House of Lubomirski

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The coat of arms of the Princes Lubomirski (Szreniawa without a Cross)

The History of the Princes Lubomirski Family

The Lubomirski familyPolish princely family of the Szreniawa coat of arms without a Cross.

Origin and the coat of arms[edit]

The Princes Lubomirski Family has been present in the history of Poland since the 10th century. There are two theories of the family origin. The former, by Adam Boniecki, Polish heraldist, assumes that there were two branches of the family. One settled down at the Szreniawa River in Proszowice County, while the other – in Szczyrzyc County. The date of the division of the family is not known, but most likely it was before the adoption of Christianity by Poland. The Szreniawici family had a common coat of arms, which means that they also had the same predecessors. At the time of Mieszko I, the members of the family demonstrated bravery in battles against pagans. For this deed, they were rewarded with the rank of knight and the coat of arms. The fellowship (Szreniawa without a Cross) depicts bends of the Szreniawa River in the form of a letter S of white colour on a red background. With the motto Patriam Versus (Turned to the Homeland) it has been used by the representatives of the family until now.[1]

The author of the second theory of the family origin is the medievalist Władysław Semkowicz. In his article “The fellowship and Śreniawa. Heraldic study” [„Drużyna i Śreniawa. Studyum heraldyczne”] he writes that the family used to live at the banks of the Szreniawa River in Szczyrzycki poviat, that is the area surrounded by Raba, Stradomka with Trzciański Brook, Łososina and Krzyworzeka Streams. Semkowicz describes that original family territory of Drużynnici (predecessors of the Lubomirski, Wieruski, Rupniewski and Lasocki families) was located there. Whereas the coat of arms does not show bends of the river, but a curved rod – a sign of episcopal or secular power. It would mean that the family many centuries before the adoption of the name had served significant functions associated with power.[2]

Further history of the Szreniawici or Drużynnici families is closely linked with the court of the rulers of the Piast dynasty. One of them was a canon at the Wawel court. Persons using this coat of arms belonged to the inner circle of Bolesław Śmiały – his personal team, as mentioned by the most famous Polish chronicler Jan Długosz in Annals or Chronicles of the Famous Kingdom of Poland [Roczniki czyli Kroniki sławnego Królestwa Polskiego]. And the oldest document on the Lubomirski family comes from the 11th century. It is the property section entered in the register in 1682 in Kraków. The original no longer exists. There is only a mention in the Crown Register under a given year.[3] Successive members of the family took up positions of bishops,[4] central functions at the court of the Piast dynasty; extended their estates through investing in acres, mainly within the territory of the Małopolska province. Jakub Lubomirski served as a borough writer in the 14th century.

Foundations of economic power[edit]

Piotr (d. 1480), the heir of Lubomierz, the town from which he adopted his name, is regarded the progenitor of the Lubomirski family, which emerged from the Szreniawici family. Economic foundations of the family were built on the exploitation of salt mines in Kraków province. Mineshafts were leased from rulers of Poland. The Lubomirski family also established private mines in the Małopolska province. Sebastian (c. 1546 – 1613), who in 1581 became a mine administrator of Kraków, was the creator of economic power. It was the first position in the capital city performed by a representative of the family. While taking it up, Sebastian made use of the support of Stefan Batory. Sebastian received the title of Count of Wiśnicz from the Emperor Rudolf II in 1595; in 1591 he entered the Senate as a governor of Małogoszcz. He opened a private salt mine shaft “Kunegunda” in Siercza, which was exploited for about 100 years.[5]

Money gained from the salt trade allowed the Lubomirski family to lend money even to the richest persons in the country. This, in turn, enabled them to purchase properties or take over them from insolvent debtors. The family built up its economic position for many generations, accumulating assets held for centuries.[6]

Residences[edit]

The most ancient mentions of Lubomierz – hometown – were recorded in the year 1398.[7] The family estates, starting from Gdów and Szczyrzyca the family possessed yet in the 13th century, has spread significantly. In the 17th and 18th centuries they covered, among others, Lubomierz, Nowy Wiśnicz, Bochnia, Wieliczka, Łańcut, Baranów Sandomierski, Puławy, Rzeszów, Równe, Tarnów, Jarosław, Przeworsk, Janowiec upon the Vistula. To this day the castle in Nowy Wiśnicz has been the property of the Family Association of the Princes Lubomirski.[8] A lot of estates were located in the territory of the biggest Polish cities: Warsaw (e.g. Mokotów, Ujazdów, Czerniaków), Kraków (Wola Justowska, Kamienica Pod Baranami), Rzeszów (castle), Sandomierz, and Lvov. Maintaining residences in Drezno, Vienna, and Paris enhanced prestige. The members of the family were referred to as “the owners of the bank of the Dnieper River” because many of their estates were located in what is now Ukraine and Slovakia. The Lubomirski family enjoyed political, military and economic influence, which was mainly concentrated in the provinces of Kraków, Sandomierz, Stanisławów, and Ruthenia, to cover the whole area of the Commonwealth of the Two Nations later. They kept this state of ownership until the collapse of the Polish state, when they were deprived of many estates as a result of penalties for pro-independence activities.

The Lubomirski family invested in properties buying large estate complexes. They consciously strived to gather them in one, extensive whole. Territorial expansion began in the ancestral territory located south of Kraków and was directed toward the east. The common estates reached the largest size at the time of Stanisław (d. 1649). It was the third largest fortune in the Republic of Poland, only smaller than the entail of Ostróg and the estates of the Radziwiłł family. They purchased properties and leased rich royal estates, such as the Starosties of Spisz, Sandomierz and Sącz. Incomes from the leased land from the king were comparable to those from private estates.

They introduced a lot of facilities and new solutions in their estates. Their arable farms were geared to industrial production, sugar factories, distilleries, and factories were built. They introduced equal rights for subjects, allowing Jews to buy properties in private towns, build houses; they vested judicial powers in them.[9] They founded schools and hospitals for the peasant population, which they maintained with private incomes. In their estates they often hired people from the lowest class, caring about their education, offering a place of residence, clothing and, of course, the salary usually paid at that time twice a year. For faithful service they were given considerable estates in perpetual or inheritable possession.[10]

Division[edit]

The family, originally very small, significantly grew, which caused divisions of the fortune possessed, but made a political start easier thanks to the support of many people in the Sejms, in the Senate or at the royal court. Successive representatives of the family were also able to count on the support from their relatives in the political or court activities.

The family split into five major lineages: of Wiśnicz (from Aleksander Michał (1614 – 1677), Łańcut (from Stanisław Herakliusz (1642 – 1702), Przeworsk (from Aleksander Michał – d. 1675), Rzeszów (from Hieronim Augustyn (c. 1647 – 1706) and Janowiec (from Jerzy Dominik (1665 – 1727). The most numerous was the line of Przeworsk, which was divided into three branches: dubrowieńsko-kruszyńska, równieńsko-przeworska and dubieńska. Many representatives of this line live now.

First citizens of the Republic of Poland[edit]

The members of the family performed, among others, the following functions in the state: they served as marshals, starosts, governors, and hetmans. Four of the princes Lubomirski held the office of Grand Marshal of the Crown: Jerzy Sebastian, Józef Karol, Stanisław Herakliusz and Stanisław. They were active in the political field chairing the Sejms, forming a private army, many times representing the king at the courts of all Europe. Many times they had a decisive influence on the choice of monarchs. They were also defenders of the nobility, who often entrusted them with their vote at the Sejms and in the election of kings. Jerzy Sebastian was Grand Marshal and Field Hetman of the Crown; nonetheless, he decided to support demands of the nobility gathered in rebellion.[11]

Marriages being made were also important. The representatives of the Lubomirski family cared to become involved with equally powerful and rich families. It enabled them to extend their private estates, and even take over a part of the estate of Ostróg under the Kolbuszowa transaction of 1753. Stanisław Lubomirski (1583 – 1649) married Zofia Ostrogska, Aleksander Michał Lubomirski married Helena Tekla Ossolińska, Krystyna Lubomirska married Albrycht Stanisław Radziwiłł, Józef Karol (1638 – 1702) was Teofilia Ludwika Zasławska’s husband, Teresa Lubomirska (d. 1712) was Karol Filip’s wife, the Prince of Neuburg, and Marianna (1693 – 1729) – Paweł Karol Sanguszko’s, Grand Marshal of Lithuania.[12]

Royal blood[edit]

In 1647 the Lubomirski family in the person of Stanisław got the hereditary title of the Prince of the Holy Roman Empire from Emperor Ferdynand III. They candidated for the crown themselves. Grand Hetman of the Crown Prince Hieronim Augustyn was the most serious candidate for the Polish crown after the death of John III Sobieski. Prince Teodor Konstanty (1683-1745), the governor of Kraków tried to get a crown after the death of Augustus II the Strong. Prince Stanisław Lubomirski, the governor of Kiev, the Speaker of the Radom tribunal, ran for the throne in 1764. Princes Lubomirski were also candidates to take the Czech and Hungarian crown. Jerzy Ignacy Lubomirski (1687-1753) sought the throne of Hungary. The culmination of this effort was performing the rank of the Prince Regent by Zdzislaw Lubomirski in 1917-1918.[13]

The family of the princes Lubomirski is related to almost all the dynasties ruling in Europe, for example, with the Bourbon, Capetiens, Liudolfing, Wittelsbach, Hohenzollern, Rurykowicz dynasties. The Lubomirski family is maternally related to the Piast of Masovia family. Zofia Lubomirska was the great-granddaughter of Anna Lubomirska, the daughter of Konrad III Rudy, the prince of Mazovia. Katarzyna Lubomirska (c. 1585 – 1620) was Konstanty Bazyli II’s wife, Prince of Ostróg, closely related to Bolesław IV, descendant of Konrad Mazowiecki.[14]

Famous winners[edit]

Prince Stanisław Lubomirski became famous for commanding the Battle of Chocim in 1621, fought against Turkish-Tatar forces. Stanisław initially took part in the battle at the head of a private regiment, but when hetman Karol Chodkiewicz died, and hetman Koniecpolski was taken captive – took command. He led to the end of the siege pretty qiuckly. Multi-day battle of Chocim ended up with the Turks being repelled on the October 10, 1621.

Prince Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski (1616 – 1667) as the only Polish aristocrat during the Deluge did not take the oath to Charles X Gustav. He gave shelter to Jan Kazimierz in his estate in Lubowla (today’s Slovakia) and launched a counteroffensive of the Polish troops. He lent his private army, which fought the Battle of Warka and recaptured Warsaw and Toruń occupied by the Swedes. Stefan Czarniecki gave his support in the campaign led by the prince. In 1660 at the head of private and royal armies Prince Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski conducted a lightning campaign ended with the defeat of Russian forces under Cudnów and Połonka. It was one of the best-led military campaigns in Europe in the 17th century. In 1661 a loosening of relations with the king resulted in a rebellion. The prince withdrew to Silesia, and degraded by the Sejm court, fought for the right to rehabilitation. His sons succeeded in this matter.

Prince Hieronim Augustyn, a member of the Order of Hospitallers, devoted his life to fighting the Turks – civilizational and cultural threat to all Europe. He defeated Piotr Doroszenko Cossack uprising. In 1670 he fought against the Crimean Horde under Bracław and Kalnik[disambiguation needed]. In 1683 during the Battle of Vienna his troops first reached the city gates. In the period of the first Republic of Poland eight representatives of the family served as generals. Two of them took part in the war with Czarist Russia, from which the Kościuszko Insurrection began.[15]

Lubomirski family in the history of Warsaw[edit]

To rebuild his numerous residences Prince Stanisław Herakliusz Lubomirski (1642 – 1702) hired Tylman of Gameren, later court architect of the king Mikołaj Korybut Wiśniowiecki. He owned residences in Puławy, Czerniaków (where he founded a monastery and church of the Bernardines) and in Ujazdów (now part of Warsaw). At the end of the 17th century, he built a Bathhouse here, which became the beginning of the Palace on the Water of Stanisław August Poniatowski and Ermitage – planned as a place of meditation and relaxation. He was a friend of many artists and patrons of the arts in all Europe, as evidenced by preserved correspondence. He had relations with the French, Spanish courts or the members of the Medici family, which facilitated him to carry out a number of missions and negotiations on behalf of the Polish king.

Prince Stanisław Herakliusz Lubomirski was also a talented author, a precursor of the Polish Baroque in literature. He spoke several languages, applied almost all known forms of literary in his works, however, he was interested most in the new trends flowing from areas of Italy. His philosophical work “Dialogues of Artakses and Ewander” entered the canon of the Old Polish Literature and became a required reading.[16]

An example of the organization of the very centre of the capital city is a reconstruction of the Copper-Roof Palace [“Pałac Pod Blachą”] commissioned in the early 18th century by Jerzy Dominik Lubomirski. The palace, which got classical shapes, situated on the south side of the Royal Castle, was bought by the king himself in 1777, who put the library there in time.[17]

The previous owner of this famous building was Prince Jerzy Marcin Lubomirski (1738 – 1811), especially distinguished in service to the Polish theatre. He financed exhibiting family and European art; organized numerous concerts, balls and meetings. Celebrations organized by him were a meeting place for artists and aristocrats from across Europe, whereas in memory of residents he was remembered as an organizer of public events combined with demonstrations of fireworks – Fokshali.[18]

Prince Jerzy Martin was also an adventurer and member of the Bar Confederation. From 1758 he served in the Prussian Army, then in the Russian one. He was ousted from political life in Poland by his family, but went down in history as a lover of music and theatre. In 1777 he financed the performance of Tartuffe by Molière; in 1783 leased the privilege of the theatre and made Wojciech Bogusławski the director of the theatre. He also opened a ballet drama school for 1000 people.[19]

Izabela Lubomirska (1736 – 1816), Marshal Princess rebuilt the Łańcut Castle, gathered art collections and libraries, containing hundreds of works from around Europe and the world. She was very politically active; during the revolution she sheltered part of the French court in her estate in Łańcut. She extended her residences often employing the latest architectural solutions. She built a palace on her estate in Mokotów. She gave the name to this district of Warsaw, specifying her estate Mon Coteau (My Hill). She was a lover of theatre, laid the foundation stone of the National Theatre in Warsaw. She maintained a number of stages in her palaces. The notion of theatre in history had a much broader meaning than now. It included not only the theatre performances, but also opera, cabaret and acrobatic performances. It was a medium that strongly affected the senses of audience. For her, Princess Izabela, Franciszek Karpiński wrote the “Song about the Lord’s birth”, better known under the title “God is born”. In honour of her daughter, Cyprian Kamil Norwid wrote a panegyric. Tadeusz Kościuszko set out from the residence in Łańcut and went to Kraków, from where he started an uprising across the country.[20]

Prince Stanisław Lubomirski, Izabela’s husband went down in history as an administrator of Warsaw. He introduced here permanent lighting of the streets and supported a police unit with his private money. Above all, he wished to care for the health of the Varsovians, therefore he decided to surround the city, on both sides of the Vistula, with an earth bank, which was initially to protect against the spreading plague epidemic. Only three crossings were created in the bank, in which people and carts entering the city were controlled. Later, the embankment reinforced with guns was used to defend the capital during the Kościuszko Uprising and the November Uprising. Throughout the 19th century it marked the boundaries of the city. By the Act of 1770 he introduced permanent street names, which greatly facilitated the administration of the city and its functioning organizing the registration issues or providing correspondence.[21]

Philanthropists and patrons[edit]

The Lubomirski family, like other rich aristocratic families exercised artistic, cultural and scientific patronage. At the family castle – Wiśnicz, which the family has owned until now and in Wilanów, the Royal Baths, Łańcut, or Mokotów they supported private theatre groups, financed artists, funded religious buildings and cared for the design of residences. Reconstruction of the Wiśnicz castle was made by Maciej Trapoli. The castle chapel was decorated with stucco by Giovanni Battista Falconi, whereas Stanisław Lubomirski (1538 – 1649), who financed the renovation of the castle, also founded twenty sacred objects.[22]

Prince Marceli Lubomirski for many years supported the work of Cyprian Kamil Norwid. He was immortalized by the poet in the book White Flowers.[23] Prince Józef Lubomirski (1751 – 1817) was a promoter of the country industrialization and reforms, capable military commander, a knight of the Order of White Eagle (the highest state distinction) and the Order of Saint Stanislaus. He supported the Constitution of May 3, 1791.[24]

The Lubomirski family built private schools for pupils on their estates. They often put schooling in the hands of professionals – the Order of Piarists and the Order of Jesuits. The members of the family founded monasteries, churches and other religious buildings. Prince Stanisław Lubomirski founded the Carmelite Monastery in Wiśnicz, which is still the pearl of Renaissance architecture in Poland. For many decades, residents of the castle in Wiśnicz contributed various legacies to the monastery. Jerzy Dominik Lubomirski (c. 1665 – 1727) gave the Pauline Monastery at Jasna Góra many valuable objects, including the sacred vessels. It was his initiative to build the main gate leading to the Monastery. The gate is called the Gate of the Lubomirski Family.[25]

Fight against invaders[edit]

After 1795 princes Lubomirski engaged in clandestine and insurgent activities, although they lost their estates because of that. Prince Jerzy Roman Lubomirski (1799 – 1865), the owner of Rozwadów, participated in the battles of the November and January Uprisings, and organized hospitals for the wounded on his estates. After the collapse of the uprising his palace became a place where secret meetings of Polish patriots were held. He was also active in the social and scientific fields. He maintained a trivial school and poorhouse for the poor. He established two scientific foundations. One of them dealt with the purchase of equipment for testing, the second – rewarded Polish authors of outstanding scientific works.

His brother Adam Hieronim Karol Lubomirski (1811 – 1873) for participation in the November Uprising was rewarded with the Virtuti Militari Cross. After suppressing the uprising, tsarist authorities deprived the family of the estate.[26]

In 1883 Prince Henryk Lubomirski (1777 – 1850) gave his rich collection (including his book collection, archive material, works of art and other pieces called “antiques”) to the Ossoliński National Institute in Lvov, which since then became an important scientific and cultural institution, famous in all Europe. Humanities research was conducted here. Works published by the institute in the 19th century continue to show high cognitive value. Ossolineum also publishes sources for the history of Poland. Without the material and financial support, which Ossolineum received from Prince Lubomirski, the facility would have collapsed at an early stage of activities. Henryk Lubomirski for many years served as a curator of the facility. He contributed to the formation of the Museum of the Princes Lubomirski – the first private museum in the Polish land, generally available to the public. He was on familiar terms with Zygmunt Krasiński. The figure of the prince was commemorated in “Non-Divine Comedy” in the person of Orcio.[27]

Prince Henryk Lubomirski in 1823 created the entail of Przeworsk. As a result of independence activities of the creator, the entail was legalized by the partitioning authorities only after his death. In 1869 his son – Prince Andrzej Lubomirski became the first recognized Entailer.

Prince Aleksander Lubomirski (1802 - 1893) funded centres for the poor boys in the centre of Kraków (today’s seat of the University of Economics) and girls in Łagiewniki[disambiguation needed] (today’s sanctuary highly regarded by Blessed John Paul II, where Saint Sister Faustina experienced revelations). In these centres the poor young people were prepared for adult life. Practical professions that could be the basis for future employment were taught for free.[28]

Prince Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski (1826 – 1908) founded the Warsaw Charity Society. He was the long-standing president of the Ophthalmology Institute in Warsaw, which conducted ophthalmology research at the European level. On his initiative special teams were set up which helped the poor people to cure eyesight. They gave their patients advice free of charge. During the January Uprising the prince was a member of the National Government of Romuald Traugutt, where he served as a Head of the Department of Internal Affairs. For anti-tsarist activities he was exiled deep into Russia to Nizhny Novgorod. He supported Polish education. He protected Polish vocational organizations from competition from Russian and Prussia, established credit unions. He tried to regain possession of Polish art robbed during the wars by the Russians, among others he regained the Poniatowski monument standing in front of the Presidential Palace. He also restored and renovated the Zygmunt's Column, and bought Polish castles in Czersk and Iłża in order to save them from annihilation. In 1875 he established the Museum of Industry and Agriculture in Warsaw (today the seat of the Central Agricultural Library). He established evening schools for craftsmen and journeymen as well as penny-saving banks for the poor. He financed the publishing of sources for the history of Poland, professional magazines; organized free libraries.[29]

Władysław Emanuel Lubomirski supported the Zoological Cabinet of the University of Warsaw. The prince invested in the purchase of teaching aids, financed trips of employees of the university, and handed over his collection of shells. He was interested in floristics, studied the behavior of plants in the changed climate conditions. The Zoological Museum of the Institute of Zoology of the Polish Academy of Sciences (“PAN”) has been making use of his collections until this day.[30]

Prince Władysław Lubomirski (1866 – 1934) was a patron and founder of the group of artists of Music Young Poland. To facilitate the operation of the organization he founded a company, which dealt with the promotion of talented young Polish artists. He financed education and promoted Karol Szymanowski, Artur Rubinstein and Grzegorz Fitelberg for many years. He financed Warsaw Philharmonic at the time when tsarist officials were planning to close it down.[31] Princes Władysław Lubomirski and Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski were initiators of the creation of the Family Association of the Princes Lubomirski.[32]

Prince Stanisław Sebastian Lubomirski (1875 – 1932) founded Warsaw Aviation Association Aviata in 1910. His initiative was to establish the first civilian pilot school and aircraft factory on Polish soil. The first airport of Aviata was located in Mokotów Field, the area also occupied by the tsarist army. The Prince obtained consent to use it from tsarist officials.[33]

Prince Regent proclaims independence of Poland[edit]

Further information: Independence of Poland regained

On the 7th of October 1918, on the initiative of the Prince Regent of Zdzisław Lubomirski, after 123 years, the Polish declaration of independence was proclaimed. Published in the Monitor Polski – governmental body, in which generally applicable legal acts were and are published.[34] The Prince Regent Zdzisław Lubomirski (1865 – 1943) was the president of Warsaw for many years and a politician. As the president of the Civic Committee and the president of Warsaw he extended the self-government, organized intervention works, credit unions, cared for education and living conditions of the Varsovians. Through his activities he set directions of work for future politicians of the independent state. In 1926 he undertook the role of mediator between the parties to the conflict. In the 30s of the 20th century he was a senator; worked in the foreign affairs and military committees. During World War II he was imprisoned and tortured by the Gestapo. He died of wounds sustained in prison.[35]

On the initiative of the Prince Regent, yet during the First World War the creation of foundations of the Polish administration began. Existing ministries were taken over from invaders and new authorities were established. The institutions proved to be stable. They still worked in the 20s of the 20th century, were often filled with the same people.[36]

Interwar period[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Second Polish Republic.

In the years 1919 – 1939 princes Lubomirski served as Members of Parliament, senators; worked in the ministries. They were also engaged in the process of industrialization of the state. They formed banking centres and credit unions, which provided cheap loans to the poorest. They were active in educational organizations, funded and financed schools. They also belonged to the key organizations involved in modernization of roads, railways, and aviation. They took part in the reconstruction of the Polish army. They were also engaged in Polish culture and worked on a voluntary basis.

Prince Stefan Lubomirski (1862 – 1941) was an initiator of the creation of the Polish Olympic Games Committee (later the Polish Olympic committee) and a member of the International Olympic Committee. He was the first president of the Polish Olympic Committee (PKOL). The next president was his cousin, Prince Kazimierz Lubomirski. Prince Stefan was passionate about racehorse breeding. He formed with his brothers the most modern horse breeding in Poland in the manor of Widzów near Częstochowa.[37]

Stefan Lubomirski was the owner of the Warsaw Commuter Railways (Warszawska Kolej Dojazdowa) company, which created the narrow gauge: passenger and freight railways – of Grójec, Jabłonków and Wilanów. Railways were the only modern means of transport, which allowed capital city dwellers to reach factories located outside the city and residents of suburban areas to get to the capital city. Lines built by Lubomirski also worked during World War II delivering supply to the city controlled by the occupation authorities and bringing employees to Warsaw offices and factories.[38]

Prince Stanisław Sebastian Lubomirski also established the Central Union of Polish Industry “Leviatan”, where he was the president since 1932. The union promoted the ideas of development of the industry – lowering taxes, social security benefits for workers and increasing state aid to the industry. Members of the organization were elected to the Sejm, the Senate; were members of many governments of the Second Republic of Poland and other state institutions. They had extensive information background – published three magazines: “Economic Review” (“Przegląd Gospodarczy”), “The Polish Courier” (“Kurier Polski”) and “The Telegram” (“Depesza”). The prince established the Industrial Bank of Warsaw SA (“Bank Przemysłowy Warszawski S.A.”); was the president of the Commercial Bank (“Bank Handlowy”) in Warsaw, the Central Union of Polish Industry (“Centralny Związek Przemysłu Polskiego”), the Polish Bank Association (“Związek Banków Polskich”), and the Association of Polish Industrialists („Stowarzyszenie Przemysłowców Polskich”). He devoted his life to the struggle for independence of the Polish economy from the influence of the partitioners, and after regaining independence – of the neighbouring countries.[39]

World War II. Armed struggle[edit]

For more details on this topic, see History of Poland (1939–1945).

Prince Stefan Lubomirski (1898 – 1948) during the occupation was a member of the Western Union. He was on the list to be shot, but escaped to Kraków, where he was hiding. For keeping a secret storehouse of medicines for the Home Army he was arrested and detained in prison in Montelupich. He had a lucky escape from execution. When the invaders discovered the secret storehouse of medicines, they set the date of transport of the whole family, which was to end up in the concentration camp in Oświęcim.[40]

Prince Eugeniusz Lubomirski (1895 – 1982) was arrested by the NKVD, put in the Lubyanka, where he met General Anders. During the long struggles of the general, he became his adjutant. He fought at his side throughout Europe, also at Monte Cassino. He finally reached the United Kingdom. He was a candidate for the President of Poland in Exile.[41]

Prince Hieronim Lubomirski was murdered at the age of 17 during the action of rescuing Jan Bytnar, pseudonym “Rudy”, in Pawiak. The action took place on the 26th of March 1943. It was organized by a special Unit of the Storm Groups of the Grey Ranks and led to cooperation of Grey Ranks with the Home Army within the scope of rescuing prisoners and punishing occupation authorities of the prison.

Prince Jerzy Ignacy Lubomirski (1882 – 1945) was very active in the local community. He travelled to Vienna to discuss the construction of the bridge over the San River. He helped people particularly affected during the war. He was arrested in 1944. He was detained and tortured in Tarnobrzeg prison. He was murdered by the Secret Police (“Urząd Bezpieczeństwa”) as a member of the Home Army [“Armia Krajowa”].[42] During the war and after its end, the Lubomirski family was often harassed and kept under surveillance by the Gestapo, the NKVD and the secret police (“UB / SB”). The family estate was confiscated, and the princes evicted from their family homes. Jan Lubomirski was a student at Geneva University 1965-70. To earn some monney, he worked on evenings in a car-fuel station in Champel (Geneva). There Marek Potocki, Thomasz Wieczokiewicz (the son of general Waclaw Scaevola-Wieczorkiewicz (1890-1969 Geneva),Alice Parodi and I visited him with champagne and caviar "to sustain his morals" and conversed until late in the night about polish history and what would be of Poland under sowiet rule "Kiediz nam Pan Bóg wrucicz z wendruwki dozwoli, i znowu dom zamieszkacz na ojczistei roli ? " (Mickiewicz) .

Recent times[edit]

The family charitable tradition is continued by its members forming The Princes Lubomirski Foundation. The organization supports the development of Polish art, science; it also develops medical and educational projects. The scope of activity of the organization is very wide, from supporting ecological construction to endowing scholarships for students, purchasing computer hardware and medical equipment to the rebuilding of especially prized monuments. Jan Lubomirski-Lanckoroński is the President of The Princes Lubomirski Foundation.[43]

Family members[edit]

Family tree[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ A. Boniecki, A. Reiski, herbarz polski, part 1, Wiadomości historyczno-genealogiczne o rodach szlacheckich, v. 15, Gebethner i Wolf, Warsaw 1912, p. 56 – 57.
  2. ^ W. Semkowicz, Drużyna i Śreniawa. Studyum heraldyczne, „Kwartalnik Historyczny”, R. 14 (1900), p. 200 – 222. This theory assumes in the later part that yet in the 15th century Jan Długosz incorrectly described the origin of the coat of arms of the fellowship (Szreniawa without a Cross), and other heraldists made the mistake after him. It does not change the fact that the above-described coat of arms is still used by members of the family.
  3. ^ A. Boniecki, A. Reiski, Herbarz polski, part 1, Wiadomości historyczno-genealogiczne o rodach szlacheckich, v. 15, Gebethner i Wolf, Warsaw 1912, 56 – 58. However, the authors of Herbarz argue that this document was a forgery.
  4. ^ For example, Piotr, Archbishop of Gniezno coming from the Szreniawici family led mediation between the princes of the Piast dynasty during the congress in Łęczyca in 1180. See K. Niecsiecki S. J. Herbarz polski powiększony dodatkami z późniejszych autorów, rękopisów, dowodów urzędowych, v. 8, Breitkopf w Haertel, Lipsk 1841, p. 469 – 472.
  5. ^ T. Zielińska, Poczet polskich rodów arystokratycznych, WSiP, Warsaw 1997, p. 134.
  6. ^ Rody magnackie Rzeczypospolitej, PWN, Warsaw 2009, p. 98.
  7. ^ Such information is given by A. Boniecki, A. Reiski, Herbarz polski, part 1, Wiadomości historyczno-genealogiczne o rodach szlacheckich, v. 15, Gebethner i Wolf, Warsaw 1912, 56 – 58.
  8. ^ District Court in Bochnia, Division of the Land Registry Office, LWH 390.
  9. ^ Jerzy Sebastian was particularly involved in the activities of democratization. He believed that the increase in economic rights of all his subjects would make him get richer, too.
  10. ^ K. Niesiecki, Herbarz polski powiększony dodatkami z późniejszych autorów, rękopisów, dowodów urzędowych i wydany przez J. N. Borowicza, v. 6, Lipsk 1841, p. 147.
  11. ^ J. Długosz, latyfundia Lubomirskich w XVII wieku (powstanie – rozwój – podziały, Opole University, Opole 1997, p. 13
  12. ^ Rody magnackie Rzeczypospolitej, PWN, Warsaw 2009, p. 103, T. Zielińska, Poczet polskich rodów arystokratycznych, WSiP, Warsaw 1997, p. 137.
  13. ^ Elekcje królów Polski w Warszawie na Woli 1575-1764. Upamiętnienie pola elekcyjnego w 400-lecie stołeczności Warszawy, pod red. Marka Tarczyńskiego, Rytm, Warsaw 1997, pass.
  14. ^ wielcy.pl, Wielka genealogia Minakowskiego.
  15. ^ T. M. Nowak, Historia oręża polskiego 963 – 1795, Wiedza Powszechna, Warsaw 1988, pass.
  16. ^ S. Mossakowski, Mecenat artystyczny Stanisława Herakliusza Lubomirskiego, [w:] Stanisław Herakliusz Lubomirskie. Pisarz – polityk – mecenas, edited by W. Roszkowska, Ossolineum, Wrocław 1982, p. 51 – 75.
  17. ^ M. M. Drozdowski, A. Zahorski, Historia Warszawy, Jeden Świat, Warsaw 2004, p. 120 – 121.
  18. ^ Encyklopedia Warszawy, red. B. Petrozolin – Skowrońska, PWN, Warsaw 1994, p. 231.
  19. ^ T. Zielińska, Poczet polskich rodów arystokratycznych, WSiP, Warsaw 1997, p. 143 – 144.
  20. ^ B. Majewska – Maszkowska, Mecenat artystyczny Izabeli z Czartoryskich Lubomirskiej (1746 – 1816), Ossolineum, Wrocław 1976, p. 17 – 96.
  21. ^ M. M. Drozdowski, A. Zahorski, Historia Warszawy, Jeden Świat, Warsaw 2004, p. pass.
  22. ^ P. S. Szlezynger, Fundacje architektoniczne Stanisława Lubomirskiego wojewody i starosty generalnego krakowskiego, Cracow University of Technology, Kraków 1994, p. 10 – 27.
  23. ^ C. K. Norwid, Białe kwiaty, ed. 3, reviewed and supplemented. PIW, Warsaw 1977, pass.
  24. ^ A. Przyboś, Lubomirski Józef, [w:] Polski Słownik Biograficzny, ed. E. Rostworowski, v. 18, PWN, Warsaw 1973, p. 26 – 27.
  25. ^ http://czestochowa.miasto.biz, downloaded on 18.10.2011.
  26. ^ http://www.kompasturystyczny.pl/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=370:turystyczny-szlak-gniazd-rodowych-lubomirskich-stalowa-wola&catid=44:szlaki-tematyczne&Itemid=255, downloaded on 18.10.2011.
  27. ^ http://www2.oss.wroc.pl/index.php/aktualnosci/historia-znio/, downloaded on 18.10.2011. The name Orcio derives from French Henry (read Auri).
  28. ^ J. Bieniarzówna, Lubomirski Aleksander Ignacy [w:] Polski Słownik Biograficzny, ed. E. Roztworowski, v. 18 PWN, Warsaw 1973, p. 2.
  29. ^ W. H. Melanowski, Dzieje Instytutu Oftalmicznego im. Edwarda ks. Lubomirskiego w Warszawie 1823 – 1944, Towarzystwo Naukowe Warszawskie, Warsaw 1948, pass; H. Markiewiczowa, Działalność opiekuńczo-wychowawcza Warszawskiego Towarzystwa Dobroczynności 1814-1914, Akademia Pedagogiki Specjalnej im. Marii Grzegorzewskiej, Warsaw 2002, pass; J. Skodlarski, Zarys historii gospodarczej Polski do 1945 roku, ed. 2, extended and amended, PWN, Warsaw 1997.
  30. ^ K. Kowalska, Lubomirski Władysław Emanuel, [w:] Polski Słownik Biograficzny, ed. E. Rostworowski, v. 18, p. 63
  31. ^ H. Sachs, Artur Rubinstein, translated by D. Chylińska, Wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie, Wrocław 1999, pass.
  32. ^ KRS 0000074334.
  33. ^ H. Mordawski, Siły powietrzne w I wojnie światowej, Wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie, Wrocław, 2008, p. 45-46.
  34. ^ "Monitor Polski” Special supplement of. 7.10.1918, no. 168, p. 1.
  35. ^ L. Królikowski, K. Oktabiński, Warszawa 1914 – 1920. Warszawa i okolice w latach walk o niepodległość i granice Rzeczypospolitej, Wydawnictwa Akademickie i Profesjonalne, Warsaw 2007, pass.
  36. ^ Z. J. Winnicki, Rada Regencyjna Królestwa Polskiego i jej organy 917 – 1918, Wektory, Wrocław 1991.
  37. ^ http://www.pkol.pl/pl/pages/display/15521, downloaded on 18.10.2011.
  38. ^ B. Prokopiński, Kolej jabłonowska, WKŁ, Warsaw 2004; B. Prokopiński, Kolej grójecka, WKŁ, Warsaw 2002, B. Prokopiński, Kolej wilanowska, WKŁ, Warsaw 2001.
  39. ^ Z. Landau, Lubomirski Stanisław Sebastian, [w:] Polski Słownik Biograficzny, ed. E. Roztworowski, v. 18, PWN, Warsaw 1973, p. 56 – 58; B. Winiarski Polityka gospodarcza, ed. 3, PWN, Warsaw 2006, p. 143 - 198.
  40. ^ http://www.nw.com.pl/index.php?option=com_docman&task=cat_view&gid=157&limitstart=30, downloaded on 18.10.2011.
  41. ^ E. Lubomirski, Kartki z życia mego, Polska Fundacja Kulturalna, London, 1982, pass.
  42. ^ http://www.stalowka.net/encyklopedia.php?dx=111, downloaded on 18.10.2011.
  43. ^ http://www.fundacjaksiazatlubomirskich.pl, downloaded on 18.10.2011.

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