Lucius Munatius Plancus

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Bust of Plancus symbolising Roman philosophy. The bust has been said to show evidence of hemiplegia. Found in 1823 near the Jardin des Plantes and the amphitheatre of Lyon. On display at the Gallo-Roman Museum of Lyon.

Lucius Munatius Plancus (born in Tibur, c. 87 BC; died in Gaeta, c. 15 BC) was a Roman senator, consul in 42 BC, and censor in 22 BC with Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus. Along with Talleyrand eighteen centuries later, he is one of the classic historical examples of men who have managed to survive very dangerous circumstances by constantly shifting their allegiances.

Early career[edit]

Plancus's early career is rather unclear, and we know little about him, only that he was the namesake of his father, grandfather and great-grandfather. He was Julius Caesar's officer during the conquest of Gaul and the civil war against Pompey. His funerary inscription attests that he founded the cities of Augusta Raurica (44 BC) and Lyon (43 BC)[1] and in June 43 BC, a letter attests to its passage through the village of Cularo (present Grenoble) in the Dauphiné Alps.[2]

Civil war[edit]

A statue of Plancus in the city hall of Basel, Switzerland, the city's founder.[citation needed]

When Caesar was assassinated on 15 March 44 BC, Plancus was the Proconsul of Gallia Comata. When Antony besieged Decimus Brutus in Mutina, he engaged in extensive correspondence with Cicero about the potential for the defection of Senatorial forces to Antony, while assuring the senate of his support. He claimed that he would be unable to assist as Marcus Aemilius Lepidus would block the movement of his troops to support Brutus. After Lepidus, Antony and Octavian formed the Second Triumvirate, he turned to Antony's support, and he held the consulship with Lepidus in 42 BC. He became proconsul of Asia in about 40 BC.

During Mark Antony's expedition (36 BC) to Armenia and Parthia, to avenge Crassus' death (17 years earlier) he was proconsul of Syria. But when Antony's campaign against the Parthians failed, he chose to leave him and join Octavian. According to Suetonius, Plancus was the one who suggested Octavian adopt the title "Augustus" rather than be called Romulus as a "second founder of Rome."[3]

Under Augustus[edit]

In 22 BC, Augustus appointed him and Aemilius Lepidus Paullus to fill the office of censor.[4][5][6] Their censorship is famous not for any remarkable deeds, but because it was the last time that such magistrates were appointed. According to Velleius Paterculus' Roman history,[7] it was a shame for both of the senators:

. . . the censorship of Plancus and Paullus, which, exercised as it was with mutual discord, was little credit to themselves or little benefit to the state, for the one lacked the force, the other the character, in keeping with the office; Paullus was scarcely capable of filling the censor's office, while Plancus had only too much reason to fear it, nor was there any charge which he could make against young men, or hear others make, of which he, old though he was, could not recognize himself as guilty . . .

In Suetonius' Life of Nero,[8] we read that the emperor Nero's grandfather, Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, whose wife was Antonia Major, daughter of Mark Antony, "was haughty, extravagant, and cruel, and when he was only an aedile, forced the censor Lucius Plancus to make way for him on the street": the story seems to hint at the poor reputation Plancus held after his censorship.

Legacy[edit]

Plancus is one of the very few important Roman historical figures whose tomb has survived and is identifiable, although his body has long since vanished. The Mausoleum of Plancus, a massive cylinder tomb now much restored (and incongruously consecrated to the Virgin Mary in the late 19th century), is in Gaeta, on a hill overlooking the sea: it houses a small permanent exhibit in honor of him.

By his wife, whose name is unknown, Plancus had a son and a daughter: Lucius Munatius Plancus (ca 45 BC - aft. 14), consul in 13 and legate in 14, who married Aemilia Paulla, daughter of Aemilius Lepidus Paullus and wife Cornelia Lentula; and Munatia Plancina (ca 35 BC - aft. 20), wife of Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Funerary inscription of Lucius Munatius Plancus. Uchicago.edu
  2. ^ Cularo (french)
  3. ^ (Suet. Aug. 7)
  4. ^ Suet. Aug. 37
  5. ^ Claud. 16
  6. ^ Dio, liv.2
  7. ^ (II.95)
  8. ^ (ch. 4)
Preceded by
Aulus Hirtius and Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus
Consul of the Roman Republic
with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus
42 BC
Succeeded by
Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus and Lucius Antonius