviers asked Charles V of France for authorisation to fortify the town's ramparts.
  • From 1379 to 1385, the church was repaired: the vaults of the nave were raised and a spire 50 metres high was built on top of the bell-tower.
  • On 12 July 1380, the constable of the garrison, inspecting the walls towards midnight, found a sentinel asleep. The constable angrily threw him, head first, at a wooden sentry box, and killed him.
  • In 1409, the townspeople started work again on the fortifications, which had been neglected after the victories of Bertrand du Guesclin against the English. They undertook to build on the side of their church a bell-tower in a style more military than religious.
  • In 1418, the English laid siege to the town. The battle was fierce and the victors pitiless. The town was taken after 26 hours (15 according to English sources): 120 townspeople were killed at sword-point, while the others were spared only by paying a large ransom (15,000 ecus). The occupation that followed lasted 11 years.
  • In December 1429, Étienne de Vignolles, also called La Hire, companion of Joan of Arc, retook the town. The English, not able to accept this fact, besieged the town in May 1431 with 12,000 men. The new siege lasted nearly six months. The town capitulated on 22 October after it had lost most of its defenders. The English promised honourable conditions to the survivors, but razed the town.
  • In 1440, the town was again liberated and its inhabitants were able to rebuild it. The English tried one last time to take the town in 1441. In that year, Charles VII of France exempted the people of Louviers in perpetuity from paying most royal taxes, and in particular, the heaviest tax, the taille. The town received, incorporated in its coast of arms, the motto "Loviers le Franc" (Louviers the loyal), and the inhabitants received the right to bear the letter L in embroidery, goldsmithery or wherever else they pleased.
  • In the 15th century, Louvier's cloth industry kept its royal protection under the king Louis XI, as was the case with other towns of Normandy.

Renaissance[edit]

  • In 1506 the southern portal of the church Eglise Notre-Dame was renovated in the flamboyant gothic style. At about the same time, the lantern tower was also renovated.
  • In 1591, Charles de Gontaut, Marshal de Biron (1562 – 1602), the lieutenant of Henri IV, presented himself in front of Louviers on 6 June and seized the town, after a brief but violent fight; this allowed the king to enter.

17th and 18th centuries[edit]

  • In the 17th century, several epidemics of plague struck the town (1619, 1620, 1624, 1648, 1694), with many victims.
  • In 1681, the royal administration installed in Louviers a cloth factory specialising in products of very high quality. Managed for more than 50 years by Francois Le Camus, it brought some prosperity to the town. But regulations brought in by minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert facilitated competition from the town of Elbeuf.
  • In the 18th century, many natural disasters hit the town: terrible winters (1709, 1740, 1776, 1784); a hurricane (1705); floods (1740, 1776, 1784); and major fires (1782, 1783).
  • In 1709, a rabid wolf entered the town and bit 15 people, killing five.
  • In 1785, Louviers got its first factory with mechanical machinery. It spun cotton using the new English methods.

Sights[edit]

Its church, Notre-Dame, has parts which date from the thirteenth century. The 16th century porch on the south side is an example of Late Gothic Flamboyant architecture.

Personalities[edit]

It is also well known for its Musée des décors de Théâtre, d'Opéra et de Cinéma (Fondation Wakhévitch), after Georges Wakhévitch (1907–1984) who lived nearby. The composer Maurice Duruflé (b. in Louviers 1906 - d. in Louveciennes 1986) was born in Louviers. Other famous persons include:

International relations[edit]

Louviers is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Amable Floquet, Histoire du parlement de Normandie, Volume 2, Rouen, Édouard Frère, 1840, pages 410-445

External links[edit]