|Maria Lovisa Aarberg|
|Born||17 May 1801
|Died||26 March 1881
Possibly the first female doctor in Sweden.
Maria Lovisa Åhrberg or Årberg (17 May 1801 in Uppsala, – 26 March 1881 in Stockholm,), was a Swedish surgeon and doctor. She was the first recognised female doctor in Sweden. She was a doctor and a surgeon already in long before it was formally permitted for women by the reform which made it legal for women to study medicine at the universities in 1870. The only identified earlier female medical practitioner in Sweden, who may have had such an official recognition, was Kisamor, who did not, however, have any formal medical training.
Lovisa Åhrberg was born in Uppsala in Uppland. Her father was a caretaker at the Uppsala University. Her mother and grandmother were reportedly active within nursing, possible within folk medicine. In the early 19th-century, nurses were merely uneducated helpers to the doctors. During her childhood, Åhrberg accompanied her mother to hospitals. She was never formally as student at any medical school but she was, informally educated in medicine by observation.
As an adult, Lovisa Åhrberg settled in the capital of Stockholm to work as a domestic maid in the household of a family. During her spare time, she helped people afflicted with injuries, wounds and illness with their health problems. Evidently, this started when her help was asked for by friends from Uppsala, were her background was known. Because her treatments were successful, words spread about her knowledge in health care and she was more and more sought after by clients for for medical treatment. Initially her clients were poor, but when wealthy people begun to hire her and paid her for her services, she was able to leave her position as a domestic maid and was, from circa the year 1840, able to support herself solely as, in effect, a doctor.
This was in practice not that unusual: in the countryside, women practice medicine in the role of cunning folk, such as Hanna Svensdotter (1798–1864), who was widely reputed as "The Doctoress in Wram" and who was reputed for her treatment of especially leg injuries "far outside of Scania". The practice of Lovisa Åhrberg was however regarded as more controversial.
While Lovisa Åhrberg was in practice a successful and popular medical practitioner, she had no license to practice as a doctor. Her training and knowledge, though apparently efficient and sufficient, had no background in any formal medical training or medical degree. This was in any case impossible for a female at the time, as women were not allowed to study medicine at the university before 1870.
In contrast to her contemporary Kisamor, who was also a popular female medical practitioner, but who had a long tradition of cunning folk to support herself in her activity in the countryside, Åhrberg was met with great opposition from male doctors when she started to became known as a self supporting female doctor in the city. Formal charges were directed against her, and she was duly investigated by the medical authorities for quackery.
Upon examination, however, Lovisa Åhrberg was deemed to have sufficient medical knowledge for the practice she was conducting and free from all forms of harmful practice. She was thereby acquitted from quackery and given permission to practice medicine, despite the fact that this was in practice banned for females. Her position could be prepared with that of her contemporary Amalia Assur, who was given special dispensation to practice dentistry despite the fact that this was in fact prohibited for females. An additional reason for her acquittal was the fact that Åhrberg was foremost active as a surgeon, and that the medicals she offered her patients for inner illnesses were normally natural herbals.
In 1852, Lovisa Åhrberg was rewarded with a medal by King Oscar I of Sweden for her work.
Lovisa Åhrberg was admired by Fredrika Bremer, who mentions her in her famous novel Hertha in 1856:
“ Be it permissible for me to here utter a word of regard and recognition for the doctoress in Stockholm, Miss Årberg, and add the wish that some of the wealthy people, who occasionly send their carriages to fetch the skillful doctoress, would like to, at one time or another, witness the reception she daily gives to the poor people of Stockholm, who hurry through her open doors with their wounds and injuries; they would, as much as we do, be taken by admiration upon the never ending patience, the good humour and the generosity, by which she gives her time, her care and her ointments to the thousands, who have nothing to give her but the thank you which for some low minded people are made to be ungratitude. They would as we do feel a wish to give her a better location for her good work, than the one she now has more or less on the street, and means to continue it without to much loss, and then they would, perhaps, more happily do what they wish. ”
The novelty of a female doctor of the time was illustrated by the fact that Åhrberg was normally not referred to as "doctor" but called "The wound healer doctoress" and "Maiden Åberg". Åhrberg is portrayed in a book about famous Swedish women published in 1864–1866. Her clinic is here described as a "poor man's clinic" because she so often treated poor people. This contemporary book reports, that Åhrberg's own health had become so damaged by hard work that she on several occasions had to take leave and rest in the resort of Carlsbad. The article ends the report:
|“||One can only hope, that the only too much applied strength to at least some extent will continue to support her, to benefit the great number of people, who still rely upon her care.||”|
In 1871, Lovisa Åhrberg became blind and retired. The year before, the medical profession was formally opened to women in Sweden when women were accepted as student in the medical faculties of the universities, with Karolina Widerström becoming the first woman with a formal medical degree and license to practice medicine.
- Wilhelmina Stålberg: runeberg.org Anteqningar om Svenska kvinnor (Notes on Swedish women) Runeberg (1864-1866) ((Swedish)
- Svenskt biografiskt handlexikon (1906)