Nor–Pondo languages

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Nor–Pondo
Lower Sepik
Geographic
distribution:
New Guinea
Linguistic classification: Ramu–Lower Sepik
  • Nor–Pondo
Subdivisions:
Glottolog: lowe1423[1]

The Nor–Pondo aka Lower Sepik languages are a small language family of northern Papua New Guinea. They were identified as a family by K Laumann in 1951 under the name Nor–Pondo, and included in Donald Laycock's now-defunct 1973 Sepik–Ramu family. Malcolm Ross (2005) broke up the Nor branch and thus renamed the family Lower Sepik; he classifies it as one branch of a Ramu–Lower Sepik language family. Ethnologue (2009) keeps Nor together but breaks up Pondo.

Classification[edit]

 Lower Sepik 
 (Nor–Pondo) 
 Nor family (?) 

Murik



Kopar



 Pondo family (?) 

Chambri



Karawari (Tabriak), Yimas



Angoram




Ross (2005) notes Murik does not share the /p/s characteristic of the first- and second-person pronouns of Kopar and the Pondo languages, so the latter may form a group: Murik vs Kopar–Pondo. Foley (2005) tentatively proposes that Chambri and Angoram may be primary branches: Nor, Chambari, Karawari–Yimas, Angoram.

Pronouns[edit]

The pronouns reconstructed for the proto-language are,

Proto–Lower Sepik (Ross)
I *ama we two *ka-i, *ka-pia we few *(p)a-ŋk-i-t we all *a-i, *a-pia, *i-pi
thou *nɨmi you two *ka-u, *ka-pua you few *(p)a-ŋk-u-t you all *a-u, *a-pu, *i-pu(a)
s/he *mɨn they two *mɨnɨmp ? (M),
*mpɨ ? (F)
they few *mɨŋkɨ-t they all *mump (M),
*pum (F)
Proto-Nor–Pondo (Foley)
we two *ka-i, *ka-pa-i we few *(pa)ŋk-it we all *a-i, *a-pa-i, *(y)i-i, *(y)i-pa-i
you two *ka-u, *ka-pa-u you few *(pa)ŋk-ut you all *a-u, *a-pa-u, *(y)i-u, *(y)i-pa-u
they two  ? they few *mɨŋkɨ they all *mump ?

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Nor–Pondo". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 

References[edit]

  • Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley, Robert Attenborough, Robin Hide, Jack Golson, eds. Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.