The Lucas numbers or Lucas series are an integer sequence named after the mathematician François Édouard Anatole Lucas (1842–1891), who studied both that sequence and the closely related Fibonacci numbers. Lucas numbers and Fibonacci numbers form complementary instances of Lucas sequences.
Similarly to the Fibonacci numbers, each Lucas number is defined to be the sum of its two immediate previous terms, i.e. it is a Fibonacci integer sequence. However, the first two Lucas numbers are L0 = 2 and L1 = 1 instead of 0 and 1, and the properties of Lucas numbers are therefore somewhat different from those of Fibonacci numbers.
The Lucas numbers may thus be defined as follows:
The sequence of Lucas numbers begins:
All Fibonacci-like integer sequences appear in shifted form as a row of the Wythoff array; the Fibonacci sequence itself is the first row and the Lucas sequence is the second row. Also like all Fibonacci-like integer sequences, the ratio between two consecutive Lucas numbers converges to the golden ratio.
Extension to negative integers 
Using Ln−2 = Ln − Ln−1, one can extend the Lucas numbers to negative integers to obtain a doubly infinite sequence:
- ..., −11, 7, −4, 3, −1, 2, 1, 3, 4, 7, 11, ... (terms for are shown).
The formula for terms with negative indices in this sequence is
Relationship to Fibonacci numbers 
The Lucas numbers are related to the Fibonacci numbers by the identities
- , and thus as approaches +∞, the ratio approaches
Their closed formula is given as:
where is the Golden ratio. Alternatively, as for the magnitude of the term is less than 1/2, is the closest integer to or, equivalently, the integer part of , also written as .
Congruence relations 
If Fn ≥ 5 is a Fibonacci number then no Lucas number is divisble by Fn.
Ln is congruent to 1 mod n if n is prime, but some composite values of n also have this property.
Lucas primes 
A Lucas prime is a Lucas number that is prime. The first few Lucas primes are
If Ln is prime then n is either 0, prime, or a power of 2. L2m is prime for m = 1, 2, 3, and 4 and no other known values of m.