Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus (bef. 97 BCE - 48 BCE) was Consul of the Roman Republic in 49 BCE, an opponent of Caesar and supporter of Pompeius in the Civil War during 49 – 48BCE.

Family and political career[edit]

Born sometime before 97 BCE,[1] son of a Publius Lentulus,[2] his origins are otherwise unknown, though he was most likely a member of the patrician Cornelii Lentuli branch of the gens Cornelia family.

Details of Crus' younger years are not known. In 72 BCE Caesar's man, Balbus, acquired his Roman citizenship for service under Pompeius against Quintus Sertorius in Spain.[3] On the basis of the Roman names he took – Lucius Cornelius Balbus – and on the basis of later letters to Cicero,[4] it is possible[5] that both Balbus major and minor obtained citizenship with the sponsorship of L. Cornelius Lentulus Crus,[6] who may then have been serving with Pompeius as a legate (Pompeius was there 76 BCE to 71 BCE; if Crus was born c. 98 BCE then he'd be between about 22 and 27 at the time).

In 61 BCE he was the chief prosecutor of Publius Clodius Pulcher[7] at a quaestio extraordinaria over the latter's violation of the mysteries of the Bona Dea, along with two other Cornelii Lentuli,[8] in which he failed to secure a conviction due in large part to the bribes which Clodius spread amongst the jurors.[9]

Lentulus' rise through the cursus honorum of political office is not now known prior to his election, during the consulship of Caesar and Bibulus, as Praetor for 58 BCE.[10] During his term of office Clodius, now a tribune of the people, moved against his enemy Cicero on the basis that the latter, as consul of 63 BCE, had put Roman citizens to death without trial. Cicero hoped for Lentulus' aid against Clodius;[11] although the praetor did, with other senior figures, attempt to persuade Pompeius to act to protect Cicero this failed, as Pompeius refused to act against an elected tribune on his own authority.[12]

In 51 BCE he stood for election to the prestigious priestly board of fifteen men in charge of the Sibylline Books (Quindecimviri sacris faciundis),[13] but was defeated by Publius Cornelius Dolabella (to the amusement of Cicero's correspondent, Marcus Caelius Rufus[14]).

In 50 BCE he was elected consul for the following year[15] alongside Claudius Marcellus, as opponents to Caesar,[16] and was an active and vocal participant in the increasingly hysterical scenes[17] in the senate in late 50 and January 49 as Caesar sought to secure a safe consulship whilst a reactionary group of senators sought to have him stripped of command. Finally, on 7 January 49 BCE, the senate under Lentulus and Marcellus passed the “final decree” (senatus consultum ultimum);[18] the tribunes Antonius and Cassius fled with Caesar's envoy, the younger Curio, from Rome to meet Caesar at Ravenna. On 10th, Caesar famously crossed the Rubicon, starting the Civil War.

Civil War[edit]

Initially Lentulus remained in Rome but left, with many senators, ahead of Caesar's advancing forces.[19] He recruited troops for Pompeius in Capua (even gladiators at one stage, before thinking better of this[20]). Caesar sent his agent, the younger Balbus, on a mission to win over Lentulus[21] – possibly Crus was patronus to the Cornelii Balbi, uncle and nephew, if he had been their sponsor when they were granted Roman citizenship under Pompeius in 72, and Caesar hoped that Balbus would have some influence with the consul. However, by 3 March Cicero reported[22] to Atticus that the Consuls had crossed over from Brundisium to the shore of Greece.

Lentulus recruited two legions in the province of Asia for Pompeius[23] - a decree of his in July 49 BCE exempted the Jews of Asia Minor from military service.[24] He was with Pompeius, as Proconsul, in his defeat at the battle of Pharsalus on 9 August 48BCE.[25] On his flight from the battlefield Lentulus was denied refuge in Antioch[26] and instead followed Pompeius to Egypt. He was taken prisoner on 4 September by the order of King Ptolemy XIII and executed whilst in prison.[27]

Caesar himself placed a great deal of blame on Lentulus for the events of late 50/early 49 which brought about the civil war, commenting on the magnitude of Lentulus' debts and his hopes for control of an army and rich provinces, and going so far as to claim that the Consul was aiming to make himself master of Rome, a second Sulla.[28] He was also seen as duplicitous, warning the senate in the debates of January 49 that if they did not declare against Caesar then he, Lentulus, had his own means of regaining Caesar's favour. Cicero, in a characteristically cutting remark, described Lentulus as being averse to the trouble of thinking.[29] Writing of the private interests and personal ambitions of Pompeius' followers, he seems to give support to Caesar's claims,[30] and his later acerbic comments that Lentulus promised himself Hortensius' town house, Caesar's suburban villa, and an estate at Baiae as spoils of the civil war do bear out Lentulus' reputation for avariciousness.[31]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ MRR gives his praetorship in 58 BCE. Under the cursus honorum he could not have been praetor until he was aged 39, so he would have been born in or before 97BCE.
  2. ^ MRR II, s.a. 49 BCE (AUC 705) “L. Cornelius P.f. - n. Lentulus Crus Pat.”
  3. ^ Cicero, pro Balbo 5
  4. ^ Cicero, ad Att. viii.15; ad Att. ix.7b
  5. ^ Syme, p.44 n.2: Balbus acknowledges “an especial tie of loyalty” to Crus
  6. ^ Pauly-Wissowa RE 218
  7. ^ Tatum, pp.80-81
  8. ^ Val.Max IV 2.5: Lentulus Marcellinus (cos. 56BCE) and Lentulus Niger (pr.? 61BCE)
  9. ^ Cicero, ad Att. i.16
  10. ^ MRR II, s.a. 58 BCE (AUC 696)
  11. ^ Cicero, ad Quintum Fratrem i.2
  12. ^ Cicero, in Pisonem 77
  13. ^ MRR II s.a. 51BCE (AUC 703)
  14. ^ M. Caelius Rufus in Cicero, ad Fam. viii.4
  15. ^ MRR II s.a. 49BCE (AUC 705)
  16. ^ Caesar, B.G. 8.50
  17. ^ Meier p.341-346; Plutarch, Pomp. §59; Caesar, B.C. i.1-5
  18. ^ Caesar, B.C. i.5
  19. ^ Cicero, ad Fam. xvi.11; ad Att. vii.12, 15, 21
  20. ^ Caesar, B.C. i.14
  21. ^ Cicero, ad Att. viii.9, 11; ad Fam. x.32; Velleius, II.51.3
  22. ^ Cicero, ad Att. viii.15
  23. ^ Caesar, B.C. iii.4
  24. ^ Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 14 §228-230
  25. ^ Caesar, B.C. iii.78
  26. ^ Caesar, B.C. iii.84
  27. ^ Caesar, B.C. iii.85
  28. ^ Caesar, B.C. i.4
  29. ^ Cicero, Brut. 268
  30. ^ Cicero, ad Fam. vi.6
  31. ^ Cicero, ad Att. xi.6

References[edit]

Modern Works[edit]

  • Broughton, T. Robert S. (1952). The Magistrates of the Roman Republic, Vol. II (99 B.C.-31 B.C.). New York: American Philological Association. 
  • Gardner, Jane F. (1976). Caesar: The Civil War. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-044187-5. 
  • Meier, Christian (1995). Caesar. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-255163-2. 
  • Syme, Ronald (1939). The Roman Revolution. Oxford: OUP (2002 reissue). ISBN 0-19-280320-4. 
  • Tatum, W. Jeffrey (1999). The Patrician Tribune: Publius Clodius Pulcher. Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-2480-1. 
  • Warner, Rex (1972). Plutarch: Fall of the Roman Republic. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-044084-4. 

Ancient Authors[edit]

Succession table[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Claudius Marcellus Minor
Consul of the Roman Republic
with Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior
49 BC
Succeeded by
Gaius Julius Caesar and Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus