Lower of cost or market
Lower of cost or market (LCM or LOCOM) is a conservative approach to valuing and reporting inventory. Normally, ending inventory is stated at historical cost (what was paid to obtain it). However, there are times when the original cost of the ending inventory is greater than the cost of replacement, and thus the inventory has lost value. If the inventory has decreased in value below historical cost, then its carrying value is reduced and reported on the balance sheet. The criterion for reporting this is the current market value. Any loss resulting from the decline in the value of inventory is charged to "Cost of goods sold" (COGS) if non-material, or "Loss on the reduction of inventory to LCM" if material.
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