Lower Canada Rebellion
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2007)|
|Lower Canada Rebellions|
|Part of the Rebellions of 1837|
The Battle of Saint-Eustache, Lower Canada.
| United Kingdom
American Sympathizer Militia
|Commanders and leaders|
George Augustus Wetherall
|Thomas Storrow Brown,
Jean-Olivier Chénier, †
|1,380 regulars, rising to 10,000 by mid-1838
23,000 Canadian militia
25,000 American militia
|Casualties and losses|
|32 combat dead,
1,600 wounded or captured,
29 executed for treason,
58 deported to Australia
The Lower Canada Rebellion (French: La rébellion du Bas-Canada), commonly referred to as the Patriots' War (French: la Guerre des patriotes) by Quebecers, is the name given to the armed conflict between the rebels of Lower Canada (now Quebec) and the British colonial power of that province. Together with the simultaneous Upper Canada Rebellion in the neighbouring colony of Upper Canada (now Ontario), it formed the Rebellions of 1837.
The rebellion of Lower Canada continued in 1838 and is often called Les rébellions de 1837–38 in Quebec. The actions of the rebels resulted in the declaration of martial law, and a first armed conflict occurred in 1837 when the 26 members of the Patriote movement who had been charged with illegal activities chose to resist their arrest by the authorities under the direction of John Colborne. In 1838, two major armed conflicts occurred when groups of Lower Canadian Patriotes led by Robert Nelson crossed the American border in an attempt to invade Lower Canada and Upper Canada, drive the British army out and establish independent republics, including the Republic of Lower Canada.
These events are often misreported, which moves the attention away from three decades of political battles between the Parti patriote of James Stuart and Louis-Joseph Papineau, who were seeking accountability from the elected government and governor of the colony. However, the unelected body was dominated by a small group of mainly businessmen known as the Château Clique, the equivalent of the Family Compact in Upper Canada.
The movement for reform took shape in a period of economic disfranchisement of the French-speaking majority and working-class English-speaking citizens. But the rebellion focused on the unfairness of colonial governing as such, as many of the leaders and participants were English-speaking citizens of Lower Canada. In banking, the timber trade, and transportation, Anglophones were seen as disproportionately represented. At the same time, some among the Anglophone business elite were advocating for a union of Upper and Lower Canada to ensure competitiveness on a national scale with the increasingly large and powerful economy of the United States (who, in part, inspired the rebels by their own successful war of independence). The unification of the colony was a plan favoured by the British-appointed governor, George Ramsey, Earl of Dalhousie. The reaction was a growing sense of nationalism among English and the French-speaking citizens, which solidified into the Parti canadien (after 1826 called the Parti patriote).
In 1811, James Stuart became leader of the Parti Canadien in the assembly and in 1815, reformer Louis-Joseph Papineau was elected Assembly speaker. The Assembly, while elected, had little power; its decisions could be vetoed by a legislative council and the governor appointed by the British government. Dalhousie and Papineau were soon at odds over the issue of uniting the Canadas. Dalhousie forced an election in 1827 rather than accept Papineau as speaker. Sympathizers to the reform movement in England had Dalhousie forced from his position and reappointed to India. Still, the legislative council and the assembly were not able to reach a compromise. By 1834, the assembly had passed the Ninety-Two Resolutions, outlining its grievances against the legislative council. At that point, the Patriote movement was supported by an overwhelming majority of the population of all origins.
Later in 1834, the Parti Patriote swept the election with more than three-quarters of the popular vote. However, the reformers in Lower Canada were divided over several issues. A moderate reformer named John Neilson had quit the party in 1830 and joined the Constitutional Association four years later. Papineau's anti-clerical position alienated reformers in the Catholic Church, and his support for secular rather than religious schools made him a powerful enemy in Bishop Jean-Jacques Lartigue. Lartigue called on all Catholics to reject the reform movement and support the authorities, forcing many to choose between their religion and their political convictions.
However, Papineau continued to push for reform. He petitioned the British government to bring about reform, but in March 1837 the government of Lord Melbourne rejected all of Papineau's requests. Papineau then organized protests and assemblies, and eventually approved the paramilitary Société des Fils de la Liberté during the Assemblée des six-comtés.
Papineau escaped to the United States, but the rebels set themselves up in the countryside. Led by Wolfred Nelson, they defeated a British force at Saint-Denis on November 23. However, the British troops soon beat back the rebels, defeating them at Saint-Charles on November 25 and at Saint-Eustache on December 14. Saint-Eustache was then pillaged and ransacked. On December 5, martial law was declared in Montreal.
When news of the arrest of the Patriote leaders reached Upper Canada, William Lyon Mackenzie launched an armed rebellion in December 1837. In the meantime, filibusters from the United States, the Hunter Patriots, formed a small militia and attacked Windsor, Upper Canada, to further support the Canadian Patriots. These revolts were quickly put down. The following year, leaders who had escaped across the border into the United States raided Lower Canada in February 1838. A second revolt began at Battle of Beauharnois in November of the same year. This too was crushed by the British.
Britain dispatched Lord Durham to investigate the cause of the rebellion. His report recommended that the Canadas be united into one colony (the Province of Canada) to assimilate the French-speaking Canadiens into anglophone British culture. However, he recommended acceding to the rebels' grievances by granting responsible government to the new colony.
Following the military defeat of the Patriotes, Lower Canada was merged with Upper Canada under the Union Act. The Canadiens barely remained a majority in the new political entity, and with continued emigration to the English-speaking part of Canada, this dominance was short lived. Eight years after the Union, a responsible government was set up in the united Province of Canada. The great instability of this new regime (see Joint Premiers of the Province of Canada) led to the formation of the Great coalition, and another major constitutional change, the Canadian Confederation of 1867.
The rebellion of the Patriotes Canadiens of Lower Canada, taken along with the Upper Canadian Rebellion, is often seen as the example of what might have happened to the United States of America if the American Revolutionary War had failed. In Quebec, the rebellion (as well as the parliamentary and popular struggle) is now commemorated as the Journée nationale des Patriotes (National Patriotes Day) by the use of the Canadian Statutory Holiday, Victoria Day. It has become a symbol for the contemporary Quebec independence movement (and to a lesser extent a symbol of Canada's small republican movement).
- Thomas Storrow Brown (1803–1888)
- Jean-Olivier Chénier (1806–1837)
- François-Marie-Thomas Chevalier de Lorimier (1803–1839)
- Amury Girod (1800–1837)
- James Ard (1802–1840)
- Edmund Bailey O'Callaghan (1797–1880)
- Wolfred Nelson (1791–1863)
- Louis-Joseph Papineau (1786–1871)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Patriote movement.|
- History of Canada
- Patriote movement
- Timeline of Quebec history
- Politics of Quebec
- Canada Bay, New South Wales: some French Canadians who took part in the rebellions were expelled to this region of Australia.
- National Patriots' Day
- Kahnawake Iroquois and the Rebellions of 1837–38
- February 15, 1839
- Félix Poutré
- List of the 108 Lower Canadians prosecuted before the general court-martial of Montreal in 1838–39
- Boissery, Beverly. (1995). A Deep Sense of Wrong: The Treason Trials, and Transportation to New South Wales of Lower Canadian Rebels after the 1838 Rebellion, Toronto: Dundurn Press, 367 p. (ISBN 1550022423)
- Brown, Richard. Rebellion in Canada, 1837-1885: Autocracy, Rebellion and Liberty (Volume 1) ((2012) excerpt volume 1; Rebellion in Canada, 1837-1885, Volume 2: The Irish, the Fenians and the Metis (2012) excerpt for volume 2
- Buckner, Philip Alfred. (1985). The Transition to Responsible Government: British Policy in British North America, 1815–1850, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 358 p.
- Burroughs, Peter. (1972). The Canadian Crisis and the British Colonial Policy, 1828–1849, Toronto: MacMillan, 118 p.
- Decelles, Afred Duclos. (1916). The "Patriotes" of '37: A Chronicle of the Lower Canadian Rebellion, Toronto: Glasgow, Brook & Co., 140 p. [translated by Stewart Wallace]
- Ducharme, Michel. "Closing the Last Chapter of the Atlantic Revolution: The 1837-38 Rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada," Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society (2006) 116#2 pp 413-430.
- Dunning, Tom. "The Canadian Rebellions of 1837 and 1838 as a Borderland War: A Retrospective," Ontario History (2009) 101#2 pp 129-141.
- Greer, Allan (1993). The Patriots and the People: The Rebellion of 1837 in Rural Lower Canada, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 385 p. (ISBN 0802069304) (preview)
- Senior, Elionor Kyte. (1985). Redcoats and Patriotes: The Rebellions in Lower Canada, 1837–38, Ontario: Canada's Wings, Inc., 218 p. (ISBN 0920002285)
- Mann, Michael (1986). A Particular Duty: The Canadian Rebellions 1837–1839, Salisbury (Wiltshire): Michael Russel Publishing, 211 p.
- Tiffany, Orrin Edward]. (1980). The Relations of the United States to the Canadian Rebellion of 1837–1838, Toronto: Coles Pub., 147 p.
- Ryerson, Stanley Brehaut (1968). Unequal Union: Confederation and the Roots of Conflict in the Canadas, 1815–1873, Toronto : Progress Books, 477 p.
- Manning, Helen Taft (1962). The Revolt of French Canada, 1800–1835. A Chapter in the History of the British Commonwealth, Toronto: Macmillan Company of Canada, 426 p.
- Kinchen, Oscar Arvle (1956). The Rise and Fall of the Patriot Hunters, Toronto: Burns and Maceachern, 150 p.
- Morison, John Lyle (1919). British Supremacy and Canadian Self-Government, 1839–1854, Toronto: S. B.Gundy, 369 p.
- Schull, Joseph (1971). Rebellion: the Rising in French Canada 1837, Toronto: Macmillan, 226 p.
- Greenwood,F. Murray, and Barry Wright (2 vol 1996, 2002) Canadian state trials – Rebellion and invasion in the Canadas, 1837–1839 Society for Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press, ISBN 0-8020-0913-1
- The Patriotes Rebellion Quebec 1837–1839, selection of French documents translated into English for the Marxists Internet Archive
- Les Patriotes de 1837@38 (French) Website edited by historian Gilles Laporte since 1995 (news, analysis, bibliography, time line, biographies, atlas, debates, diaporama, games etc.)
- Les rébellions des Patriotes de 1837–38 (French)
- Histoire Québec, Rebelles et Patriotes, volume 5, numéro 2, Décembre 1999 (French)