Lovecraftian horror

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Lovecraftian horror is a sub-genre of horror fiction that emphasizes the cosmic horror of the unknown (and in some cases, unknowable) over gore or other elements of shock, though these may still be present.[1] It is named after American author H. P. Lovecraft (1890–1937).

Origin[edit]

Lovecraft refined this style of storytelling into his own mythos that involved a set of supernatural, pre-human, and extraterrestrial elements.[2] His work was inspired by and similar to previous authors such as Edgar Allan Poe,[3] Algernon Blackwood and Lord Dunsany[4]

The hallmark of Lovecraft's work is cosmicism: the sense that ordinary life is a thin shell over a reality that is so alien and abstract in comparison that merely contemplating it would damage the sanity of the ordinary person. Lovecraft's work is also steeped in the insular feel of rural New England, and much of the genre continues to maintain this sense that "that which man was not meant to know" might be closer to the surface of ordinary life outside of the crowded cities of modern civilization. However, Lovecraftian horror is not restricted to the countryside; "The Horror at Red Hook", for instance, is set in a crowded ethnic ghetto.

Themes of Lovecraftian horror[edit]

Several themes found in Lovecraft's writings are considered to be components of a "Lovecraftian" work:

  • Anti-anthropocentrism, misanthropy in general. Lovecraft's works tend not to focus on characterization of humans, in line with his view of humanity's insignificant place in the universe, and the general Modernist trend of literature at the time of his writings.
  • Preoccupation with viscerate texture. The horror features of Lovecraft's stories tend to involve semi-gelatinous substances, such as slime, as opposed to standard horror elements such as blood, bones, or corpses.
  • Antiquarian writing style. Even when dealing with up-to-date technology, Lovecraft tended to use anachronisms as well as old-fashioned words when dealing with such things. For example, he used the term "man of science" rather than the modern word, "scientist" and often spelled "show" as "shew" and "lantern" as "lanthorne."
  • Detachment. Lovecraftian heroes (both in original writings and in more modern adaptations) tend to be isolated individuals, usually with an academic or scholarly bent.
  • Helplessness and hopelessness. Although Lovecraftian heroes may occasionally deal a "setback" to malignant forces, their victories are temporary, and they usually pay a price for it. Otherwise, subjects often find themselves completely unable to simply run away, instead driven by some other force to their desperate end.
  • Unanswered questions. Characters in Lovecraft's stories rarely if ever fully understand what is happening to them, and often go insane if they try.
  • Sanity's fragility and vulnerability. Characters in many of Lovecraft's stories are unable to cope mentally with the extraordinary and almost unreasonable truths they witness or hear. The strain of trying to cope, as Lovecraft often illustrates, is too impossible to bear and insanity takes hold.
  • Questionable parentage. Relatives of characters are typically depicted as paranormal or abnormal, whereas intimate relations in general are often represented as foreboding and sinister.

Collaborators and followers[edit]

Much of Lovecraft's influence is secondary, as he was a friend, inspiration, and correspondent to many authors who would gain fame through their creations. Many of these writers also worked with Lovecraft on jointly-written stories. His more famous friends and collaborators include Robert Bloch, author of Psycho; Robert E. Howard, creator of Conan the Barbarian; and August Derleth, who codified and added to the Cthulhu Mythos.

Subsequent horror writers also heavily drew on Lovecraft's work. While many made direct references to elements of Lovecraft's mythos, either to draw on its associations or to acknowledge his influence, many others drew on the feel and tone of his work without specifically referring to mythos elements. Some have said that Lovecraft, along with Edgar Allan Poe, is the most influential author on modern horror. Author Stephen King has said: "Now that time has given us some perspective on his work, I think it is beyond doubt that H. P. Lovecraft has yet to be surpassed as the Twentieth Century's greatest practitioner of the classic horror tale."[5]

By the late 20th century, Lovecraft had become something of a pop-culture icon, resulting in countless reinterpretations of and references to his work. Many of these fall outside the sphere of Lovecraftian horror, but represent Cthulhu Mythos in popular culture.

Literature and art[edit]

Lovecraft's work, mostly published in pulp magazines, never had the same sort of influence on literature as his high-modernist literary contemporaries such as Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald. However, his impact is still broadly and deeply felt in some of the most celebrated authors of contemporary fiction.[6] The fantasias of Jorge Luis Borges display a marked resemblance to some of Lovecraft's more dream influenced work.[7] Borges also dedicated his story, "There Are More Things" to Lovecraft, though he also considered Lovecraft "an involuntary parodist of Poe."[8] The controversial French novelist Michel Houellebecq has also cited Lovecraft as an influence and has written a lengthy essay on Lovecraft entitled H. P. Lovecraft: Against the World, Against Life in which he refers to the Cthulhu cycle as "the great texts".

Lovecraft's penchant for dreamscapes and for the biologically macabre has also profoundly influenced visual artists such as Jean "Moebius" Giraud and H. R. Giger. Giger's book of paintings which led directly to many of the designs for the film Alien was named Necronomicon, the name of a fictional book in several of Lovecraft's mythos stories. Dan O'Bannon, the original writer of the Alien screenplay, has also mentioned Lovecraft as a major influence on the film. With Ronald Shusett, he would later write Dead & Buried and Hemoglobin, both of which were admitted pastiches of Lovecraft.

Comics[edit]

Lovecraft has cast a long shadow across the comic world. This has included not only adaptations of his stories, such as H. P. Lovecraft's Cthulhu: The Whisperer in Darkness, Graphic Classics: H. P. Lovecraft[9] and MAX's Haunt of Horror,[10] but also the incorporation of the Mythos into new stories.

Alan Moore has touched on Lovecraftian themes, most obviously in his The Courtyard and Yuggoth Cultures and Other Growths (and Antony Johnston's spin-off Yuggoth Creatures),[11][12] but also in his Black Dossier where the story "What Ho, Gods of the Abyss?" mixed Lovecraftian horror with Bertie Wooster.[13] Neonomicon posits a world where the Mythos, while existing as fiction written by Lovecraft, is also very real.

Gordon Rennie not only used various Lovecraft creations, like Tcho-Tcho, in his Necronauts, but he also included Lovecraft himself as a character, teaming up with an influence of his,[14] Charles Fort, a combination that would occur again in Fort: Prophet of the Unexplained. Necronauts wasn't the first appearance of Lovecraftian horror in 2000 AD as Grant Morrison's Zenith involved the eponymous hero trying to stop the Lloigor, known as the Many-Angled Ones. Entities also called Many-Angled Ones appear in the Marvel Universe in the storyline "Realm of Kings" where they rule an alternate reality. This story line was in their Guardians of the Galaxy comic where an alternate universe invades the main Marvel Universe. The invading universe, dubbed the "Cancerverse" in the comics, is a universe where Lovecraft's Elder Gods triumph over death and conquer the universe. The inspiration for the universe is clearly Lovecraftian as even the words are taken directly from Lovecraft's writings. The most obvious example of this is the word fhtagn. As the story is set in space, fighting alien gods, the only thing stopping the story from being truly a tale of Lovecraftian horror is that the good guys resoundingly win, though they only do so by releasing a galactic mass murderer loose on the other universe as well as theirs. So there is some lasting horror in that.[15] The Marvel Universe also contains a range of Cthulhu Mythos comics, including the Elder Gods.[16]

As well as appearing with Fort in two comics stories, Lovecraft has appeared as a character in a number of Lovecraftian comics. He appears in Mac Carter's and Tony Salmons's limited series The Strange Adventures of H.P. Lovecraft from Image[17] and in the Arcana children's graphic novel Howard and the Frozen Kingdom from Bruce Brown.[15] A webcomic, Lovecraft is Missing, debuted in 2008 and takes place in 1926, before the publication of "The Call of Cthulhu", and weaves in elements of Lovecraft's earlier stories.[18][19]

Boom! Studios have also run a number of series based on Cthulhu and other characters from the Mythos, including Cthulhu Tales[20] and Fall of Cthulhu.[21]

The creator of Hellboy, Mike Mignola, has described the books as being influenced primarily by the works of Lovecraft, in addition to those of Robert E. Howard and the legend of Dracula.[22] This was adapted into the 2004 film Hellboy. His Elseworlds mini-series The Doom That Came to Gotham reimagines Batman in a confrontation with Lovecraftian monsters.[23]

The manga artist Junji Ito was heavily influenced by Lovecraft.[citation needed]

The third volume of the comic series Atomic Robo, named "Atomic Robo and the Shadow from Beyond Time" features a Lovecraftian monster as the antagonist, and indeed has an appearance from H. P. Lovecraft himself.

Issue #32 of The Brave and the Bold was heavily influenced by the works and style of Lovecraft. In addition to using pastiches of Cthulhu, the Deep Ones, and R'lyeh, writer J. Michael Straczynski also wrote the story in a distinctly Lovecraftian style. Written entirely from the perspective of a traumatized sailor, the story makes use of several of Lovecraft's trademarks, including the ultimate feeling of insignificance in the face of the supernatural.[citation needed]

The Illustrated Ape magazine features a Lovecraft-related web comic on its site in the gallery section. The strip is written and illustrated by Charles Cutting and uses "The Dream Quest of Unknown Kadath" as its basis.[citation needed]

Film and television[edit]

From the 1950s onwards, in the era following Lovecraft's death, Lovecraftian horror truly became a sub-genre, not only fueling direct cinematic adaptations of Poe and Lovecraft, but providing the foundation upon which many of the horror films of the 1950s and 1960s were constructed. For instance Caltiki - the Immortal Monster has been considered Lovecraftian in subject matter and approach.

1960s[edit]

One notable filmmaker to dip into the Lovecraftian well was 1960s B-filmmaker Roger Corman, with his The Haunted Palace (1963) being very loosely based on The Case of Charles Dexter Ward , and his X featuring a protagonist driven to insanity by heightened vision that allows him to see God at the heart of the universe.

Though not direct adaptations, the episodes of the well-known series The Outer Limits often had Lovecraftian themes, such as human futility and insignificance and the limits of sanity and understanding.

Amongst the other well-known adaptations of this era are Dark Intruder (1965) which has some passing references to the Cthulhu Mythos; The Shuttered Room (1967), based on an August Derleth "posthumous collaboration" with Lovecraft, whose plot was closely based on Lovecraft's The Dunwich Horror; and Curse of the Crimson Altar (US title: The Crimson Cult)(1968), based on "The Dreams in the Witch-House".

1970s[edit]

The Dunwich Horror (1970) was based directly on Lovecraft's story of the same name, though with such plot diversions as introducing a female love interest for the character of Wilbur Whateley.

Rod Serling's 1969–73 series Night Gallery adapted at least two Lovecraft stories, "Pickman's Model" and "Cool Air". The episode "Professor Peabody's Last Lecture", concerning the fate of a man who read the Necronomicon, included a student named "Mr. Lovecraft" along with other students sharing names of authors in the Lovecraft Circle. (Another five minute short, called "Ms. Lovecraft Sent Me", about a babysitter and her strange client, has no relevance to anything written by Lovecraft but was probably an affectionate tip of the hat from Jack Laird, who had scripted the other Lovecraft-based episodes).

Dan O'Bannon and Ridley Scott's 1979 Alien bore a strong Lovecraftian influence, especially in the set design of H. R. Giger, who has published two art books inspired by Lovecraft's fictional Necronomicon. O'Bannon later made The Resurrected, based on The Case of Charles Dexter Ward.

1980s[edit]

As the 1980s and 1990s played out, Lovecraftian horror became a recognizable film staple in a variety of films.

In 1981, began the The Evil Dead comedy horror film franchise created by Sam Raimi after studying H. P. Lovecraft. It consists of the films The Evil Dead (1981), Evil Dead II (1987), and Army of Darkness (1992). The Necronomicon Ex-Mortis, or simply The Book of the Dead, is depicted in each of the three films.

John Carpenter's 1982 antarctic horror The Thing (a remake of the 1951 The Thing from Another World) based on a novella by John W. Campbell, played up the inherent Lovecraftian elements of the story. Carpenter's In the Mouth of Madness and a film even more overtly influenced by Lovecraft; Prince of Darkness, also contains some Lovecraftian elements.

The 1984 blockbuster Ghostbusters (which novelist/screenwriter Barbara Hambly has called "marvelously Lovecraftian") is noticeably reminiscent of Lovecraft's style.[24] Three episodes of the animated spin-off series ("The Collect Call of Cathulhu", "The Hole in the Wall Gang" and "Russian About") are directly inspired by the Cthulhu Mythos.

The blackly comedic Re-Animator (1985), was based on Lovecraft's serial "Herbert West: Reanimator". Re-Animator spawned numerous sequel films.

1986's From Beyond was loosely based on Lovecraft's story of the same title "From Beyond".

1987's film The Curse was an effective adaptation of Lovecraft's "The Colour Out of Space". However, its sequel, Curse II: The Bite had no Lovecraftian relevance.

1988's The Unnamable was a loose adaptation of Lovecraft's story of the same title "The Unnamable".

1990s[edit]

The 1991 HBO film Cast a Deadly Spell starred Fred Ward as Harry Phillip Lovecraft, a noir detective investigating the theft of the Necronomicon in an alternate universe 1948 Los Angeles where magic was commonplace. The sequel Witch Hunt had Dennis Hopper as H. Phillip Lovecraft in a story set two years later.

1992's The Resurrected, directed by Dan O'Bannon, is an adaptation of Lovecraft's novel The Case of Charles Dexter Ward. It contains numerous elements faithful to Lovecraft's story though the studio made major cuts to the film.

1993's The Unnamable Returns aka Unnamable II: The Statement of Randolph Carter was a sequel to 1988's The Unnamable, loosely based on Lovecraft's story "The Statement of Randolph Carter".

The self-referential Necronomicon (1993), featured Lovecraft himself as a character, played by Jeffrey Combs. The three stories in Necronomicon are based on three H. P. Lovecraft short stories: "The Drowned" is based on "The Rats in the Walls", "The Cold" is based on "Cool Air", and "Whispers" is based on "The Whisperer in Darkness".

1994's The Lurking Fear is an adaptation of Lovecraft's story "The Lurking Fear". It has some elements faithful to Lovecraft's story, while being hijacked by a crime caper subplot.

1995's Castle Freak is loosely inspired by Lovecraft's story "The Outsider".

1995's In the Mouth of Madness contains plot elements and settings/themes reminiscent to Lovecraft's writings.

The television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer, and its 1999 spin-off Angel, have essentially a Lovecraftian background setting, in which the world was once ruled by the demonic Old Ones before being pushed out by evolution, leaving only modern demons (which are human hybrids) and vampires as their legacy, into a hell dimension, waiting to return. Sunnydale, the setting of Buffy, was built on a hellmouth, a gateway to this hell dimension, and a common plot device in the series are those attempting to open the hellmouth in order to let the demons in.

2000s[edit]

2001's Dagon is a Spanish-made horror film directed by Stuart Gordon. Though titled after Lovecraft's story "Dagon", the film is actually an effective adaptation of his The Shadow over Innsmouth.

The 2003 Italian-made feature The Shunned House, directed by Ivan Zuccon, is loosely based on Lovecraft's story of the same title "The Shunned House".

2005's The Call of Cthulhu, made by the H. P. Lovecraft Historical Society, is a largely successful cinematic version of Lovecraft's story, using silent film techniques to mimic the feel of a film that might have been made at the time Lovecraft's story was written (1926).

2005's The Dreams in the Witch-House was a faithful adaptation of Lovecraft's story "The Dreams in the Witch-House" directed by Stuart Gordon, as an episode of the TV series Masters of Horror.

2007's The Tomb, directed by Ulli Lommel, though it uses Lovecraft's name on the credits and DVD packaging, is entirely unrelated to any work by Lovecraft including his story "The Tomb".

2007's The Mist , directed by Frank Darabont. Although it does not make any explicit reference to H. P. Lovecraft's work, the film features several Lovecraftian themes and creatures.

2008's Syfy film The Dunwich Horror (originally known as The Darkest Evil) features Jeffrey Combs and Dean Stockwell.[25] The action is transplanted from Lovecraft's New England town Dunwich to a town in Louisiana.

2009's The Last Lovecraft: Relic of Cthulhu plays Lovecraftian themes for laughs. Lovecraft's last relative must help save the world from Cthulhu's return.

2010s[edit]

Lovecraftian elements can also be seen in the Swedish horror film Marianne where the helpless teacher Krister is unsure whether he is being haunted or if he is going mad. The Swedish horror writers John Ajvide Lindqvist and Anders Fager have both written their own installments in the Cthulhu Mythos.

The 2011 film The Whisperer in Darkness is based on an H. P. Lovecraft short story of the same name. It was produced by Andrew Leman, who directed The Call of Cthulhu in 2001. It was shot in black and white like The Call of Cthulhu, but it is not a silent film.

The Swedish director Måns Mårlind's next project is a screen version of Anders Fagers book Collected Swedish Cults,[26] an anthology about ancient beings and the Swedish cults dedicated to them.

Drew Goddard directed the 2012 film The Cabin in the Woods.The film, scripted by Goddard and Joss Whedon features an organization known as the Facility sacrifices five young people in the theme of a horror film in order to placate the Ancient Ones, who once dominated the earth and now live below, so that they will not rise again.

2013's Evil Dead, directed by Fede Alvarez, has the Necronomicon play a key role in the plot just as the original The Evil Dead did.

HBO's True Detective introduced a number of Lovecraftian elements in 2014. The first season chronicles the dark mystery behind the cult of Hastur, The Yellow King, operating in the Louisiana bayou. Carcosa is heavily featured.

Games[edit]

Despite the fact that Lovecraft despised games,[27] his characters and settings have appeared in many video games and role-playing games. Some of these used Lovecraft's creations chiefly for name value (see Cthulhu Mythos in popular culture), but others have embraced Lovecraft's characteristic mood and themes.

Role-playing[edit]

In the early 1970s, Dungeons & Dragons drew from many of the most popular fantasy settings of the pulp era and weird fiction, including those of Lovecraft, whom Gygax has cited as an influence from the beginning. However, direct reference to Lovecraft's creations by name would wait until Dragon magazine issue #12 in 1978 with Robert J. Kuntz's, "The Lovecraftian Mythos in Dungeons & Dragons".[28] In the AD&D First Edition Dungeon Masters Guide in 1979, Lovecraft was listed among the recommended authors, which named authors and stories that influenced the feel and setting of the game. In 1980, a hardcover collection of the various fantasy and historical pantheons available for the game was published under the title Deities & Demigods. The first and second printings contained a version of the Cthulhu Mythos. Another gaming company, Chaosium, owned the rights to use Lovecraft's creations in games, and a deal was struck between TSR and Chaosium that allowed TSR to use the Cthulhu Mythos in Deities & Demigods for the rights to use elements of TSR copyrights in one of Chaosium's future books. The Cthulhu Mythos section was removed in the third and subsequent printings, and collectors prize early printings that contain it.[29]

As the game has evolved, many of the oldest creatures (e.g. the Mind Flayers, or illithid) and even gods (e.g. Tharizdun) of the game have their inspirations in Lovecraft, as well as newer elements, such as the Far Realm, an entire plane of insanity inspired by Lovecraft's works, and in October, 2004, Dragon magazine published a lengthy article titled "The Shadow over D&D: H. P. Lovecraft's Influence on Dungeons & Dragons" discussing these influences.[28]

Dungeons & Dragons was not the only role-playing game to incorporate Lovecraftian horror. The most overt example was published in 1980 by Chaosium. Call of Cthulhu is directly based on the Cthulhu Mythos. In keeping with its source material, and unlike most other role-playing games, characters who attempt to confront its monsters directly are likely to die or be driven insane rather than succeed. This is reinforced by the game's best-known feature, a mechanism by which knowledge about Mythos entities can only be gained at a permanent cost to one's sanity.[30] The Call of Cthulhu rules and source material have been adapted and included in a number of subsequent science fiction and fantasy role-playing games and rules supplements.

Steve Jackson Games' GURPS, a genre-neutral game system, was first published in 1986 and brought diverse elements of fiction and non-fiction together across their lengthy list of published supplements which included Cthulhupunk, a licensed adaptation of Cthulhu into a cyberpunk setting among many other Lovecraft-inspired works in role-playing, card and board games.

Video games[edit]

Video games, like films, have a rich history of Lovecraftian elements and adaptations.[31] In 1987, The Lurking Horror was the first to bring the Lovecraftian horror sub-genre to computer platforms. This was a text-based adventure game, released by Infocom, who are best known for the Zork series.

The seminal Lovecraftian role-playing game "Call of Cthulhu" has lent its name and other material to several video games in the adventure and RPG genre for platforms as diverse as the PC, consoles and mobile devices.

"Call of Cthulhu: Dark corners of the Earth" for Xbox and PC is chiefly regarded as the most popular. A First person Shooter with strong survival horror elements, it is the closest any video game has ever come to capturing the tone and atmosphere of Lovecrafts Work.

While other media have portrayed Lovecraftian elements in humorous ways as diverse as the Illuminati Card Game and a plethora of plush Cthulhu dolls, video games such as Cthulhu Saves the World (2010) have been less common.

Though Lovecraftian elements have appeared in MMORPGs such as World of Warcraft and Age of Conan since EverQuest, the 2012 game The Secret World was the first to feature Lovecraftian elements as one of its primary inspirations.[32]

The game Eternal Darkness: Sanity's Requiem draws inspiration from H.P. Lovecraft.

Overall, the reception of Lovecraftian horror in video games, as with print fiction, has never achieved the same level of popularity as the high fantasy, swords-and-sorcery model games.[33]

Other media[edit]

In Terry Pratchett's Discworld series, the Dungeon Dimensions are the endless wastelands outside of space and time. Lovecraftian horrors dwell there, seeking to invade reality, and warp existence when they do.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Harms, Daniel (2006). The Encyclopedia Cthulhiana: A Guide to Lovecraftian Horror. Chaosium. ISBN 1-56882-169-7. 
  2. ^ Lovecraft, H. P. (1992). Crawling Chaos: Selected works 1920-1935 H. P. Lovecraft. introduction by Colin Wilson. Creation Press. ISBN 1-871592-72-0. 
  3. ^ Bloch, Robert (August 1973). "Poe & Lovecraft". Ambrosia (2). 
  4. ^ Joshi, S.T. (2006). Icons of Horror and the Supernatural: An Encyclopedia of Our Worst Nightmares. Greenwood. p. 107. ISBN 0313337802. 
  5. ^ Wohleber, Curt (December 1995). "The Man Who Can Scare Stephen King". American Heritage 46 (8). Retrieved 2013-09-10. 
  6. ^ Stentz, Zack (1997). "Return of the Weird" (January 2–8, 1997 issue). Metro. 
  7. ^ Lord, Bruce. "Some Lovecraftian Thoughts on Borges' "There Are More Things"". 
  8. ^ Borges, Jorge (1977). "Epilogue". The book of sand. E. P. Dutton. ISBN 0-525-06992-5. 
  9. ^ Graphic Classics: H.P. Lovecraft
  10. ^ Siegel, Lucas (March 20, 2008). "Corben and Lovecraft at Marvel in June". Newsarama. 
  11. ^ Weiland, Jonah (April 22, 2004). "Embracing Lovecraftian Monsters in Johnston's "Yuggoth Creatures"". Comic Book Resources. 
  12. ^ Brady, Matt (May 5, 2004). "Johnston and the Yuggoth". Newsarama. 
  13. ^ Nevins, Jess (February 2, 2010). "Annotations to the Black Dossier". enjolrasworld.com. Retrieved April 1, 2010. 
  14. ^ Charles Fort and Astounding Science Fiction
  15. ^ a b Duvall, Kyle (March 30, 2010). "The Icy Hand of H.P. LOVECRAFT Still Felt Across Media". Newsarama. Retrieved April 1, 2020.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  16. ^ Lovecraft & the Cthulhu Mythos in Marvel Comics at the Appendix to the Handbook of the Marvel Universe
  17. ^ Sullivan, Michael Patrick (February 27, 2009). "Carter & Byrne on Lovecraft's Strange Adventures". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved April 1, 2010. 
  18. ^ Price, Matthew (September 1, 2009). "Oklahoma native Larry Latham moves from cartoons to Web comic". The Oklahoman. Retrieved February 4, 2010. 
  19. ^ Larsson, Mark (November 15, 2009). "Interview with Larry Latham of Lovecraft is Missing!". The Xcentrikz. Retrieved February 4, 2010. [dead link]
  20. ^ McLean, Matthew (February 1, 2008). "We Are But Ants: Mark Waid & Steve Niles Talk Lovecraft". Comics Bulletin. 
  21. ^ Fall of Cthulhu at the Comic Book DB
  22. ^ Fassbender, Tom. "Interviews: Mike Mignola". Dark Horse. 
  23. ^ Tate, Ray. "Batman: The Doom That Came to Gotham #1 Review". Comics Bulletin. "Only a half-wit can mess up a concept like Batman if written by H.P. Lovecraft. Mike Mignola's mind has been enslaved by the Great Ones. He easily evokes the atmosphere of the grandmaster of horror." 
  24. ^ H.P. Lovecraft (October 1996) "The Transition of H.P. Lovecraft", p. ix.
  25. ^ The Dunwich Horror (2009) at imdb.com
  26. ^ Svenska Kulter at the Internet Movie Database
  27. ^ from the HPL Archive "As much as Lovecraft hated games, it is ironic that many Lovecraft games exist." http://www.hplovecraft.com/popcult/
  28. ^ a b Jacobs, James (October 2004). "The Shadow Over D&D: H. P. Lovecraft's Influence on Dungeons & Dragons". Dragon (#324). 
  29. ^ "The Acaeum page on Deities & Demigods". Retrieved 2007-02-21.  shows contents of different printings.
  30. ^ MacLaurin, Wayne and Neil Walsh (1997). "Call of Cthulhu: A Look at Chaosium's Horrifying Journey into the Worlds of H. P. Lovecraft, Part I". 
  31. ^ Zenke, Michael. "Dreading the Shadows on the Wall". The Escapist. 
  32. ^ John Walker (2011-07-06). "Ragnar Tørnquist On The Secret World: Part 1". Rock, Paper, Shotgun. Retrieved 2011-08-27. 
  33. ^ Schiesel, Seth (2008-06-04). "At Play in a World of Savagery, but Not This One". The New York Times. 

References[edit]

  • Bloch, Robert (August 1973). "Poe & Lovecraft". Ambrosia (2). 
  • Fassbender, Tom. "Interviews: Mike Mignola". Dark Horse. 
  • Harms, Daniel (2006). The Encyclopedia Cthulhiana: A Guide to Lovecraftian Horror. Chaosium. ISBN 1-56882-169-7. 
  • Jacobs, James (October 2004). "The Shadow Over D&D: H. P. Lovecraft's Influence on Dungeons & Dragons". Dragon (#324). 
  • Lovecraft, H. P. (1992). Crawling Chaos: Selected works 1920-1935 H. P. Lovecraft. introduction by Colin Wilson. Creation Press. ISBN 1-871592-72-0. 
  • Smith, Don G. (2006). H.P. Lovecraft in Popular Culture: The Works and Their Adaptations in Film, Television, Comics, Music, and Games. McFarland. p. 173. ISBN 0-7864-2091-X. 
  • Zenke, Michael. "Dreading the Shadows on the Wall". The Escapist. 
  • A reference work that covers this film field extensively is Charles P. Mitchell, The Complete H.P. Lovecraft Filmography. (Greenwood Press, 2001). ISBN 0-313-31641-4. There is also Lurker in the Lobby: The Guide to the Cinema of H. P. Lovecraft by Andrew Migliore.
  • Black, Andy. "Crawling Celluloid Chaos: H.P. Lovecraft in Cinema". in Andy Black (ed), Necronomicon: The Journal of Horror and Erotic Cinema, Book OneLondon: Creation Books, 1996, pp. 109–22.
  • Migliore, Andrew and John Strysik. The Lurker in the Lobby: A Guide to the Cinema of H.P. Lovecraft. Seattle: Armitage House, 2000.
  • Mitchell, Charles P. The Complete H.P. Lovecraft Filmography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001.
  • Schweitzer, Darrell. Lovecraft in the Cinema. Baltimore, MD: TK Graphics, 1975.

External links[edit]