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|Also known as||Kapu Kuʻialua, Kuʻialua|
|Country of origin||Hawaii, United States|
|Famous practitioners||John Matua|
|Descendant arts||American Kenpo, Kara-Ho Kempo, Danzan-ryū|
Kapu Kuʻialua; Kuʻialua; or just Lua; is an ancient Hawaiian martial art based on bone breaking, joint locks, throws, pressure point manipulation, strikes, usage of various weapons, battlefield strategy, open ocean warfare as well as the usage of introduced firearms from the Europeans.
The actual name of fighting art was referred to as "Kuʻialua", literally meaning two hits. That name was subsequently given to the god of this martial art.
Only those associated with the aliʻi (nobility), such as professional warriors, guardsmen, and the royal families themselves, were generally taught Kuʻialua. However, during times of warfare, the makaʻāinana (commoners) were also instructed in the basic movements and functions of the martial art.
The old warriors of this art would coat themselves with a thin layer of coconut oil and remove all of their body hair in order to be able slip away and avoid being grappled in battle. The word for Lua masters, ʻōlohe, literally means "hairless".
During his life on Oʻahu, Kamehameha established three Lua schools (called pā kuʻialua) to help prevent its extinction. One instructed by Hāhākea, another by Nāmakaimi, and one taught by Nāpuaʻuki and his assistants. This last one, probably the most prominent one, taught 24 boys (including Kekūanāʻoa and John Papa ʻĪʻī) of Kamehameha's court.
The modern form of this art has been adjusted to suit modern times, however, the traditional spirit of the art remains intact. Weapons used by natives of the Hawaiian Islands may have been focused on primarily in the art at one time, as it is said the fighter who loses his weapons should then resort to the hand-to-hand stylings of Kuʻialua.
Training methods include spear catching, training in the surf, and focus of "mana" or life force. This energy is described much like chi or ki in Chinese or Japanese martial arts. Exercises are used to focus this energy much like the exercise of chi kung.
- Hoe - Canoe paddle
- Hoe Leiomano - Paddle, shark tooth weapon
- Ihe - Short spear with barbed edges or straight point (up to 9 ft or 2.7 m staff)
- Kaʻane - Garrote (strangling cord)
- Koʻokoʻo - Staffs (long and short)
- Koʻokoʻo Loa (6 ft or 1.8 m staff)
- Koʻokoʻo Pōkole (4 ft or 1.2 m staff)
- Kuʻekuʻe Lima Leiomanō - Knuckle duster weapon
- Leiomanō - Shark tooth weapon
- Maʻa - Sling
- Maka Pāhoa - Double-edge (eye) dagger
- Newa - Short (small) club
- Pahi - Knife
- Pāhoa - Single-edge dagger
- Pāhoa Koʻokoʻo - Cane double-edge dagger
- Sherdog.com. "John Matua MMA Stats, Pictures, News, Videos, Biography, and More". Sherdog.com. Retrieved 2010-05-14.
- "Discover Lua, Hawaii’s Martial Art". Black Belt magazine. 2011-03-21. Retrieved 2011-04-08.
- Warriors, History Channel program, aired: 21 August 2008
- Green, Thomas A., ed. (2001). Martial Arts of the World: An Encyclopedia 1. ISBN 1-57607-150-2.
- Paglinawan, Richard; Moses Kalauokalani, and Jerry Walker (2006). Lua: Art of the Hawaiian Warrior. Bishop Museum Press. ISBN 1-58178-028-1.
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