Lower Township, New Jersey

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Lower Township, New Jersey
Township
Township of Lower
Township of Lower Municipal Building
Township of Lower Municipal Building
Lower Township highlighted in Cape May County. Inset map: Cape May County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Lower Township highlighted in Cape May County. Inset map: Cape May County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Lower Township, New Jersey
Census Bureau map of Lower Township, New Jersey
Coordinates: 38°59′02″N 74°54′41″W / 38.983768°N 74.911308°W / 38.983768; -74.911308Coordinates: 38°59′02″N 74°54′41″W / 38.983768°N 74.911308°W / 38.983768; -74.911308[1][2]
Country United States
State New Jersey
County Cape May
Established April 2, 1723 (as precinct)
Incorporated February 21, 1798 (as township)
Government[6]
 • Type Faulkner Act (Council-Manager)
 • Mayor Michael E. Beck (term ends December 31, 2015)[3]
 • Manager Michael J. Voll[4]
 • Clerk Claudia Kammer[5]
Area[2]
 • Total 31.015 sq mi (80.327 km2)
 • Land 27.740 sq mi (71.846 km2)
 • Water 3.275 sq mi (8.482 km2)  10.56%
Area rank 85th of 566 in state
4th of 16 in county[2]
Elevation[7] 20 ft (6 m)
Population (2010 Census)[8][9][10]
 • Total 22,866
 • Estimate (2012[11]) 22,571
 • Rank 110th of 566 in state
1st of 16 in county[12]
 • Density 824.3/sq mi (318.3/km2)
 • Density rank 404th of 566 in state
10th of 16 in county[12]
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)
ZIP code 08251 - Villas[13]
Area code(s) 609
FIPS code 3400941610[14][2][15]
GNIS feature ID 0882044[16][2]
Website www.townshipoflower.org

Lower Township is a township in Cape May County, New Jersey, United States. It is part of the Ocean City Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 22,866,[8][9][10] reflecting a decrease of 79 (-0.3%) from the 22,945 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 2,125 (+10.2%) from the 20,820 counted in the 1990 Census.[17]

Lower Township was formed as a precinct on April 2, 1723, and was incorporated by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798, as one of New Jersey's initial 104 townships. Portions of the township were taken to form Cape Island Borough (March 8, 1848, now known as Cape May city), Cape May Point borough (created April 19, 1878, restored to Lower Township on April 8, 1896, recreated April 6, 1908), Holly Beach (April 14, 1885, now part of Wildwood city), South Cape May (August 27, 1894, restored to Lower Township after the borough was dissolved on April 30, 1945), Wildwood Crest (April 6, 1910) and North Cape May (March 19, 1928, restored to Lower Township after it was dissolved on April 30, 1945).[18]

New Jersey Monthly magazine ranked Lower Township as its 34th best place to live in its 2008 rankings of the "Best Places To Live" in New Jersey.[19]

Geography[edit]

Cape May County Library branch on Bayshore Road

Lower Township is located at 38°59′02″N 74°54′41″W / 38.983768°N 74.911308°W / 38.983768; -74.911308 (38.983768,-74.911308). According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 31.015 square miles (80.327 km2), of which, 27.740 square miles (71.846 km2) of it is land and 3.275 square miles (8.482 km2) of it (10.56%) is water.[1][2]

Diamond Beach (2010 Census population of 136[20]), Erma (2,134[21]), North Cape May (3,226[22]) and Villas (9,483[23]) are census-designated places and unincorporated communitys located within Lower Township.[24] Other communities in Lower Township include Cold Spring, Fishing Creek, Schellenger's Landing and Townbank.[25]

Lower Township borders Middle Township, Wildwood City, Wildwood Crest Borough, Cape May City, West Cape May Borough, Cape May Point Borough, the Delaware Bay, and the Atlantic Ocean.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1810 862
1820 1,001 16.1%
1830 999 −0.2%
1840 1,133 13.4%
1850 1,604 * 41.6%
1860 1,865 16.3%
1870 1,783 −4.4%
1880 1,779 * −0.2%
1890 1,156 * −35.0%
1900 1,141 * −1.3%
1910 1,188 * 4.1%
1920 1,096 −7.7%
1930 1,444 * 31.8%
1940 1,693 17.2%
1950 2,737 61.7%
1960 6,332 131.3%
1970 10,154 60.4%
1980 17,105 68.5%
1990 20,820 21.7%
2000 22,945 10.2%
2010 22,866 −0.3%
Est. 2012 22,571 [11] −1.3%
Population sources: 1810-2000[26]
1810-1920[27] 1840[28] 1850-1870[29]
1850[30] 1870[31] 1880-1890[32]
1890-1910[33] 1910-1930[34]
1930-1990[35] 2000[36][37] 2010[8][9][10]
* = Lost territory in previous decade[18]

Census 2010[edit]

At the 2010 United States Census, there were 22,866 people, 9,579 households, and 6,351 families residing in the township. The population density was 824.3 per square mile (318.3 /km2). There were 14,507 housing units at an average density of 523.0 per square mile (201.9 /km2). The racial makeup of the township was 94.24% (21,549) White, 1.99% (456) Black or African American, 0.16% (37) Native American, 0.62% (142) Asian, 0.04% (10) Pacific Islander, 1.20% (275) from other races, and 1.74% (397) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 4.24% (969) of the population.[8]

There were 9,579 households, of which 22.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.3% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.7% were non-families. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 15.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.89.[8]

In the township, 19.8% of the population were under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 20.4% from 25 to 44, 31.0% from 45 to 64, and 21.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46.5 years. For every 100 females there were 90.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males.[8]

The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $51,101 (with a margin of error of +/- $2,460) and the median family income was $62,587 (+/- $7,438). Males had a median income of $50,572 (+/- $3,361) versus $35,978 (+/- $2,297) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $28,175 (+/- $1,295). About 6.6% of families and 10.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.4% of those under age 18 and 6.5% of those age 65 or over.[38]

Census 2000[edit]

As of the 2000 United States Census[14] there were 22,945 people, 9,328 households, and 6,380 families residing in the township. The population density was 813.0 people per square mile (313.9/km²). There were 13,924 housing units at an average density of 493.4 per square mile (190.5/km²). The racial makeup of the township was 96.26% White, 1.39% African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.53% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.65% from other races, and 0.92% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.88% of the population.[36][37]

There were 9,328 households out of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.9% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.6% were non-families. 27.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.95.[36][37]

In the township the population was spread out with 23.7% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 25.1% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, and 20.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males.[36][37]

The median income for a household in the township was $38,977, and the median income for a family was $45,058. Males had a median income of $35,201 versus $24,715 for females. The per capita income for the township was $19,786. About 5.3% of families and 7.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.3% of those under age 18 and 5.3% of those age 65 or over.[36][37]

Government[edit]

Local government[edit]

Lower Township adopted the Council-Manager form of government under the Faulkner Act in 1984. The council is composed of five council members (Mayor, Council Member-at-Large, and three Wards), each elected on a partisan basis to four-year terms on a staggered basis, with either two or three seats up for election every other year on an alternating basis.[6][39]

The Mayor presides at all Council meetings and has a voice and vote in the proceedings. Powers are limited to those expressly conferred by the Charter. The Manager serves the Council for an indefinite term of office and may be removed by a majority vote of the Council. The Manager is the chief executive and administrator of the Township.

As of 2013, members of the Lower Township Council are Mayor Michael E. Beck, Deputy Mayor Norris Clark, 1st Ward Council Member Thomas Conrad, 2nd Ward Council Member James Neville and 3rd Ward Council Member Glenn Douglass.[39]

Federal, state and county representation[edit]

Lower Township is located in the 2nd Congressional District[40] and is part of New Jersey's 1st state legislative district.[9][41][42]

New Jersey's Second Congressional District is represented by Frank LoBiondo (R, Ventnor City).[43] New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark; took office on October 31, 2013, after winning a special election to fill the seat of Frank Lautenberg)[44][45] and Bob Menendez (D, Paramus).[46][47]

The 1st Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Jeff Van Drew (D, Dennis Township) and in the General Assembly by Bob Andrzejczak (D, Middle Township) and Sam Fiocchi (R, Vineland).[48] The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township).[49] The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).[50]

Cape May County is governed by a Board of Chosen Freeholders consisting of five members, elected at-large in partisan elections to three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with one or two seats coming up for election each year; At an annual reorganization held each January, the freeholders select one member to serve as Director and another to serve as Vice-Director.[51] As of 2013, Cape May County's Freeholders are Freeholder Director Gerald M. Thornton (Middle Township, term ends December 31, 2013),[52] Freeholder Vice-Director Leonard C. Desiderio (Sea Isle City, 2015),[53] Kristine Gabor (Upper Township, 2014)[54] and Will Morey (Wildwood Crest, 2014),[55] along with the vacant seat of M. Susan Sheppard expiring in 2013 that was vacated after Sheppard was sworn in as County Surrogate.[51][56] The county's constitutional officers are Sheriff Gary Schafer (Ocean City, 2014),[57][58] Surrogate M. Susan Sheppard (Ocean City, 2015)[59] and County Clerk Rita Fulginiti (Ocean City, 2013).[60]

Politics[edit]

As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 14,612 registered voters in Lower Township, of which 3,000 (20.5%) were registered as Democrats, 5,902 (40.4%) were registered as Republicans and 5,702 (39.0%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 8 voters registered to other parties.[61]

In the 2008 presidential election, Republican John McCain received 52.2% of the vote here (5,831 cast), ahead of Democrat Barack Obama, who received 45.1% (5,040 votes), with 11,177 ballots cast among the township's 14,435 registered voters, for a turnout of 77.4%.[62] In the 2004 presidential election, Republican George W. Bush received 54.3% of the vote here (5,951 ballots cast), outpolling Democrat John Kerry, who received around 44.1% (4,830 votes), with 10,961 ballots cast among the township's 14,709 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 74.5.[63]

In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 51.6% of the vote here (3,712 ballots cast), ahead of both Democrat Jon Corzine with 40.1% (2,882 votes) and Independent Chris Daggett with 6.0% (433 votes), with 7,190 ballots cast among the township's 14,989 registered voters, yielding a 48.0% turnout.[64]

Education[edit]

The Lower Township School District serves public school students in prekindergarten through sixth grade. Schools in the district (with 2010-11 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics[65]) are Memorial School[66] (PreK and K; 421 students), Carl T. Mitnick School[67] (1 and 2; 430), Maud T. Abrams School[68] (3 and 4; 475) and Charles W. Sandman Consolidated School[69] (5 and 6; 500).[70]

The Lower Township School District participates in the Interdistrict Public School Choice Program, which allows non-resident students to attend the district's schools without cost to their parents, with tuition paid by the state. Available lots are announced annually by grade.[71]

For seventh through twelfth grades, public school students attend the schools of the Lower Cape May Regional School District, which also serves students from Cape May City and West Cape May, along with students from Cape May Point who attend the district as part of a sending/receiving relationship.[72][73] Schools in the district (with 2010-11 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics[74]) are Richard M. Teitelman School[75] (grades 7 and 8; 560 students) and Lower Cape May Regional High School[72] (grades 9-12; 1,063).[76]

Fishing Creek Schoolhouse

There are also two private Catholic schools in close proximity to Lower Township, Cape Trinity Catholic (pre-K to 8) in Wildwood and Wildwood Catholic High School (9-12) in North Wildwood, both of which operate under the supervision of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Camden.[77]

Transportation[edit]

Mile marker 0 of the Garden State Parkway is in Lower Township, at the intersection with Route 109.[78] U.S. Route 9 passes through the township, as do Route 109, Route 162 and Ocean Drive. The Cape May-Lewes Ferry also docks here.

Points of interest[edit]

Cold Spring Presbyterian Church

Notable people[edit]

Notable current and former residents of Lower Township include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f County Subdivisions: New Jersey - 2010 Census Gazetteer Files, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 9, 2013.
  3. ^ 2013 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed May 12, 2013.
  4. ^ Township Manager, Township of Lower. Accessed July 16, 2012.
  5. ^ Clerk, Township of Lower. Accessed July 16, 2012.
  6. ^ a b 2005 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, April 2005, p. 8.
  7. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Township of Lower, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 7, 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d e f DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Lower township, Cape May County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 16, 2012.
  9. ^ a b c d Municipalities Grouped by 2011-2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 1. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  10. ^ a b c Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Lower township, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed July 16, 2012.
  11. ^ a b PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012 - 2012 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 7, 2013.
  12. ^ a b GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed October 17, 2012.
  13. ^ Look Up a ZIP Code for Villas, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed July 16, 2012.
  14. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  15. ^ A Cure for the Common Codes: New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed July 16, 2012.
  16. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  17. ^ Table 7. Population for the Counties and Municipalities in New Jersey: 1990, 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, February 2011. Accessed July 16, 2012.
  18. ^ a b Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 114. Accessed July 16, 2012.
  19. ^ "Best Places To Live - The Complete Top Towns List 1-100", New Jersey Monthly, February 21, 2008. Accessed February 24, 2008.
  20. ^ DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data for Diamond Beach CDP, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 16, 2012.
  21. ^ DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data for Erma CDP, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 16, 2012.
  22. ^ DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data for North Cape May CDP, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 16, 2012.
  23. ^ DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data for Villas CDP, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 16, 2012.
  24. ^ New Jersey: 2010 - Population and Housing Unit Counts - 2010 Census of Population and Housing (CPH-2-32), United States Census Bureau, August 2012. Accessed October 17, 2012.
  25. ^ Welcome to the Township of Lower's Website, Township of Lower. Accessed July 12, 2008.
  26. ^ Barnett, Bob. Population Data for Cape May County Municipalities, 1810 - 2000, WestJersey.org, January 6, 2011. Accessed July 16, 2012.
  27. ^ Compendium of censuses 1726-1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed September 29, 2013.
  28. ^ Bowen, Francis. American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge for the Year 1843, p. 232, David H. Williams, 1842. Accessed September 29, 2013.
  29. ^ Raum, John O. The History of New Jersey: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, Volume 1, p. 260, J. E. Potter and company, 1877. Accessed September 29, 2013. "Lower the most southern township in the state was incorporated in 1798."
  30. ^ Debow, James Dunwoody Brownson. The Seventh Census of the United States: 1850, p. 137. R. Armstrong, 1853. Accessed September 29, 2013.
  31. ^ Staff. A compendium of the ninth census, 1870, p. 259. United States Census Bureau, 1872. Accessed July 15, 2012.
  32. ^ Porter, Robert Percival. Preliminary Results as Contained in the Eleventh Census Bulletins: Volume III - 51 to 75, p. 97. United States Census Bureau, 1890. Accessed July 16, 2012.
  33. ^ Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910: Population by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions, 1910, 1900, 1890, United States Census Bureau, p. 336. Accessed July 16, 2012.
  34. ^ Fifteenth Census of the United States : 1930 - Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 715. Accessed December 5, 2011.
  35. ^ New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 - 1990, Workforce New Jersey Public Information Network, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 2, 2009. Accessed December 5, 2011.
  36. ^ a b c d e Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for Lower township, Cape May County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 16, 2012.
  37. ^ a b c d e DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 - Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Lower township, Cape May County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 16, 2012.
  38. ^ DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Lower township, Cape May County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 16, 2012.
  39. ^ a b Mayor and Council, Lower Township. Accessed September 29, 2013.
  40. ^ Plan Components Report, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  41. ^ 2012 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 60, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  42. ^ Districts by Number for 2011-2020, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  43. ^ Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
  44. ^ Cory A. Booker, United States Senate. Accessed November 5, 2013.
  45. ^ Nutt, Amy Ellis (October 31, 2013). "Booker is officially a U.S. senator after being sworn in". NJ.com/Associated Press. Accessed October 31, 2013.
  46. ^ Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate. Accessed November 5, 2013. "He currently lives in North Bergen and has two children, Alicia and Robert."
  47. ^ Senators of the 113th Congress from New Jersey. United States Senate. Accessed November 5, 2013.
  48. ^ Legislative Roster 2014-2015 Session, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 14, 2014.
  49. ^ "About the Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  50. ^ "About the Lieutenant Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  51. ^ a b Freeholders Home Page, Cape May County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  52. ^ Gerald M. Thornton, Cape May County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  53. ^ Leonard C. Desiderio, Cape May County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  54. ^ Kristine Gabor, Cape May County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  55. ^ Will Morey, Cape May County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  56. ^ Cape May County Installs Returning Freeholder Leonard Desiderio and Names Director and Vice-Director, Cape May County, New Jersey, January 3, 2013. Accessed January 9, 2013. "Freeholder Leonard C. Desiderio, who was re-elected in November to serve a three-year term, was sworn in by Superior Court Judge J. Christopher Gibson.... Additionally at the meeting, Freeholder Gerald M. Thornton was re-elected Director of the Board and Freeholder Desiderio was elected Vice-Director."
  57. ^ Sheriff's Office, Cape May County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  58. ^ Sheriff, Cape May County Sheriff. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  59. ^ Surrogate, Cape May County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  60. ^ County Clerk's Office, Cape May County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  61. ^ Voter Registration Summary - Cape May, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 23, 2011. Accessed October 17, 2012.
  62. ^ 2008 Presidential General Election Results: Cape May County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 23, 2008. Accessed October 17, 2012.
  63. ^ 2004 Presidential Election: Cape May County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 13, 2004. Accessed October 17, 2012.
  64. ^ 2009 Governor: Cape May County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 31, 2009. Accessed October 17, 2012.
  65. ^ School Data for the Lower Township School District, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed October 17, 2012.
  66. ^ Memorial School, Lower Township School District. Accessed September 29, 2013.
  67. ^ Carl T. Mitnick School, Lower Township School District. Accessed September 29, 2013.
  68. ^ Maud T. Abrams School, Lower Township School District. Accessed September 29, 2013.
  69. ^ Charles W. Sandman Consolidated School, Lower Township School District. Accessed September 29, 2013.
  70. ^ New Jersey School Directory for the Lower Township School District, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed September 29, 2013.
  71. ^ Interdistrict Public School Choice: Approved Choice Districts, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed April 16, 2008.
  72. ^ a b Lower Cape May Regional High School, Lower Cape May Regional School District. Accessed September 29, 2013. "Lower Cape May Regional High School is a four year public school that serves students from four communities including Cape May, Lower Township, West Cape May and Cape May Point."
  73. ^ Linehan, Mary. "Maud T. Abrams School", The Cape May Gazette, June 20, 2013. Accessed September 29, 2013. "The regional school district was formed in 1956 and now serves as a limited purpose regional school district educating students from Cape May, Cape May Point, West Cape May and Lower Township. Cape May Point students attend on a 'sending-receiving' basis."
  74. ^ School Data for the Lower Cape May Regional High School District, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed October 17, 2012.
  75. ^ Richard M. Teitelman School, Lower Cape May Regional School District. Accessed September 29, 2013.
  76. ^ New Jersey School Directory for the Lower Cape May Regional School District, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed September 29, 2013.
  77. ^ Cape May County School Directory, Roman Catholic Diocese of Camden. Accessed December 5, 2011.
  78. ^ Garden State Parkway, New Jersey Department of Transportation Straight-line diagram. Accessed September 18, 2007.
  79. ^ Kerr, Peter. "EX-REP. CHARLES SANDMAN. NIXON SUPPORTER, DIES", The New York Times, August 27, 1985. Accessed September 29, 2013. "He was 64 and lived in Erma Park, N.J"

External links[edit]