# Louvre Pyramid

The Louvre Pyramid (Pyramide du Louvre) is a large glass and metal pyramid, surrounded by three smaller pyramids, in the main courtyard (Cour Napoléon) of the Louvre Palace (Palais du Louvre) in Paris. The large pyramid serves as the main entrance to the Louvre Museum. Completed in 1989,[1] it has become a landmark of the city of Paris.

## Design and construction

Inside the Pyramid:the view of the Louvre Museum in Paris from the underground lobby of the Pyramid.

Commissioned by the President of France François Mitterrand in 1984, it was designed by the architect I. M. Pei, who is responsible for the design of the Miho Museum in Japan, the MasterCard Corporate Office Building in Purchase, New York, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Museum in Cleveland, and the National Gallery of Art (East Building) in Washington, D.C. among others. The structure, which was constructed entirely with glass segments, reaches a height of 20.6 metres (about 70 feet); its square base has sides of 35 metres (115 ft). It consists of 603 rhombus-shaped and 70 triangular glass segments.[2] The rigging holding the pyramid together was built by Navtec Rod Rigging of Littleton, MA under the direction of Ken King and his partner Mr. Eliason and the experienced design team of Navtec Rod Rigging. In 1989 TriPyramid Structures was formed to use Navtec Rod Rigging in architectural design and building. http://www.tripyramid.com/.

The pyramid structure was engineered by Nicolet Chartrand Knoll Ltd. of Montreal (Pyramid structure / Design Consultant) and Rice Francis Ritchie (also known as RFR) of Paris (Pyramid Structure / Construction Phase).[3]

The pyramid and the underground lobby beneath it were created because of a series of problems with the Louvre's original main entrance, which could no longer handle the enormous number of visitors on an everyday basis. Visitors entering through the pyramid descend into the spacious lobby then re-ascend into the main Louvre buildings.

For design historian Mark Pimlott, "I.M. Pei’s plan distributes people effectively from the central concourse to myriad destinations within its vast subterranean network... the architectonic framework evokes, at gigantic scale, an ancient atrium of a Pompeiian villa; the treatment of the opening above, with its tracery of engineered castings and cables, evokes the atria of corporate office buildings; the busy movement of people from all directions suggests the concourses of rail termini or international airports."[4]

Several other museums have duplicated this concept, most notably the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago. The Dolphin Centre, featuring a similar pyramid, was opened in April 1982, by Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester.[5] The construction work on the pyramid base and underground lobby was carried out by the Vinci construction company.[6]

The large glass pyramid seen at night
The large glass pyramid seen by day

## Controversy

The entry lobby of the Louvre museum beneath the pyramid (taken with a Fisheye lens Nikkor 8mm)

The construction of the pyramid triggered considerable controversy because many people felt that the futuristic edifice looked quite out of place in front of the Louvre Museum with its classical architecture. Certain detractors ascribed a "Pharaonic complex" to Mitterrand. Others lauded the juxtaposition of contrasting architectural styles as a successful merger of the old and the new, the classical and the ultra-modern.

The main pyramid is actually the largest of several glass pyramids that were constructed near the museum, including the downward-pointing La Pyramide Inversée that functions as a skylight in an underground mall in front of the museum. During the design phase, there was a proposal that the design include a spire on the pyramid to simplify window washing. This proposal was eliminated because of objections from I. M. Pei.[citation needed]

## Urban legend of 666 panes

It has been claimed by some that the glass panes in the Louvre Pyramid number exactly 666, "the number of the beast", often associated with Satan. Dominique Stezepfandt's book François Mitterrand, Grand Architecte de l'Univers declares that "the pyramid is dedicated to a power described as the Beast in the Book of Revelation (...) The entire structure is based on the number 6."

The story of the 666 panes originated in the 1980s, when the official brochure published during construction did indeed cite this number (even twice, though a few pages earlier the total number of panes was given as 672 instead). The number 666 was also mentioned in various newspapers. The Louvre museum however states that the finished pyramid contains 673 glass panes (603 rhombi and 70 triangles).[7] A higher figure was obtained by David A. Shugarts, who reports that the pyramid contains 689 pieces of glass.[8] Shugarts obtained the figure from the offices of I. M. Pei.

Elementary math allows for easy counting of the panes: each of the three sides of the pyramid without an entrance has 18 triangular panes and 17 rows of rhombic ones arranged in a triangle, thus giving $\textstyle\frac{17\cdot(17+1)}{2}=153$ rhombic panes (171 panes total). The side with the entrance, however, has 11 panes fewer (9 rhombic, 2 triangular), so the whole pyramid consists of $4\cdot153-9=603$ rhombi and $4\cdot18-2=70$ triangles, 673 panes total.

The myth resurfaced in 2003, when Dan Brown incorporated it in his best-selling novel The Da Vinci Code, in which the protagonist reflects that "this pyramid, at President Mitterrand's explicit demand, had been constructed of exactly 666 panes of glass - a bizarre request that had always been a hot topic among conspiracy buffs who claimed 666 was the number of Satan".[9] However, David A. Shugarts reports that according to a spokeswoman of the offices of I. M. Pei, the French President never specified the number of panes to be used in the pyramid. Noting how the 666 rumor circulated in some French newspapers in the mid-1980s, she commented: "If you only found those old articles and didn't do any deeper fact checking, and were extremely credulous, you might believe the 666 story".[10]

Comparison of approximate profiles of Louvre Pyramid with some notable pyramidal or near-pyramidal buildings. Dotted lines indicate original heights, where data is available.

## La Pyramide Inversée

La Pyramide Inversée (The Inverted Pyramid) is a skylight in the Carrousel du Louvre shopping mall in front of the Louvre Museum. It looks like an upside-down and smaller version of the Louvre Pyramid.

## References

1. ^ Simons, Marlise (1993-03-28). "5 Pieces of Europe's Past Return to Life: France; A vast new exhibition space as the Louvre renovates". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-10-07.
2. ^ "Glass on the web". Glass on the web. Retrieved 2011-01-16.
3. ^ "Pei Cobb Freed & Partners". Pcfandp.com. Retrieved 2011-01-16.
4. ^ Pimlott, Mark. (2007) "The Grand Louvre & I.M. Pei". In Without and within: Essays on territory and the interior at artdesigncafe. (Episode Publishers: Rotterdam). Retrieved 2012-08-13.
5. ^ http://www.romford.org/sports/swimming/dolphin/dolphin01.htm
6. ^ "Vinci website: Louvre". Vinci.com. Retrieved 2011-01-16.
7. ^ "Articles - Louvre Pyramid". Glass On Web. Retrieved 2011-01-16.
8. ^ Secrets of the Code, edited by Dan Burstein, p. 259
9. ^ Dan Brown. The Da Vinci Code, p. 21
10. ^ Secrets of the Code, p. 259