|— Metropolitan City —|
|Nickname(s): The City of Nawabs, The Golden City of India, Constantinople of East, Shiraz-i-Hind|
|Founder||Maharaja Lakhan Pasi|
|• Mayor||Dinesh Sharma(BJP)|
|• Metropolitan City||310.1 km2 (119.7 sq mi)|
|Elevation||128 m (420 ft)|
|• Metropolitan City||4,815,601|
|• Density||2,011/km2 (5,210/sq mi)|
|• Official||Hindi, English, Urdu|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|PIN||2260xx / 2270xx|
|Sex ratio||871 ♂/♀|
Lucknow // is the capital city of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. This metro city is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division. Lucknow has always been known as a multicultural city and flourished as a cultural and artistic capital of North India in the 18th and 19th centuries. Today it continues as an important centre of commerce, aerospace, finance, pharmaceuticals, technology, design, culture, tourism, music and poetry. Lucknow ranked 6th among all the cities in India for fastest job-creation. It is the largest city of Uttar Pradesh,second largest metro of North and Central India after Delhi and 11th largest city of India.
Lucknow elevation is 123.45 m above sea level. Lucknow covers an area of 310.1 km2. It is surrounded on the eastern side by District Barabanki, on the western side by district Unnao, on the southern side by Raebareli and on the northern side by Sitapur and Hardoi districts. The city is on the northwestern shore of Gomti river, which flows through it. Lucknow is accessible from every part of India through air, rail and road. It is directly connected with New Delhi, Patna, Calcutta, Mumbai, Varanasi, Bangalore, Thiruvananthapuram and other major cities by Amausi airport. The Union Cabinet approved granting of international airport status to Lucknow. The Lucknow airport is suitable for all-weather operations and can provide parking facility up to 14 aircraft. At present, Air India, Jet, GoAir, IndiGo and SpiceJet are operating domestic flights from and to Lucknow.
As the seat of the government of Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow is the site of Vidhan Sabha, the High Court and numerous government departments and agencies. Lucknow has several educational and research organizations like IIM Lucknow, Central Drug Research Institute, Indian Toxicological Research Centre, National Botanical Research Institute, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia National Law University, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences and King George Medical College. It is the location of many social and cultural institutions of national significance, such as the Kathak, Khayal, Nawabs and Classical music. It is the birthplace of British pop star Sir Cliff Richard and resident city of Subrata Roy, the founder and chairman of the Sahara India Pariwar.
Hindi is the city's official language. However, the most prominent language spoken in Lucknow is colloquial Hindustani. The city's design was heavily influenced by the several emperors and incorporates significant areas of natural imperial that have earned Lucknow the title of the "city of nawabs". It is also known as the Golden City of India, Shiraz-i-Hind and the Constantinople of the East. Lucknow's society is very famous for its etiquette and traditions to attain a rare degree of sophistication. Be it the cultural charm or the monumental one, all are well conserved here to make Lucknow "The city of many splendours". Distance between Lucknow and New Delhi is 414.5 km and it takes only 7 hours 4 mins to reach there.
Awadh, known as the granary of India, was important strategically for the control of the fertile plain between the Ganga and the Yamuna rivers known as the Doab. It was a wealthy kingdom, able to maintain its independence against threats from the Marathas, the British and the Afghans.
Since 1350 AD Lucknow and parts of the Awadh region were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate, Sharqi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, Nawabs of Awadh, East India Company and the British Raj. Lucknow was one of the major centres of Indian rebellion of 1857, participated actively in India's Independence movement, and emerged as an important city of North India. Until 1719, subah of Awadh was a province of the Mughal Empire administered by a Governor appointed by the Emperor. Saadat Khan also called Burhan-ul-Mulk a Persian adventurer was appointed the Nazim of Awadh in 1722 and he established his court in Faizabad near Lucknow.
For about eighty-four years (from 1394 to 1478) Awadh was part of the Sharqi Sultanate of Jaunpur; Emperor Humayun made it a part of the Mughal Empire around 1555. During Emperor Jehangir's rule, he granted an estate in Awadh to a nobleman, Sheik Abdul Rahim, who had won his favour. Sheik Abdul Rahim later built Machchi Bhawan in this estate; this later became the seat of power from where his descendants, the Sheikhzades, controlled the region.
Nawab - the plural of the Arabic word 'naib', meaning 'assistant' - was the term given to governors appointed by the Mughal emperor all over India to assist him in managing the Empire. In the absence of expeditious transport and communication facilities, they were practicallyy independent rulers of their territory and wielded the power of life and death over their subjects. The Nawabs of Lucknow were in fact the Nawabs of Awadh, but were so refrred to because after the reign of the third Nawab, Lucknow became the capital of their realm. The city was North India’s cultural capital, and its nawabs, best remembered for their refined and extravagnt lifestyles, were patrons of the arts. Under them music and dance flourished, and many monuments were erected. Of the monuments standing today, the Bara Imambara, the Chhota Imambara, and the Rumi Darwaza are notable examples. One of the more lasting contributions by the Nawabs is the syncretic composite culture that has come to be known as the Ganga-Jamuni Tehzeeb.
Many independent kingdoms, such as Awadh, were established when the Mughal empire disintegrated. The third Nawab, Shuja-ud-Daula, fell out with the British after aiding the fugitive Nawab of Bengal Mir Qasim. He was comprehensively defeated in the Battle of Buxar by the East India Company, which forced him to pay heavy penalties and cede parts of his territory. Awadh’s capital, Lucknow rose to prominence when Asaf-ud-Daula, the fourth nawab, shifted his court here from Faizabad in 1775. The British appointed a resident in 1773 and over time gained control of more territory and authority in the state. They were, however, disinclined to capture Awadh outright and be brought face to face with the Marathas and the remnants of the Mughal Empire. In 1798, the fifth Nawab Wazir Ali Khan alienated both his people and the British, and was forced to abdicate. The British then helped Saadat Ali Khan to the throne. Saadat Ali Khan was a puppet king, who in the treaty of 1801 ceded half of Awadh to the British East India Company and also agreed to disband his troops in favour of a hugely expensive, British-run army. This treaty effectively made the state of Awadh a vassal to the British East India Company, though it nationally continued to be part of the Mughal Empire in name until 1819. The treaty of 1801 formed an arrangement that was very beneficial to the Company. They were able to use Awadh's vast treasuries, repeatedly digging into them for loans at reduced rates. In addition, the revenues from running Awadh's armed forces brought them useful revenues while it acted as a buffer state. The Nawabs were ceremonial kings, busy with pomp and show but with little influence over matters of state. By the mid-nineteenth century, however, the British had grown impatient with the arrangement and wanted direct control of Awadh.
In 1856 the East India Company first moved its troops to the border, then annexed the state under the Doctrine of Lapse, which was placed under a chief commissioner – Sir Henry Lawrence. Wajid Ali Shah, the then Nawab, was imprisoned, and then exiled by the Company to Calcutta. In the subsequent Revolt of 1857 his 14-year old son Birjis Qadra son of Begum Hazrat Mahal was crowned ruler, and Sir Henry Lawrence killed in the hostilities. Following the rebellion's defeat, Begum Hazrat Mahal and other rebel leaders obtained asylum in Nepal.
In the Indian Rebellion of 1857 (also known as the First War of Indian Independence and the Indian Mutiny), those company troops who were recruited from the state, along with some of the nobility of the state, were major players. The rebels took control of Awadh, and it took the British 18 months to reconquer the region, months which included the famous Siege of Lucknow. The garrison based at the Residency in Lucknow was besieged by rebel forces. Siege of Lucknow was relieved first by forces under the command of Sir Henry Havelock and Sir James Outram, followed by a stronger force under Sir Colin Campbell. Today, the ruins of the Residency, and the picturesque Shaheed Smarak offer reminiscences of Lucknow's role in the stirring events of 1857.
Oudh was placed back under a chief commissioner, and was governed as a British province. In 1877 the offices of lieutenant-governor of the North-Western Provinces and chief commissioner of Oudh were combined in the same person; and in 1902, when the new name of United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was introduced, the title of chief commissioner was dropped, though Oudh still retained some marks of its former independence.
The Khilafat Movement had an active base of support in Lucknow, creating a united platform against the British rule. In the Khilafat Movement Maulana Abdul Bari of Firangi Mahal, Lucknow actively participated and cooperated with Mahatama Gandhi and Maulana Mohammad Ali. In 1901, after remaining the capital of Oudh since 1775, Lucknow, with a population of 264,049, was merged in the newly formed United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. However, it became the provincial capital in 1920 when the seat of government was moved from Allahabad. Upon Indian independence in 1947, Lucknow became the capital of Uttar Pradesh, the erstwhile United Provinces.
Geography and climate 
Situated in the middle of the Gangetic plain, Lucknow city is surrounded by its rural towns and villages viz. the orchard town of Malihabad, Kakori, Mohanlal ganj, Gosainganj, Chinhat, Itaunja. On its eastern side lies Barabanki District, on the western side is Unnao District, on the southern side Raebareli District, and on the northern side the Sitapur and Hardoi districts. The Gomti River, the chief geographical feature, meanders through the city, dividing it into the Trans-Gomti and Cis-Gomti regions. Lucknow city is located in the seismic zone III.
Lucknow has a warm humid subtropical climate with cool, dry winters from December to February and dry, hot summers from April to June. The rainy season is from mid-June to mid-September, when Lucknow gets an average rainfall of 896.2 millimetres (35.28 in) from the south-west monsoon winds, and occasionally frontal rainfall will occur in January. In winter the maximum temperature is around 25 °C (77 °F) and the minimum is in the 3 °C (37 °F) to 7 °C (45 °F) range. Fog is quite common from late December to late January. Summers are extremely hot with temperatures rising to the 40 °C (104 °F) to 45 °C (113 °F) range, the average highs being in the high of 30s (degree Celsius). On January 9, 2013 Lucknow recorded its temperature of −0.7 °C (31 °F), lowest in 49 years.
|Climate data for Lucknow, India|
|Average high °C (°F)||22.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||14.7
|Average low °C (°F)||6.9
|Rainfall mm (inches)||21.9
|Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||1.6||1.1||0.7||0.5||1.0||4.2||11.6||13.1||7.4||2.0||0.3||0.7||44.2|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||203.4||217.5||248.7||271.0||283.5||198.0||167.4||166.7||219.0||269.7||246.0||217.0||2,707.9|
Flora and fauna 
a very low proportion of area under forest. The total area under forest (4.66 percent) is much less as compared to state average which is barely around 7 percent. The forest area is negligible in the district. Shisham, Dhak, Mahua, Babul, Neem, Peepal, Ashok, Khajur, Mango and Gular trees are grown here. Different varieties of mangoes specially Dasheri are grown in Malihabad block of the district and exported to other countries too. The main crops are wheat, paddy, sugarcane, Mustard (plant)|mustard, potatoes, and vegetables such as cauliflower, cabbage, tomato, brinjals are grown here. Similarly sunflowers, roses, and marigold are cultivated on quite a large area of the land. Apart from this many medicinal and herbal plants are also grown here. The City Zoological Garden is making efforts to have chinkaras from the Lucknow zoo. The Eastern Himalayas and the Western Ghats have been designated among the world's eighteen 'hotspots' of biodiversity.
An official Census 2011 detail of Lucknow, a district of Uttar Pradesh has been released by Directorate of Census Operations in Uttar Pradesh. Enumeration of key persons was also done by census officials in Lucknow District of Uttar Pradesh. As reported in the Census of India 2011 Lucknow had population of 2,908,455
Civic administration 
Lucknow is the political and administrative capital of Uttar Pradesh. The city elects members to the Lok Sabha as well as the Uttar Pradesh Vidhan Sabha (State Assembly). Lucknow has two lok sabha Constituencies named Lucknow & Mohanlalganj and 9 Vidhan Sabha constituencies. The Chief Minister of the state for the 2012 Vidhan Sabha is currently Shri Akhilesh Yadav.
The city is under the jurisdiction of a District Magistrate, who is an IAS officer. The Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central Government, and oversee the national elections held in the city. The Collector is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the city. The city is administered by the Lucknow Municipal Corporation with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner of Lucknow, who is an administrative officer. The corporation comprises elected members (corporators elected from the wards directly by the people) with City Mayor as its head. An Assistant Municipal Commissioner oversees each ward for administrative purposes.
The Lucknow Police is headed by a Deputy Inspector General, who is an IPS officer. The Lucknow Police comes under the state Home Ministry. The city is divided into several police zones and traffic police zones, each headed by a Deputy Inspector General of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Lucknow Police. The Lucknow Fire Brigade department is headed by the Chief Fire Officer, who is assisted by Deputy Chief Fire Officers and Divisional Officers. Former Prime Minister A.B.Vajpayee had been member of Parliament for the Lucknow Parliamentary constituency until recently where he has been replaced by Lalji Tandon in elections of 2009.
The economy of Lucknow city was earlier based on the tertiary sector with about majority of the workforce being employed as government servants. Large-scale industrial establishments are low compared to other north Indian state capital like New Delhi. Currently the economy is growing with the contributions from more professionals in the fields of IT, Manufacturing and Processing and Medical/Bio-Technology. Business-promoting institutions viz. CII and EDII have a presence in city. On October 2010, Lucknow ranked 6th among cities in India for fastest job-creation. The city has steadily grown into a competitive IT centre.
Lucknow has a great potential in handicraft sector and it accounts for 60% of the total exports from the state. The major export items from are marble products, textiles, handicrafts, art pieces, gems and jewellery, textiles, electronics, software, computer, hardware and software, apparel, brass work, silk, leather and leather goods, glass items, art metal, chemicals. The city has promoted public‐private partnerships in big way in sectors such as power, roads, expressways, and education.
Education and research 
As far as education is concerned there were almost 68 primary schools per lac of population while the corresponding figure for upper primary schools was around 26.6. Lucknow is one of the leading cities in India in terms of number of institutions including 7 universities, 1 technical universities and a large number of polytechnics, engineering institutes and industrial training institutes. Other research organisations in the state include Central Drug Research Institute, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Central Food Technological Research Institute, National Botanical Research Institute, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences and King George Medical College. Lucknow is home to IIM Lucknow, a well known management institute, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University, one of India's National Law Schools, U.P. Sainik School La-Martiniere College and City Montessori School, the only school in the world which holds a Guinness World Record and has been awarded UNESCO Prize for Peace Education.
A small part of Lucknow's society still possesses much etiquette. This sublime cultural richness blends the cultures of two communities living side by side for centuries, sharing similar interests and speaking a common language.
Many of the cultural traits and customs peculiar to Lucknow have become living legends today. The credit for this goes to the secular and syncretic traditions of the Nawabs of Awadh, who took a keen interest in every walk of life, and encouraged the traditions to attain a rare degree of sophistication. The Raja Sahib of Mahmudabad, popularly known as Suleiman Mian, is a living example of all the great traditions of this region and has been written about by authors like V.S. Naipaul, William Dalrymple and many others.
Urdu literature 
The City Homed the Great legends of Urdu poetry, especially in Marsiya Nigari like Mir Anees and Mirza Dabeer.
- Marsiya is elegy composed in aspects of the martyrdom of Hazrat Imam Husaain(as) grandson of Prophet Muhammed in Kerbala Iraq in 61ah.
- Mir Anees and Mirza Dabeer composed most of the renowned marsiya in the history of Urdu language and are still being recited during Muharram in various Majalis and other Azadari events.
Lucknow is famous for Azadari because of its history of Shia Kingdom of Nawabs of Oudh who promoted Muharram and its religious events on very high regards. The culture of Urdu poetry is still popular, especially in Muharram and other occasions related with Islamic lunar calendar.
Lucknow hosts the most number of poetic events in India, and poets from various parts of the world come to participate in these events. Some of the famous poets of recent times are
- Kazim Jarwali,
- Sarwar Nawab Sarwar,
- Qaim Naqvi Jaysi
- Nawab Baqar Ali Khan "Ravish Lakhnavi
- Surror Lucknowi
- Shauq Lucknowi
- Aslam Taaba
- Sharib Kausar Alavi "Sharib Kakorwi"
- People, especially Muslims, of Lucknow are known for their excellent Urdu and their Tehzeeb. Lucknow is famous for its Urdu literature and shayari.
Language and poetry 
Lucknow is one of the world's great cities for Muslim culture. Two poets, Mir Anis and Mirza Dabeer, became legendary exponents of a unique genre of Muslim elegiacal poetry called Marsia centred on Imam Husain's supreme sacrifice in the Battle of Karbala which is commemorated during the annual observance of Muharram.
Day-to-day transactions in the city are typically performed in Hindi or English. Nevertheless, Lucknowites are still known for their polite and polished way of speaking which is noticed by visitors to this city. In recent time the government is taking many path breaking steps to promote Urdu language. The great revolutionary Ram Prasad Bismil, who was hanged by the British at Gorakhpur jail, was largely influenced by the culture of Lucknow and remembered its name in his poetry. The surrounding towns like Kakori, Daryabad, Tehseel Fatehpur, Barabanki, Rudauli and Malihabad produced many eminent poets and littérateurs of Urdu like Mohsin Kakorvi, Majaz, Khumar Barabankvi and Josh Malihabadi. Recently in 2008 which is the 150th year of 'mutiny' of 1857 a novel has been released which uses 1857 as a backdrop. 'Recalcitrance' is the first English novel by a Lucknowite on the 'mutiny' of 1857.
The Awadh region has its own distinct Nawabi style cuisine, the most famous cuisine of Awadhi Region consist of various kinds of biryanis, kebabs and breads. Kebabs are also of different types – Kakori Kebabs, Galawati Kebabs, Shami Kebabs, Boti Kababs, Patili-ke-Kababs, Ghutwa Kababs and Seekh Kababs are among the known varieties.
Kebabs are an important part of Uttar Pradesh's cuisine. Lucknow is known for its galawat ke kawab
Naan is one of the staple breads of Uttar Pradesh.
The Kofta is a popular main dish of Uttar Pradesh.
Raita has its roots in Uttar Pradesh as well.
The samosa is a popular snack from Uttar Pradesh.
Lucknow is known as a seat of Shi'ism and the epitome of Shia culture in India. It is famous for Muharram and associated azadari movement. All the communities including Hindus, observe the Moharram on the 10th of Moharram in the memory of Imam Husain (the grandson of the prophet Muhammad). Fourteen hundred years back in Karbala Iraq Yazid's forces killed Immam Hussain and his family on the day of Ashura and imprisoned remaining family.
The processions of Muharram in Lucknow have a special significance. They were started during the reign of the Awadh Nawabs. The Majalises, processions and other rituals that are observed by the Shia community to commemorate the sacrifice of Husain are known as Azadari.
The processions like Shahi Zarih, Jaloos-e-Mehndi, Alam-e-Ashura and that of Chup Tazia have special significance for Shia community, which are taken out with great religious zeal and fervour. These processions which started during the reign of the Awadh Nawabs continued till the year 1977 when Government of Uttar Pradesh banned the Azadari processions in public. For next twenty years processions and gatherings were carried in private or community space like, Talkatora karbala, Imambara Asifi (Bara Imambara), Imambara Husainabad (Chhota Imambara), Dargah Hazrat Abbas, Shah Najaf, Imambara Ghufran Ma'ab etc. Ban was partially lifted in 1997 and Shias were successful in taking out the first Azadari procession in January 1998 (21st of Ramzan). Today the Shias have been given nine processions out of nine hundred that are registered in the festival register of the Shias.all the other things.
Dance, drama and music 
Kathak, the classical Indian dance form took shape here. Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh, was a great patron and a passionate champion of Kathak. Lachhu Maharaj, Acchchan Maharaj, Shambhu Maharaj and Birju Maharaj have kept this tradition alive.
Lucknow is also the city of eminent Ghazal singer Begum Akhtar. She was a pioneer in Ghazal singing and took this aspect of music to amazing heights. "Ae Mohabbat Tere anjaam pe rona aaya" is one of her best musical renditions of all times.
The Bhatkande Music Institute University at Lucknow is named after the great musician Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande. People from Sri Lanka, Nepal and other countries come to Bhatkhande to study music or dance.
Bhartendu Academy of Dramatic Arts (BNA), also known as Bhartendu Natya Academy, a Theatre Training institute situated at Gomti Nagar in vikas khand-1, is deemed university and an autonomous organisation under Ministry of Culture, Government of Uttar Pradesh, set up in 1975 by the Sangeet Natak Akademy (Government of Uttar Pradesh), and became an independent Drama school in 1977. Official Website of The BNA
Apart from govt. institutes there are many private theatre groups like IPTA, Darpan, Manchkriti and the largest Youth theatre group JOSH. Josh Group is basically a group for youth and kids theatre activity, workshops and training.Lucknow has given music stars like Naushad Ali, Talat Mehmood, Anup Jalota and Baba Sehgal to the entertainment industry. It is also the birthplace of British pop star Sir Cliff Richard.
Lucknow has traditionally been a sports-loving city. In the past pehlwani, kabbadi, chess, kite flying, pigeon flying, and cock fighting were popular pastimes. For decades Lucknow hosted the prestigious Sheesh Mahal Cricket Tournament. Today cricket, football, badminton, golf and hockey are among the most popular sports in the city.
The city has a good record in modern sports and has produced several national and world-class sporting personalities. Lucknow sports hostel has produced international-level cricketers such as Mohammed Kaif, Piyush Chawla, Anurag Singh, Suresh Raina, Gyanendra Pandey, Praveen Kumar and R. P. Singh. Other famous sports personalities include hockey Olympians K. D. Singh, Mohammed Shahid and Ghaus Mohammad Khan, the tennis player who became the first Indian to reach the quarter finals at Wimbledon. There has been a proposal by the Indian Olympic Association to make joint bid from Lucknow – Delhi for the 2020 Summer Olympics.
The main sports hub is the K. D. Singh Babu Stadium which also has a world-class swimming pool and indoor games complex. The other stadiums are Dhyan Chand Astroturf Stadium, another at Babu Banarsi Das Engineering College, Charbagh, Mahanagar, Chowk and Sports College near Integral University.
The Lucknow Golf Club, on the sprawling greens of La Martinière College, is a famous golf course.
An Inspiration for films 
Lucknow has been a major influence on the Hindi film industry of India. Many script writers and lyricists hailing from Awadh like Majrooh Sultanpuri, Kaifi Azmi, Javed Akhtar, Himanshu Sharma, Ikram Akhtar (writer of films like Ready, Thank You No Problem) Ali Raza, Bhagwati Charan Verma, Dr. Kumud Nagar, Dr. Achala Nagar, Wajahat Mirza (writer of Mother India and Ganga Jamuna), Amritlal Nagar, Ali Sardar Jafri, K. P. Saxena and music famous music director Naushad Ali have enriched Indian cinema. Veteran Bollywood and Bengali film actor Pahadi Sanyal came from the renowned Sanyal family of Lucknow. Moreover, several famous movies have used Lucknow as their backdrop, such as Shashi Kapoor's Junoon, Muzaffar Ali's Umrao Jaan and Gaman, Satyajit Ray's Shatranj Ke Khiladi. Ismail Merchant's Shakespeare Wallah, PAA, SEHER was partly shot in Lucknow.
In the movie Gadar: Ek Prem Katha Lucknow has been used to depict Pakistan. Anwar (2007) written and directed by Manish Jha, starring Siddharth Koirala and Manisha Koirala was shot in Lucknow and surrounded areas like Kakori and Bakhshi ka Talab. Places like Lal Pul, Taj Hotel, Roomi Darwaza (or Roman Gate) have been used in Tanu Weds Manu. Recently some parts of Ladies vs Ricky Bahl, Bullet Raja,Ishaqzaade and Dabangg 2 have been shot in lucknow or at other sites nearby. Some parts of Baabarr were shot here.
Road transport 
From Hazratganj intersection in Lucknow city, four Indian National Highways originate, viz, NH-24 to Delhi, NH-25 to Shivpuri, Jhansi (M.P. Border), NH-56 to Varanasi and NH-28 to Mokama (Bihar).The available multiple modes of public transport in the city are taxis, city buses, cycle rickshaws, auto rickshaws and CNG Low Floor AC or Non AC Buses. CNG was introduced as an auto fuel to keep the air pollution in control.
City bus service 
Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (JNNURM of UPSRTC). It has a fleet of 300 buses. All are CNG.Off themAt present there are around 35 routes in the city. Terminals for city buses are Gudamba, Virajkhand, Alambagh, Scooter India, Engineering college, B.B.D., Pasi qila, Charbagh, Andhe ki chowki, Budheshwar choraha. There are 4 bus depots for city bus that are Gomti nagar, Charbagh, Amausi, Dubagga.
Inter-state bus service 
One of Lucknow's major bus terminals is Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar inter state bus station (ISBT) at Alambagh. It has very modern facilities and is the main inter- and intrastate terminal in Lucknow. Another important bus station is at Qaiserbagh. Earlier, another bus terminal operated at Charbagh, directly in front of the main railway station, but this has now been re-established as a City bus depot. The move was taken to remove congestion in front of the railway station. Kanpur Lucknow Roadways Service is a very important service for commuters.Swanky VOLVO named Royal cruiser AC bus service is run by UPSRTC for many cities.Buses being very comfortble are very much in demand nowadays. Main cities they serve are Allahabad, Varanasi, Jaipur, Agra, Delhi, Gorakhpur.Bus service to inter state cities is also very good. All the Main and important cities of north India is connected by bus. The cities outside Uttar Pradesh that are covered by bus service are Jaipur, New Delhi, Gwalior, Bharatpur, Singrauli, Faridabad, Gurgaon and Dausa, Ajmer, Dehradun, Haridwar.
Rail transport 
The city is served by several railway stations at different parts of the city. The main railway station is Lucknow Railway Station at Charbagh. It has an imposing structure built in 1923. The main terminal belongs to Northern Railway (NR) (station code: LKO) division of Indian Railways and the second terminal is run by the North Eastern Railway (NER) (Station Code: LJN). Lucknow is a major junction with links to all major cities of the state and country such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Ahmedabad, Pune, Indore, Bhopal, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Jaipur, Siwan and many more. Lucknow has a further thirteen railway stations viz. Alamnagar, Malhaur, Utretia, Transport Nagar, Dilkhusha, Gomti Nagar, Badshahnagar, Manak Nagar, Amausi, Aishbagh junction, Lucknow City, Daliganj and Mohibullapur. Now meter gauge services originate from Aishbagh and connect to Lucknow city, Daliganj and Mohibullapur. Except Mohibullapur all the stations are also connected to Broad gauge. All the stations are within city limits and are well connected with each other via road networks and public road transport. Other suburban stations include Bakshi Ka Talab and Kakori.Many stations are covered by Lucknow-Kanpur Suburban Railway. It serves daily commuters. Some of the trains are operated from Barabanki city.
Air transport 
The Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport, Amausi serves as the city's main airport and is located about 20 km from the city center. Lucknow is directly connected by air with New Delhi, Bangalore, Patna, Kolkata, Mumbai and Hyderabad, Goa and Pune. Oman Air, FlyDubai,Saudi Airlines, Indian Airlines, Jet Airways, Go Air, IndigoAir and many more international airlines that are operating international flights from Lucknow. International destinations include Dubai, Muscat, Sharjah, Dammam, Jeddah, Riyadh, Najaf.
Metro and Mono Rail service 
Plans for high capacity mass transit system, The Lucknow Metro and Mono rail Services have been finalised. Delhi Metro rail (DMRC) is preparing plans for its constructions.
Local channels 
There are numerous local channels in Lucknow. Most of them show movies throughout the day and then news and educational programs in the evening. There are many TV channels catering to the Muslim population in the city like Husaini Channel & WIN TV. All the channels are run by local cable operators.
Lucknow has historically been a major center of journalism. The National Herald, the newspaper started by India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru before World War II was published from Lucknow and edited by Manikonda Chalapathi Rau.
The prominent English dailies of the city are The Times of India, The Hindustan Times, The Pioneer and Indian Express. Several daily newspapers in Hindi and Urdu are published in the city. Among the Hindi papers are Dainik Jagran, Amar Ujala, Dainik Hindustan, Rashtriya Sahara, Jansatta, I Next and Swatantra Bharat. The main Urdu papers are Rozanama Rashtriya Sahara, Sahafat, Avadhnama, Qaumi Khabrein, Aag, Roznama Urdu, Subahnama Urdu and Jayeza Daily.
One of the earliest stations of All India Radio has been operational in Lucknow for quite some time.
- Radio City 91.1 MHz
- Red FM 93.5 MHz
- Radio Mirchi 98.3 MHz
- AIR FM Rainbow 100.7 MHz
- Gyan Vani 105.6 MHz (Educational)
- CMS FM 90.4 MHz (Educational)
The city has broadband internet connectivity and video conferencing facilities. Major companies like BSNL, Bharti Airtel, Reliance Communications, Tata Communications, Tikona, Hathway & STPI, have a wide infrastructure to provide broadband Internet Bandwidth.
Sister Cities 
Notable people from Lucknow 
- Kalbe Jawad, Shia leader
- Syed Kalbe Hussain, Shia leader
- Mirza Hameedullah Beg, Indian Jurist
- Asif Khan, Indian Shayer
- Saleem Kidwai, Professor and author
- Cliff Richard, British pop singer
- Muzaffar Ali, Veteran Film maker
- Jagdish Gandhi, Academician and Entrepreneur
- Subrata Roy, Industrialist
- Javed Akhtar, Lyricist and Scriptwriter
- Wajahat Mirza, Screen Writer, Dialogue Writer & Director
- Naushad, Composer and Music Director
- Naresh Trehan, Cardiologist
- Jaya Bhaduri Bachchan, Actress
- Birju Maharaj, Kathak Dancer
- Nadira Babbar, Dramatist
- Mir Taqi Mir, Poet
- Nur Jahan
List Of Historical Places 
- Bara Imambara
- Chhota Imambara
- Rumi Darwaza
- Shah Najaf Imambara
- Dargah of Hazrat Abbas
- Dilkusha Palace
- Karbala of Dayanat-ud-Daulah
- Maqbara of Mir Anis
- Imambara Sibtainabad(Maqbara of Amjad Ali Shah)
- Rauza Kazmain
- Talkatora Karbala
- Bhool Bhulaiya (Labyrinth)
Important Annual Events 
The procession under the name of Chup Tazia have originated in the Indian city of Lucknow before spreading to other parts of South Asia. The procession dates back to nawabi era and was started by Nawab Ahmed Ali Khan Sahukat Yar Jung a descendent of Bahu Begum. It is one of the most important processions of azadari in Lucknow and is currently one of the nine allowed processions. During nineteenth century this procession of Nawab Aggan Mian's family which earlier was raised on the day of Chehlum (20th Safar) was shifted to eigtheenth day of Chehlum i.e. 8th of Rabi' al-awwal. This last mourning procession taken out on the morning of 8th of Rabi' al-awwal, includes alam, zari and tazia, originates from Imambara Nazim Saheb in Victoria street and moves in complete silence while passes through Patanala until it terminates at Karbala Kazmain, where the colossal black tazia is buried. On 26 May 1969, after a series of fairly serious clashes and murders, another riot broke out when a Shia Alam and Chup Tazia procession which had passed through the predominantly Sunni mohallas of Pul Ghulam and Mahmoodnagar almost peacefully was suddenly brick-batted from a Sunni mosque as the procession reached Mahmoodnagar
Along with the Twelver Shi’a, the Ismailis, Alawites and Alevis also hold the day of Nowruz in high regard. The day upon which Nowruz falls has been recommended as a day of fasting for Twelver Shi’a Muslims by Shi’a scholars, including Abul-Qassim al-Khoei, Imam Khomeini and Ali al-Sistani. The day also assumes special significance for Shias as it was on 21 March 656 AD when the first Imam Hazrat Ali assumed the office of Caliphate.
See also 
- "Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Census of India. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
- "INDIA STATS: Million plus cities in India as per Census 2011". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
- "Assessment Of Environmental Status Of Lucknow City" (PDF). Retrieved 26 March 2010.[dead link]
- Lakhnau. "unlocode.hmap.info". unlocode.hmap.info. Retrieved 26 March 2010.
- "RANKING OF DISTRICTS BY POPULATION SIZE IN 1991 AND 2001". Upgov.nic.in. Retrieved 26 March 2010.[dead link]
- "Lucknow City Profile" (PDF). Retrieved 26 March 2010.
- "Welcome to Lucknow District Official Website". Lucknow.nic.in. Retrieved 26 March 2010.
- "administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division". City website.
- "Lucknow Directory of service". lucknowonline.com.
- Sacred space and holy war: the politics, culture and history of Shi'ite Islam by Juan Ricardo Cole
- "List Of Central Government Departments". government-offices.
- "Pursues in-depth research and development in food science and technology.". Central Food Technological Research Institute.
- "IUET-UG-PG-2012". successcds.net.
- "Lucknow Tour". Lucknow.nic.in. 11 April 1936. Retrieved 26 March 2010.[dead link]
- Encyclopædia Iranica, "Avadh", E. Yarshater
- "history". Lucknow.nic.in. Archived from the original on 7 April 2008. Retrieved 26 March 2010.
- Faizabad, town, India. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001–07[dead link]
- "Lucknow City". Laxys.com. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- Lucknow, 1911 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- "UNDP report". Archived from the original on 22 June 2006. Retrieved 29 September 2006.
- "Lucknow Minimum Temperature".
- Indo-Asian News Service (January 9, 2013). "Mercury at record low in Uttar Pradesh". NDTV. Retrieved January 9, 2013.
- "Lucknow Climate & Temperature". climatetemp.ino. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- "Government of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests". ministry of environment and forest lucknow.
- A new isidiate species of Graphis from India.. Adawadkar, B. & Makhija, U. 2004. p. 363.
- "Lucknow zoos propose to exchange animals". Times of India. Retrieved Mar 24, 2011.
- "animal life exits in city". Lucknow Quest.
- "Commission of Railway Safety." (Archive) Ministry of Civil Aviation. Retrieved on 19 February 2012. "Ashok Marg, NE Railway compound, Lucknow- 226001."
- "The 10 fastest job-creating cities in India". Rediff.com. Retrieved 3 October 2010.
- "OFFICE OF THE DEVELOPMENT COMMISSIONER (HANDICRAFTS)". MINISTRY OF TEXTILES.
- "Product Merchant Exporters". Indian Yellow Pages. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- "economy of state.". U.P economy.
- "Lucknow Primary School". official school department.
- "Institutes in Lucknow". http://cbhidghs.nic.in.
- "Govt committed to promote Urdu: Akhilesh Yadav". Times of India. November 30, 2012. Retrieved January 30, 2013.
- Madan Lal Verma 'Krant' Krantikari Bismil Aur Unki Shayri page-28 ("याद आयेगा बहुत लखनऊ का जेल हमें")
- "Cuisine of Lucknow". Lucknow.nic.in. Archived from the original on 19 August 2007. Retrieved 26 March 2010.
- "Lucknow Kebabs continue to be gourmets' delight beyond time". Retrieved 21 April 2007.[dead link]
- Mukhopadhyay, Sudhiranjan. "Hemanta- The Early Years". University of Nebraska Ohama Faculty.
- Times of India. 2010-10-16 http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2010-10-16/lucknow/28265718_1_bengali-club-puja-venues-durga-puja
|url=missing title (help).
- "FM Radio Stations". Retrieved 27 October 2006.
Further reading 
- Rosie Llewellyn-Jones. City of Illusion. Prestel Verlag, 2006, 295pp. ISBN 3-7913-3130-2. ISBN 978-3-7913-3130-0.
- Rosie Llewellyn-Jones. Lucknow Then and Now. Marg Publications, India, 2003. ISBN 81-85026-61-0. ISBN 978-81-85026-61-9.
- Anurag Kumar. Recalcitrance- a historical novel on events of Great Uprising of 1857 AIP Books, India, 2008.
- Madan Lal Verma 'Krant' Krantikari Bismil Aur Unki Shayri (Urdu/Hindi), 2009, 1/1148A Subhash Park Extension, Naveen Shahdara Delhi 110032, Prakhar Prakashan
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- The India of the Nawabs, The New York Times, Published: 25 February 1990
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