Lubbock, Texas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Lubbock)
Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with Lubok.
"Lubbock" redirects here. For other uses, see Lubbock (disambiguation).
Lubbock, Texas
City
City of Lubbock
Downtown Lubbock in August 2009
Downtown Lubbock in August 2009
Flag of Lubbock, Texas
Flag
Official seal of Lubbock, Texas
Seal
Nickname(s): "Hub City"
Motto: "The Giant Side of Texas"
Location in the state of Texas
Location in the state of Texas
Lubbock County Lubbock.svg
Lubbock is located in USA
Lubbock
Lubbock
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 33°34′N 101°53′W / 33.567°N 101.883°W / 33.567; -101.883Coordinates: 33°34′N 101°53′W / 33.567°N 101.883°W / 33.567; -101.883
Country United States of America
State Texas
County Lubbock
Settled 1890
Incorporated March 16, 1909
Government
 • Type Council-manager
 • Mayor Glen Robertson
 • City Council Victor Hernandez (D)
Floyd Price (D)
Todd R. Klein (L)
Jim Gerlt
Karen Gibson (R)
Latrelle Joy (R)
 • City manager James Loomis
Area
 • City 123.6 sq mi (320.0 km2)
 • Land 122.41 sq mi (317.04 km2)
 • Water 1.14 sq mi (2.96 km2)
Elevation 3,256 ft (992.4 m)
Population (2013)[1][2]
 • City 239,538 (84th)
 • Metro 301,038
 • Demonym Lubbockite
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP codes 79401-79416, 79423, 79424, 79430, 79452, 79453, 79457, 79464, 79490, 79491, 79493, 79499
Area code(s) 806
FIPS code 48-45000[3]
GNIS feature ID 1374760[4]
Website www.ci.lubbock.tx.us

Lubbock /ˈlʌbək/[5] is a city in and the county seat of Lubbock County, Texas, United States.[6] The city is located in the northwestern part of the state, a region known historically and geographically as the Llano Estacado and ecologically is part of the southern end of the Western High Plains. The city is home to three universities: Lubbock Christian University, Texas Tech University, and Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. According to a 2013 Census estimate, Lubbock had a population of 239,538,[1] making it the 84th most populous city in the United States of America and the 11th most populous city in the state of Texas.[7][8] The city is the economic center of the Lubbock metropolitan area, which had an estimated 2013 population of 301,038.[2]

Lubbock's nickname is the "Hub City", which derives from it being the economic, education, and health care hub of a multicounty region, north of the Permian Basin and south of the Texas Panhandle, commonly called the South Plains.[9] The area is the largest contiguous cotton-growing region in the world[10][11] and is heavily dependent on irrigation water drawn from the Ogallala Aquifer. Lubbock was selected as the 12th best place to start a small business by CNNMoney.com.[12] CNN mentioned the city's traditional business atmosphere, low rent for commercial space, its central location and cooperative city government. Lubbock High School has been recognized for three consecutive years by Newsweek as one of the top high schools in the United States. Lubbock High School is home to the only international baccalaureate (IB) program in the region. The IB program is one of the criteria examined by Newsweek in formulating their list of top high schools.[13]

History[edit]

The county of Lubbock was founded in 1876, named after Thomas Saltus Lubbock, former Texas Ranger and brother of Francis R. Lubbock, governor of Texas during the Civil War.[14] As early as 1884, a federal post office named Lubbock existed in Yellow House Canyon. However, the town of Lubbock was not founded until 1890, when it was formed from a unique merger arrangement between two smaller towns, "Old Lubbock" and Monterey. The terms of the compromise included keeping the Lubbock name, but the Monterey townsite, so the previous Old Lubbock residents relocated south to the Monterey location, including putting Old Lubbock's Nicolette Hotel on rollers and pulling it across a canyon to its new home. In 1891, Lubbock became the county seat and on March 16, 1909, Lubbock was incorporated.

Texas Technological College (now Texas Tech University) was founded in Lubbock in 1923. A separate university, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, opened as Texas Tech University School of Medicine in 1969. Both universities are now overseen by the Texas Tech University System, after it was established in 1996 and based in Lubbock. Lubbock Christian University, founded in 1957, and Sunset International Bible Institute, both affiliated with the Churches of Christ, have their main campuses in the city. South Plains College and Wayland Baptist University operate branch campuses in Lubbock.

The city is home to the Lubbock Lake Landmark, part of the Museum of Texas Tech University. The landmark is an archaeological and natural history preserve at the northern edge of the city. It shows evidence of almost 12,000 years of human occupation in the region. Another part of the museum, the National Ranching Heritage Center, houses historic ranch-related structures from the area.

In August 1951, a V-shaped formation of lights was seen over the city. The "Lubbock Lights" series of sightings received national publicity and is regarded as one of the first great UFO cases. The sightings were considered credible because they were witnessed by several respected science professors at Texas Technological College and were photographed by a Texas Tech student. The photographs were reprinted nationwide in newspapers and in Life magazine. Project Blue Book, the US Air Force's official study of the UFO mystery, did an extensive investigation of the Lubbock Lights. They concluded the photographs were not a hoax and showed genuine objects. However, they did dismiss the UFOs themselves as being either "night-flying moths" or a type of bird called a plover. The Air Force argued that the underside of the plovers or moths was reflected in the glow of Lubbock's new street lights at night. However, other researchers have disputed these explanations, and for many, the "Lubbock Lights" remain a mystery.

In 1960, the Census Bureau reported Lubbock's population as 91.9% white and 8.0% black.[15]

On May 11, 1970, the Lubbock Tornado struck the city. Twenty-six people died, and damage was estimated at $125 million. The Metro Tower (NTS Building), then known as the Great Plains Life Building, at 274 ft (84 m) in height, is believed to have been the tallest building ever to survive a direct hit from an F5 tornado.[16] Then Mayor Jim Granberry and the Lubbock City Council, which included Granberry's successor as mayor, Morris W. Turner, were charged with directing the task of rebuilding the downtown in the aftermath of the storm.

In 2009, Lubbock celebrated its centennial. The historians Paul H. Carlson, Donald R. Abbe, and David J. Murrah, co-authored Lubbock and the South Plains.

Events since 2009[edit]

Until May 9, 2009, Lubbock County allowed "package" sales of alcohol (= sales of bottled liquor from liquor stores), but not "by the drink sales", except at private institutions, such as country clubs. Inside the Lubbock city limits, the situation was reversed, with restaurants and bars able to serve alcohol, but liquor stores forbidden.

On August 12, 2008, the Lubbock Chamber of Commerce announced they would lead the effort to get enough signatures to have a vote on allowing county-wide packaged alcohol sales.[17] The petition effort was successful and the question was put to the voters.

On May 9, 2009, Proposition 1, which expanded the sale of packaged alcohol in Lubbock County, passed by nearly a margin of two to one, with 64.5% in favor. Proposition 2, which legalized the sale of mixed-drinks in restaurants county-wide, passed with 69.5% in favor.[18] On September 23, 2009, The Texas Alcoholic Beverage Commission issued permits to more than 80 stores in Lubbock.[19]

Geography[edit]

Lubbock is located at 33.566, −101.887. The official elevation is 3,256 ft (992 m) above sea level, but stated figures range from 3,195 to 3,281 ft (974 to 1,000 m).[20][21][22] Lubbock is considered to be the center of the South Plains, and is situated north of the Permian Basin and south of the Texas Panhandle.[20] According to the United States Census Bureau, as of 2010, the city has a total area of 123.55 sq mi (319.99 km2), of which, 122.41 sq mi (317.04 km2) of it (99.07%) is land and 1.14 sq mi (2.95 km2) of it (0.92%) is covered by water.[1]

Skyline[edit]

The Wells Fargo Building is the second-tallest building in Lubbock.

The tallest buildings in Lubbock are listed below.[23][24][25][26]

Rank Name Height
ft / m
Floors (Stories) Year Completed
1 Metro Tower 274 / 84 20 1955
2 Wells Fargo Building 209 / 64 15 1968
3 TTU Media and Communication 208 / 63 12 1969
4 Overton Hotel 165 / 50 15 2009
5 TTU Architecture Building 158 / 48 10 1971
6 Omni Office Centre 153 / 46.5 11 1963
7 Park Tower 150 / 46 15 1968
Hilton Hotel (demolished) 144 / 44 12 1929
8 Bank of America Tower 143 / 44 12 1940
9 Pioneer Hotel 136 / 41.5 11 1926
10= Chitwood Hall 134 / 41 12 1967
10= Coleman Hall 134 / 41 12 1967
10= Weymouth Hall 134 / 41 12 1967
13 Lubbock National Bank Building 134 / 41 10 1979
14 Covenant Medical Center 114 / 34.5 9 1994
15 Mahon Federal Building & U.S. Courthouse 107 / 33 8
16 Victory Tower 96 / 29 8 1999

Climate[edit]

Lubbock has a mild, semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk or BSh).[27][28] On average, Lubbock receives 19.12 in (486 mm) of rain[29] and 8.2 in (20.8 cm) of snow per year.[30]

Summers in Lubbock are hot, with 78 days of 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs and 7.4 days of 100 °F (38 °C)+ highs, although due to the aridity and elevation, temperatures remain above 70 °F (21 °C) only on a few nights. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F (46 °C) on June 27, 1994.[31]

Winter days in Lubbock are typically sunny and relatively mild, but nights are cold, with temperatures usually dipping below freezing,[31][32] and, as the city is located in USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 7,[33] lows reaching 10 °F (−12 °C) occur on 2.5 nights. The lowest recorded temperature was −17 °F (−27 °C) on February 8, 1933.[31]

Climate data for Lubbock, Texas (1981–2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 87
(31)
89
(32)
95
(35)
104
(40)
109
(43)
114
(46)
109
(43)
107
(42)
105
(41)
100
(38)
90
(32)
83
(28)
114
(46)
Average high °F (°C) 54.1
(12.3)
58.9
(14.9)
66.7
(19.3)
75.4
(24.1)
83.8
(28.8)
90.6
(32.6)
92.8
(33.8)
91.3
(32.9)
84.5
(29.2)
75.2
(24)
63.6
(17.6)
54.1
(12.3)
74.3
(23.5)
Average low °F (°C) 26.4
(−3.1)
30.1
(−1.1)
37.0
(2.8)
45.7
(7.6)
55.9
(13.3)
64.2
(17.9)
67.7
(19.8)
66.6
(19.2)
58.8
(14.9)
47.9
(8.8)
35.9
(2.2)
27.1
(−2.7)
47.0
(8.3)
Record low °F (°C) −16
(−27)
−17
(−27)
−2
(−19)
18
(−8)
27
(−3)
39
(4)
49
(9)
43
(6)
33
(1)
18
(−8)
−1
(−18)
−2
(−19)
−17
(−27)
Precipitation inches (mm) 0.65
(16.5)
0.75
(19)
1.10
(27.9)
1.41
(35.8)
2.30
(58.4)
3.04
(77.2)
1.91
(48.5)
1.91
(48.5)
2.51
(63.8)
1.93
(49)
0.85
(21.6)
0.76
(19.3)
19.12
(485.5)
Snowfall inches (cm) 2.4
(6.1)
1.7
(4.3)
0.6
(1.5)
0.2
(0.5)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.9
(2.3)
2.2
(5.6)
8.1
(20.6)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 3.7 4.5 5.0 4.8 7.3 8.2 6.2 6.9 5.8 5.7 3.8 4.4 66.3
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 1.9 1.5 0.8 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.6 1.8 7.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 210.8 201.6 266.6 285.0 310.0 327.0 337.9 319.3 261.0 257.3 216.0 201.5 3,194
Source: NOAA (extremes 1911–present),[34][35] HKO (sun only, 1961–1990)[36]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1910 1,938
1920 4,051 109.0%
1930 20,520 406.5%
1940 31,853 55.2%
1950 71,747 125.2%
1960 128,691 79.4%
1970 149,101 15.9%
1980 173,979 16.7%
1990 186,206 7.0%
2000 199,564 7.2%
2010 229,573 15.0%
Est. 2013[1] 239,538 4.3%

As of the census of 2010,[3] 229,573 people, 88,506 households, and 53,042 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,875.6 people per square mile (724.2/km2). There were 95,926 housing units at an average density of 783.7 per square mile (302.6/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 75.8% White, 8.6% African American, 0.7% Native American, 2.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 9.9% some other race, and 2.5% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 32.1% of the population. Non-Hispanic Whites were 55.7% of the population in 2010,[37] down from 77.2% in 1970.[15]

At the 2010 census, of the 88,506 households, 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.9% were headed by married couples living together, 14.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.1 were non-family households. 28.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.9% were someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.09.[37] At the 2000 census, of 77,527 households, 3,249 were unmarried partner households: 2,802 heterosexual, 196 same-sex male, and 251 same-sex female households.

In the city, at the 2010 census, the population was distributed with 23.5% under the age of 18, 18.9% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, and 10.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.5 males.[37]

In 2011 the estimated median income for a household in the city was $43,364, and for a family was $59,185. Male full-time workers had a median income of $40,445 versus $30,845 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,092. About 11.4% of families and 20.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.5% of those under age 18 and 7.3% of those age 65 or over.[38]

Economy[edit]

The Lubbock area is the largest contiguous cotton-growing region in the world and is heavily dependent on federal government agricultural subsidies and irrigation water drawn from the Ogallala Aquifer. However, the aquifer is being depleted at an unsustainable rate in the long term. Much progress has been made in the area of water conservation, and new technologies, such as low-energy precision application (LEPA) irrigation were originally developed in the Lubbock area. The new pipeline from Lake Alan Henry is expected to supply up to 3.2 billion US gallons (12,000,000 m3) of water per year.[39]

Cone grain elevator, north side of Lubbock

Adolph R. Hanslik, who died in 2007 at the age of 90, was called the "dean" of the Lubbock cotton industry, having worked for years to promote the export trade. Hanslik was also the largest contributor (through 2006) to the Texas Tech University Medical Center.[40] He also endowed the Texas Czech Heritage and Cultural Center's capital campaign for construction of a new library museum archives building in La Grange in Fayette County in his native southeastern Texas.[41]

The 10 largest employers in terms of the number of employees are: Texas Tech University, Covenant Health System, Lubbock Independent School District, University Medical Center, United Supermarkets, City of Lubbock, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, AT&T, Convergys, and Lubbock County. A study conducted by a professor at the Rawls College of Business determined that Texas Tech students, faculty and staff generate about $1.5 billion, with about $297.5 million from student shopping alone.[42]

Lubbock has one regional enclosed mall, South Plains Mall, which includes two Dillard's, JC Penney, Barnes & Noble, Sears, Bealls, Premiere Cinemas 16 & IMAX theatre and many other stores.

Lubbock also has numerous open-air shopping centers, most located in the booming southwestern area of Lubbock. The Village and Kingsgate Shopping Centers, both located at the intersection of 82nd Street and Quaker Avenue, offer a unique blend of local and national retailers. The Village is home to Starbucks Coffee, Drest by Scott Malouf, Subway, Ann Lilly Fine Shoes, RenDr Custom Framing and Red Mango, among others. Kingsgate Shopping Center includes numerous upscale shops and restaurants, such as Malouf's, Cake by Distinctive Details, Pei Wei Asian Diner, McAlister's Deli, Marble Slab Creamery, Banana Republic, Coldwater Creek, Woodhouse Day Spa, Chico's, Talbots and Ann Taylor. Lubbock is also home to high-end furniture retailers, such as Spears Furniture, which has been in Lubbock since 1950.

Lubbock's newest open-air shopping center, Canyon West, features a Target, DSW, Ulta, Burlington Coat Factory, World Market, Five Guys and LifeWay. Two more stages of development are planned. It is located at the intersection of Milwaukee Avenue and Marsha Sharp Freeway.

Panhandle-South Plains Fairgrounds

Economic development[edit]

Originally founded as Market Lubbock in 1997, the Lubbock Economic Development Alliance (LEDA) was established by the City to recruit new business and industry to Lubbock and to retain existing companies. LEDA's mission is to promote economic growth through the creation of high-quality jobs, attract new capital investment, retain and expand existing businesses, and improve the quality of life in Lubbock.

Environmental issues[edit]

The Scrub-A-Dubb Barrel Company, located in the north of the city, had been the cause of public complaints, and committed numerous environmental violations, since the 1970s.[43] Local KCBD News undertook several investigations into the barrel recycling company's waste-handling practices, and when the business closed in 2011, the Environmental Protection Agency was called in to begin cleaning up the site, which they described as "a threat to public health, welfare, and the environment".[44] Greg Fife, the EPA's on-site coordinator, said: "Out of the 60,000 [barrels] we have on site we think there are between 2,000 and 4,000 that have significant hazardous waste in them". Local residents were informed, "hazardous substances have overflowed the vats and flowed off the Site into nearby Blackwater Draw and subsequently through Mackenzie recreational park. The runoff is easily accessible to children at play in the park, golfers, and the park's wildlife." Remediation of the site was expected to take at least five months, at a cost of $3.5 million in federal dollars.[45]

Arts and culture[edit]

Annual cultural events[edit]

Every year on July 4, Lubbock hosts the 4th on Broadway event, an Independence Day festival. The event is entirely free to the public, and is considered the largest free festival in Texas. The day's activities usually include a morning parade, a street fair along Broadway Avenue with food stalls and live bands, the Early Settlers' Luncheon, and an evening concert/fireworks program. Broadway Festivals Inc., the non-profit corporation which organizes the event, estimated a 2004 attendance of over 175,000 people. Additionally, the College Baseball Foundation holds events relating to its College Baseball Hall of Fame during the 4th on Broadway event.

The National Cowboy Symposium and Celebration, an annual event celebrating the prototypical Old West cowboy, takes place in Lubbock. The event, held in September, features art, music, cowboy poetry, stories, and the presentation of scholarly papers on cowboy culture and the history of the American West. A chuckwagon cook-off and horse parade also take place during the event.

Tourism[edit]

Buddy Holly statue on the Walk of Fame
Lubbock has a large number of churches, including the downtown First Baptist congregation.

Lubbock is the birthplace of rock and roll legend Buddy Holly and features a cultural center named for him. The city previously hosted an annual Buddy Holly Music Festival. However, the event was renamed Lubbock Music Festival after Holly's widow increased usage fees for his name. Similarly, the city renamed the Buddy Holly West Texas Walk of Fame to honor area musicians as the West Texas Hall of Fame.[46] On January 26, 2009, the City of Lubbock agreed to pay Holly's widow $20,000 for the next 20 years to maintain the name of the Buddy Holly Center. Additionally, land near the center will be named the Buddy and Maria Holly Plaza.[47] Holly's legacy is also remembered through the work of deejays, such as Jerry "Bo" Coleman, Bud Andrews, and Virgil Johnson on radio station KDAV.[48]

Lubbock's Memorial Civic Center hosts many events. Former Mayor Morris Turner (1931–2008), who served from 1972–1974, has been called the father of the Civic Center. Other past mayors include Jim Granberry and Roy Bass.

The famous computer hacker and culture jamming collective the Cult of the Dead Cow was formed in Lubbock in 1984.

According to a study released by the nonpartisan Bay Area Center for Voting Research, Lubbock is the second-most conservative city in the United States among municipalities greater than 100,000 in population.[49]

The National Ranching Heritage Center, a museum of ranching history, is located in Lubbock. It features a number of authentic early Texas ranch buildings, as well as a railroad depot and other historic buildings. An extensive collection of weapons is also on display. Jim Humphreys, late manager of the Pitchfork Ranch east of Lubbock, was a prominent board member of the center. The American Cowboy Culture Association, founded in 1989, is located in Lubbock; it co-hosts the annual National Cowboy Symposium and Celebration held annually from Thursday through Sunday after Labor Day.[50]

The Southwest Collection, an archive of the history of the region and its surroundings which also works closely with the College Baseball Foundation, is located on the campus of Texas Tech University, as are the Moody Planetarium and the Museum of Texas Tech University.

The Depot District, an area of the city dedicated to music and nightlife located in the old railroad depot area, boasts a number of theatres, upscale restaurants, and cultural attractions. The Depot District is also home to several shops, pubs and nightclubs, a radio station, a magazine, a winery, a salon, and other establishments. Many of the buildings were remodeled from the original Fort Worth & Denver South Plains Railway Depot which originally stood on the site. The Buddy Holly Center, a museum highlighting the life and music of Buddy Holly, is also located in the Depot District, as is the restored community facility, the Cactus Theater.

Lubbock is also home to the Silent Wings Museum. Located on North I-27, Silent Wings features photographs and artifacts from World War II-era glider pilots.

The Science Spectrum is an interactive museum and IMAX Dome theatre with a special focus on children and youth.

National Register of Historic Places[edit]

Lubbock Post Office and Federal Building, constructed in 1932 and abandoned in 1998. Preservation Texas lists it as one of the most endangered historic sites in Texas.[51] Lubbock's Commissioners Court recently sold the building for $500,000.[52]

Sports[edit]

The Texas Tech Red Raiders are in the Big 12 Conference, and field 17 teams in 11 different varsity sports. Men's varsity sports at Texas Tech are baseball, basketball, cross country, football, golf, tennis, and indoor and outdoor track and field. Women's varsity sports are basketball, cross country, golf, indoor and outdoor track and field, soccer, softball, tennis, and volleyball. The university also offers 30 club sports, including cycling, equestrian, ice hockey, lacrosse, polo, rodeo, rugby, running, sky diving, swimming, water polo, and wrestling. In 2006, the polo team, composed of Will Tankard, Ross Haislip, Peter Blake, and Tanner Kneese, won the collegiate national championship.[53]

The football program has been competing since October 3, 1925. The Red Raiders have won 11 conference titles and been to 31 bowl games, winning five of the last seven.

The men's basketball program, started in 1925, has been to the NCAA Tournament 14 times—advancing to the Sweet 16 three times. Bob Knight, hall-of-famer and second-winningest coach in men's college basketball history, coached the team from 2001–2008.

Of the varsity sports, Texas Tech has had its greatest success in women's basketball. Led by Sheryl Swoopes and head coach Marsha Sharp, the Lady Raiders won the NCAA Women's Basketball Championship in 1993. The Lady Raiders have also been to the NCAA Elite Eight three times and the NCAA Sweet 16 seven times. In early 2006, Lady Raiders coach Marsha Sharp resigned and was replaced on March 30, 2006 by Kristy Curry, who had been coaching at Purdue.

High school athletics also feature prominently in the local culture. In addition, Lubbock is the home of the Chaparrals of Lubbock Christian University. In 2007, the Lubbock Renegades began play as a member of the af2, a developmental league of the Arena Football League. The team discontinued operation in 2008.

In 2007, the Lubbock Western All-Stars Little League Baseball team made it to the final four of the Little League World Series.[54]

In 2009, the Lubbock Christian University[55] baseball team won their second NAIA National Championship.

Little League[edit]

Lubbock has several Little Leagues including the 3rd place, 2007 Little League World Series Western Little League.

  • Lubbock Western Little League
  • Lubbock Southwest Little League
  • Lubbock Cooper Little League
  • Lubbock Northwest Little League
  • Lubbock Martin Luther King Little League
  • Lubbock Dixie Little League

Parks and recreation[edit]

Entrance to Mackenzie Park

In March 1877, the Battle of Yellow House Canyon, which occurred during the Buffalo Hunters' War, took place at what is now the site of Mackenzie Park. Today, Mackenzie Park is home to Joyland Amusement Park, Prairie Dog Town, and both a disc golf and regular golf course. The park also holds the American Wind Power Center, which houses over 100 historic windmills on 28 acres (11 ha). Two tributaries of the Brazos River wind through Mackenzie Park, which is collectively part of the rather extensive Lubbock Park system.[56][57] These two streams, (Yellow House Draw and Blackwater Draw), converge in the golf course, forming the head of Yellow House Canyon, which carries the waters of the North Fork Double Mountain Fork Brazos River.[58]

Government[edit]

Municipal government[edit]

City government (as of May 13, 2012):[59]
Mayor Glen Robertson (R)
District 1 Victor Hernandez (D)
District 2 Floyd Price (D)
District 3 Todd R. Klein (L)
District 4 Jim Gerlt (R)
District 5 Karen Gibson (Mayor Pro Tem) (R)
District 6 Latrelle Joy (R)

Lubbock has a council-manager government system, with all governmental powers resting in a legislative body called a city council.[60] Voters elect six council members, one for each of Lubbock's six districts, and a mayor.[60] The council members serve for a term of four years, and the mayor serves for two years.[60] After the first meeting of the city council after newly elected council members are seated, the council elects a mayor pro tempore, who serves as mayor in absence of the elected mayor.[60] The council also appoints a city manager to handle the ordinary business of the city.[60] There are currently no term limits for either city council members or mayor.

The Lubbock Police Department was shaped by the long-term administration of Chief J. T. Alley (1923–2009), who served from 1957 to 1983, the third-longest tenure in state history. Under Chief Alley, the department acquired its first Juvenile Division, K-9 Corps, Rape Crisis Center, and Special Weapons and Tactics teams. He also presided over the desegregation of the department and coordinated efforts during the 1970 tornadoes.[61]

Education[edit]

Schools[edit]

Schools in Lubbock are operated by several public school districts and independent organizations.

Public Schools:

Private Schools:

Higher education[edit]

Lubbock is home to Texas Tech University, which was established on February 10, 1923, as Texas Technological College. It is the leading institution of the Texas Tech University System and has the seventh-largest enrollment in the state of Texas. It is the only school in Texas to house an undergraduate institution, law school, and medical school at the same location. Altogether, the university has educated students from all 50 US states and over 100 foreign countries. Enrollment has continued to increase in recent years, and growth is on track with a plan to have 40,000 students by 2020.

Lubbock is also home to other college campuses in the city, including Lubbock Christian University, South Plains College, Wayland Baptist University, and Sunset International Bible Institute.

Covenant Health System, a health care provider serving West Texas and Eastern New Mexico, operates a school of nursing, school of radiography, and school of surgical technology.

Private and alternative education[edit]

The Lubbock area is also home to many private schools, such as Southcrest Christian School, Christ the King High School, Christ the King Junior High, Christ the King Elementary, Trinity Christian High School, Kingdom Preparatory Academy, Lubbock Christian High School, and All Saints Episcopal School.

Media[edit]

Lubbock's main newspaper is the daily Lubbock Avalanche-Journal, which is owned by Morris Communications. The newspaper also publishes a full-color lifestyle magazine, Lubbock Magazine,[62] eight times a year. Texas Tech University publishes a student-run daily newspaper called The Daily Toreador.

Local TV stations include KTTZ-TV-5 (PBS), KCBD-11 (NBC), KLBK-13 (CBS), KAMC-28 (ABC), and KJTV-TV-34 (Fox).

Texas Tech University Press, the book and journal publishing office of Texas Tech University, was founded in 1971 and as of 2012, has approximately 400 scholarly, regional, literary, and children's titles in print.

Infrastructure[edit]

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Lubbock District Parole Office in Lubbock.[63]

The Texas Department of Transportation operates the West Regional Support Center and Lubbock District Office in Lubbock.[64][65]

The United States Postal Service operates post offices in Lubbock.

Transportation[edit]

Highways[edit]

Downtown Lubbock seen from I-27

Lubbock is served by major highways. Interstate 27 (the former Avenue H) links the city to Amarillo and Interstate 40, a transcontinental route. I-27 was completed through the city in 1992 (it originally terminated just north of downtown). Other major highways include US 62 and US 82, which run concurrently (except for 4th Street (82) and 19th Street (62)) through the city east-west as the Marsha Sharp Freeway, 19th Street (62 only), 4th Street/Parkway Drive (82 only) and Idalou Highway. US 84 (Avenue Q/Slaton Highway/Clovis Road) is also another east-west route running NW/SE diagonally. US Highway 87 runs between San Angelo and Amarillo and follows I-27 concurrently. State Highway 114 runs east-west, following US 62/82 on the east before going its own way. Lubbock is circled by Loop 289, which suffers from traffic congestion despite being a potential bypass around the city, which is the reason behind I-27 and Brownfield Highway being built through the city to have freeway traffic flow effectively inside the loop.

The city is set up on a simple grid plan. In the heart of the city, numbered streets run east-west and lettered avenues run north-south – the grid begins at Avenue A in the east and First Street in the north. North of First Street, city planners chose to name streets alphabetically from the south to the north after colleges and universities. The north-south avenues run from A to Y. What would be Avenue Z is actually University Avenue, since it runs along the east side of Texas Tech. Beyond that, the A-to-Z convention resumes, using US cities found east of the Mississippi (e.g. Akron Avenue, Boston Avenue, Canton Avenue). Again, the Z name is not used, with Slide Road appearing in its place.

Rail service[edit]

Lubbock currently does not provide inter-city rail service, although various proposals have been presented over the years to remedy this. One, the Caprock Chief, would have seen daily service as part of a Fort Worth, Texas—Denver, Colorado service, but it failed to gain traction.[66] Lubbock is serviced by the BNSF Railway company, Plainsman Switching Company (PSC), & West Texas & Lubbock Railway (WTLC). PSC interchanges with BNSF (also with UP through a UP-BNSF Haulage agreement) in Lubbock and has 19 miles of track with in city limits of Lubbock with 36 customers. There are options for transloading a variety of things on the line from wind turbine parts to steel shafts. PSC handles many commodities such as cottonseed, cottonseed oil, cottonseed meal, cottonseed hulls, milo, corn, wheat, pinto beans, sand, rock, lumber, non-perishable food items, chemical, paper products, brick, bagging matterial, and can also store cars. WTLC interchanges with BNSF (also with UP through a UP-BNSF Haulage agreement) in Lubbock. WTLC has a yard on the west side of Lubbock where they switch cars to go down their line to Levelland or to Brownfield. WTLC handles commodities of grains, chemicals, sands, peanuts, lumber, etc.

Airports[edit]

The city's air services are provided by Lubbock Preston Smith International Airport, which is named for the Lubbock businessman who became lieutenant governor and governor of Texas. It is located on the northeast side of the city. The airport is the eighth-busiest airport in Texas. Lubbock Preston Smith Airport also plays host as a major hub to Fedex's feeder planes that serve cities around Lubbock.

Intercity bus service[edit]

Greyhound Lines operates the Lubbock Station at 801 Broadway, just east of the Lubbock County Courthouse.[67]

Public transportation[edit]

Public transportation is provided by Citibus, a bus transit system running Monday through Saturday every week with a transit center hub in downtown. It runs bus routes throughout the city, with the main routes converging at the Downtown Transfer Plaza, which also houses the Greyhound bus terminal. Citibus has been in continual service since 1971, when the city of Lubbock took over public transit operations. The paratransit system is called Citiaccess.

Citibus' six diesel-electric hybrid buses have begun service on city routes. Managers hope the buses will use 60% of the fuel that their older, larger versions consume in moving customers across the city. The buses seat 23 passengers, can support full-sized wheelchairs and will run on all but two city-based routes.

Notable people[edit]

The city has been the birthplace or home of several musicians, including Buddy Holly,[68] Delbert McClinton,[69] Jimmie Dale Gilmore,[70] Butch Hancock,[71] and Joe Ely[72] (collectively known as The Flatlanders), Mac Davis,[73] Terry Allen,[74] Lloyd Maines[75] and his daughter, Dixie Chicks singer, Natalie Maines,[76] Texas Tech alums Jay Boy Adams, Pat Green,[77] Cory Morrow, Wade Bowen, Josh Abbott, and Coronado High School graduate Richie McDonald[78] (lead singer of Lonestar until 2007). Pete Orta[citation needed] of the Christian rock group Petra, Christian artist Josh Wilson,[79] Norman Carl Odam (aka The Legendary Stardust Cowboy),[80] basketball players Craig Ehlo[81] and Daniel Santiago,[82] and football player Mason Crosby[76] have also called Lubbock home. Boxers Ruben Castillo[83] and Orlin Norris[84] were born in Lubbock, as was basketball player and coach Micheal Ray Richardson.[85]

The city is also the birthplace of actor Chace Crawford (The Covenant, Gossip Girl),[86] singer Travis Garland of the band NLT[citation needed], musician, writer, composer, singer, producer and LGBT activist Logan Lynn, artist Joshua Meyer and political activist William John Cox (Billy Jack Cox). Public speaker and televangelist Kenneth Copeland was born in Lubbock.[76]

Lubbock is the home of the historians Alwyn Barr,[87] Dan Flores,[88] Allan J. Kuethe,[89] and Ernest Wallace.[90] Bidal Aguero, a civil rights activist in Lubbock, was the publisher of the longest-running Hispanic newspaper in Texas.[91] Author Micah Wright was born in Lubbock.[76]

Gabor B. Racz is professor of anesthesiology at Texas Tech University Health Science Center and inventor of the Racz Catheter.[92]

Lawyer, lexicographer and teacher Bryan A. Garner was born in Lubbock.[76] J. Michael Bailey, psychologist and professor at Northwestern University was born in Lubbock.[76]

Recent state legislators from Lubbock include State Senators John T. Montford[93] and Robert L. Duncan,[94] former State Representatives Carl Isett,[95] Isett's successor, John Frullo,[96] Delwin Jones[citation needed], and Jones' successor, Charles Perry.[97] It is the hometown of the late U.S. Representative Mickey Leland of Houston.[98] W. E. Shattuc[citation needed], who raced in the Indianapolis 500 in 1925, 1926 and 1927, lived in Lubbock. Preston Earnest Smith, a long-time resident of Lubbock, was the 40th Governor of Texas from 1969 to 1973 and earlier served as the lieutenant governor from 1963 to 1969.[99]

In television and movies[edit]

Lubbock was referenced in The Simpsons episode "Simpson Tide" [Homer is watching a television ad for the Naval Reserve] "TV Announcer: Daybreak, Jakarta. The proud men and women of the Navy are protecting America's interests overseas, but you're in Lubbock, Texas, hosing the stains off a monument. You're in the Naval Reserve. Once you complete basic training, you only work one weekend a month, and most of that time you're drunk off your ass. The Naval Reserve: America's 17th line of defense, between the Mississippi National Guard, and the League of Women Voters."[100]

Lubbock was referenced in Django Unchained in the scene where Dr. King Schultz addresses the marshal following the fatal shooting of the sheriff.

One of the major plotlines of the 2002 miniseries Taken is set in Lubbock.

Texas Tech University is mentioned in Varsity Blues as recruiting a player. Lubbock, Texas is refrenced in La Bamba. Lubbock, Texas is refrenced in Chicago when Roxie says that she grew up in a chicken farm outside of Lubbock.

Sister cities[edit]

List of former and proposed sister cities of Lubbock, Texas.

Former sister cities[edit]

Proposed sister cities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Lubbock (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Geographic Identifiers. United States Census Bureau. 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  2. ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013, Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico". 2013 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  3. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  4. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ "Lubbock". Merriam-Webster Dictionary (Online ed.). Merriam-Webster Incorporated. 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-09.  The pronunciation has been newsworthy: Westbrook, Ray (July 25, 2011). "The linguistics of Lubb-uhk: The grating sound of 'Lubbick' hard on the ears of some longtime Lubbockites". Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. pp. A1, A5. 
  6. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  7. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2013 Population: April 1, 2010, to July 1, 2013". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  8. ^ Texas State Library and Archives Commission / United States Census Bureau. "2010 Census: Population of Texas Cities, Arranged in Descending Order". Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  9. ^ "Media Resources". Lubbock Chamber of Commerce. 2006. Archived from the original on May 6, 2007. Retrieved 2006-11-09. 
  10. ^ "Lubbock Community". Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. [dead link]
  11. ^ Morrow, M. R.; Kreig, D. R. "Cotton Management Strategies for a Short Growing Season Environment: Water-Nitrogen Considerations". Agronomy Journal. 
  12. ^ "Lubbock earns high ranking as place to launch small business". Lubbock Avalanche Journal. October 31, 2009. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  13. ^ "Lubbock High makes Newsweek's top list of high school". Newsweek. 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  14. ^ "Handbook of Texas Online". Texas State Historical Association. 
  15. ^ a b "Texas – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. 
  16. ^ "Lubbock, Texas". National Weather Service Forecast Office. Archived from the original on October 9, 2006. 
  17. ^ "Chamber to Lead Alcohol Petition Effort". My Fox Lubbock. Retrieved 2009-05-09. [dead link]
  18. ^ "Lubbock County voters approve alcohol sales issues". Lubbock Avalanche Journal. Retrieved 2010-06-24. 
  19. ^ "State will clear stores to sell alcohol today". Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Retrieved 2009-09-23. 
  20. ^ a b "About Lubbock". The City of Lubbock. Retrieved 2007-12-18. 
  21. ^ "Lubbock, Texas Profile and Resource Guide". USA Cities Online. Retrieved 2007-12-18. 
  22. ^ "Lubbock, Texas". Weather Underground. Retrieved 2007-12-18. 
  23. ^ Young, Adam D. (August 9, 2010). "City's tallest buildings likely won't face challenge for years". Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Archived from the original on August 22, 2013. Retrieved August 22, 2013. 
  24. ^ "Lubbock". SkyscraperPage. Retrieved August 22, 2013. 
  25. ^ "High-rise buildings in Lubbock". Emporis. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  26. ^ "Low-rise buildings in Lubbock". Emporis. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  27. ^ Depending on the climatologist's threshold, BSk if based upon the annual mean temperature (<18.0 °C or 64.4 °F), BSh if based upon the daily average temperature in the coldest month (≥0 °C or 32 °F).
  28. ^ "Lubbock Climate". Lubbock Works. 
  29. ^ "Lubbock at a Glance". Lubbock Chamber of Commerce. 
  30. ^ "Snowfall – Average Total in Inches". NOAA Climate Services. 
  31. ^ a b c "Monthly Averages for Lubbock, TX". The Weather Channel. 
  32. ^ "Facts About Lubbock, TX" (PDF). Texas Tech University. Archived from the original on February 16, 2008. Retrieved 2007-12-18. 
  33. ^ [1]
  34. ^ "National Weather Service Climate". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-05-04. 
  35. ^ "Station Name: TX LUBBOCK". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-03-10. 
  36. ^ "Climatological Normals of Lubbock". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 2010-07-10. 
  37. ^ a b c "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (DP-1): Lubbock city, Texas". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved January 17, 2013. 
  38. ^ "Selected Economic Characteristics: 2011 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (DP03): Lubbock city, Texas". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved January 17, 2013. 
  39. ^ Battle on for water until Alan Henry pipeline done Accessed 2009-01-19.
  40. ^ Ginter, Derrick. "Local Cotton Exporter, Philanthropist Dies". KOHM. 
  41. ^ "Hanslik's contribution to the Texas Czech Center announced". El Campo Leader-News. 
  42. ^ Graham, Mike. "Students' return boosts university's billion-dollar impact in Lubbock". The Daily Toreador. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  43. ^ Little, Ann Wyatt (June 12, 2009). "City removes Scrub-A-Dubb land from proposed zoning change". KCBD News. Retrieved 2011-09-02. 
  44. ^ "EPA takes charge of hazardous waste site in North Lubbock". Lubbock Local News. August 30, 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-02. 
  45. ^ Slother, Michael (August 31, 2011). "EPA takes charge of hazardous waste site in North Lubbock". KCBD News. Retrieved 2011-09-02. 
  46. ^ "Lubbock scraps Holly name at two sites". Yahoo! Music. Retrieved 2008-09-06. 
  47. ^ Graham, Mike (January 29, 2009). "City approves $20k contract for Buddy Holly naming rights". The Daily Toreador. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  48. ^ "KDAV DJ, Bud Andrews". KDAV. 
  49. ^ "Study Ranks America's Most Liberal and Conservative Cities". GovPro. 
  50. ^ "National Cowboy Symposium & Celebration, Inc. (Lubbock, Texas)". cowboy.org. Retrieved September 5, 2013. 
  51. ^ "2011 Texas' Most Endangered Places". Preservation Texas. Retrieved 2013-04-23. 
  52. ^ Nett, Walt. "Lubbock commissioners approve listing 2 historic parcels for sale". Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Retrieved 2013-04-23. 
  53. ^ "2006 Collegiate Polo Championships". The Polo Zone. 
  54. ^ "2007 Little League World Series". Little League Baseball. 
  55. ^ lcu.edu
  56. ^ "Mackenzie Park/Prairie Dog Town". Texas Travel. 
  57. ^ "Lubbock's Mackenzie Park". Lubbock Hospitality. 
  58. ^ United States Board on Geographical Names. 1964. Decisions on Geographical Names in the United States, Decision list no. 6402, United States Department of the Interior, Washington DC, p. 54.
  59. ^ "Lubbock City Council". City of Lubbock, Texas. Retrieved 2010-06-24. 
  60. ^ a b c d e "Lubbock City Charter". Retrieved July 8, 2009. 
  61. ^ "Elliott Blackburn, "Late police chief saw city through tornado, was known for stern fairness"". Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Retrieved May 1, 2009. 
  62. ^ thelubbockmagazine.com
  63. ^ "Parole Division Region V." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 22, 2010.
  64. ^ "West Regional Support Center Contacts." Texas Department of Transportation. Retrieved on March 22, 2012.
  65. ^ "Lubbock District Contacts." Texas Department of Transportation. Retrieved on March 22, 2012.
  66. ^ Van Wagenen, Chris (August 2, 2001). "Lubbock officials backing plans for Amtrak rail service". Amarillo Globe-News. Retrieved 2008-05-14. 
  67. ^ "Lubbock, Texas." Greyhound Lines. Retrieved on June 24, 2010.
  68. ^ Norwine, Doug and Shrum, Gary (2006). Heritage Auction Galleries Presents the Maria Elena Collection of Buddy Holly Memorabilia Auction Catalog. Heritage Capital Corporation. p. 33. 
  69. ^ "Delbert McClinton". 2014 AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  70. ^ "Jimmie Dale Gilmore". 2014 Net Industries. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  71. ^ "Butch Hancock". 2014 AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  72. ^ "Joe Ely". 2014 AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  73. ^ "Mac Davis". 2014 AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  74. ^ "Terry Allen". 2014 AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  75. ^ "Lloyd Maines". 2014 AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  76. ^ a b c d e f "Lubbock, Texas". City-Data.com. Retrieved May 31, 2014. 
  77. ^ "Pat Green". 2014 American Profile, Publishing Group of America. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  78. ^ "Richie McDonald". 2014 AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  79. ^ "Josh Wilson". 2014 AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  80. ^ "Norman Carl Odam". 2014 AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  81. ^ "Craig Ehlo". 2000–2014 Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  82. ^ "Daniel Santiago". 2000–2014 Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  83. ^ "Ruben Castillo". Box Rec. Retrieved May 31, 2014. 
  84. ^ "Orlin Norris". BoxRec. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  85. ^ "Micheal Ray Richardson". 2000–2014 Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  86. ^ "Chace Crawford". 2014 CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  87. ^ "Alwyn Barr". The Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  88. ^ "Dan Flores". The University of Montana. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  89. ^ "Allan J. Kuethe". 2009 Texas Tech University. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  90. ^ "Ernest Wallace". Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  91. ^ "Bidal Aguero's Remarkable Journey". eleditor.com, November 19, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  92. ^ Robin Briscoe (November 5, 2006). "Memories of escape from Hungary still burn bright". Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  93. ^ "John T. Montford". StateCemetery@tfc.state.tx.us. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  94. ^ "Robert L. Duncan". The Senate of Texas. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  95. ^ "Carl Isett". Texas House of Representatives. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  96. ^ "John Frullo". Texas House of Representatives. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  97. ^ "Charles Perry". Texas House of Representatives. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  98. ^ "Mickey Leland". Office of the Historian: history@mail.house.gov Office of Art & Archives, Office of the Clerk: art@mail.house.gov, archives@mail.house.gov. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  99. ^ "Preston Earnest Smith". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 2, 2014. 
  100. ^ "imdb". imdb.com. 
  101. ^ a b c d Enrique Rangel (March 03, 2001). "City Council hopes sister city commission pays off". Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Retrieved August 7, 2010. 
  102. ^ Enrique Rangel (December 18, 2008). "Mexican border city wants to be Lubbock's sister city". Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Retrieved August 7, 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Abbe, Donald R. and Carlson, Paul H. (2008). Historic Lubbock County: An Illustrated History. Historical Pub Network. ISBN 978-1-893619-90-6.  An illustrated history of Lubbock
  • Pfluger, Marsha (2004). Across Time and Territory: A Walk through the National Ranching Heritage Center. National Ranching Heritage Center. ISBN 978-0-9759360-0-9. 
  • Bogener, Stephen, and Tydeman, William, editors (2011). Llano Estacado: An Island in the Sky. Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 978-0-89672-682-6.  The world's largest expanse of flat land, in words and images
  • Neal, Bill (2009). Sex, Murder, and the Unwritten Law: Courting Judicial Mayhem, Texas Style. Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 978-0-89672-662-8. 
  • Cochran, Mike, and Lumpkin, John (1999). West Texas: A Portrait of Its People and Their Raw and Wondrous Land. Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 978-0-89672-426-6.  Anecdotes from the region
  • Martin, Conny McDonald (2003). Art Lives in West Texas. Pecan Press. ISBN 978-0-9670928-1-2.  The History of the Lubbock Art Association and of art activities in Lubbock and surrounding counties

External links[edit]