Ludhiana

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This article is about the municipality in Punjab, India. For its namesake district, see Ludhiana district.
Ludhiana
ਲੁਧਿਆਣਾ
Metropolitan City
Gurudwara Sri Dukhniwaran Sahib, Clock Tower, Gurudwara Shri Manji Sahib Alamgir, Lodhi Fort, Maharaja Ranjit Singh War Museum, Shri Krishna Mandir and Guru Nanak Dev Bhavan.
Gurudwara Sri Dukhniwaran Sahib, Clock Tower, Gurudwara Shri Manji Sahib Alamgir, Lodhi Fort, Maharaja Ranjit Singh War Museum, Shri Krishna Mandir and Guru Nanak Dev Bhavan.
Nickname(s): Mini Delhi
Punjab
Ludhiana
Ludhiana
Coordinates: 30°55′N 75°51′E / 30.91°N 75.85°E / 30.91; 75.85Coordinates: 30°55′N 75°51′E / 30.91°N 75.85°E / 30.91; 75.85
Country India
State Punjab
District Ludhiana
Named for Sikander Lodi
Government
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Mayor Harcharan Singh Gohalwaria (SAD)
 • Municipal Commissioner G.K.Singh Dhaliwal,IAS
Area
 • Total 310 km2 (120 sq mi)
Elevation 262 m (860 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 3,487,882
 • Rank 22nd
 • Density 9,752/km2 (25,260/sq mi)
Demonym Lodhi, Ludhianvi
Languages
 • Official Punjabi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN Multiple 141001-141011
Telephone code0161 91-161-XXX XXXX
Vehicle registration PB 10

Ludhiana (Punjabi: ਲੁਧਿਆਣਾ) is a city and a municipal corporation in Ludhiana district in the Indian state of Punjab, and is the largest city, north of New Delhi. It is the largest city in the state, with an estimated population of 3,487,882 as per Census 2011.The population increases substantially during the harvesting season due to the migration of labourers from the eastern states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Odisha and Delhi. It has an area of about 310 km². The city stands on the Sutlej River's old bank, 13 km south of its present course. It is a major industrial centre of northern India, and was referred to as India's Manchester by the BBC.[1]

Ludhiana is located 90 km west from state capital Chandigarh on NH 95 and is centrally located on National Highway 1 from Indian capital New Delhi to Amritsar, and is well connected to New Delhi by road, frequent train service and by air.

Geography[edit]

Ludhiana is located at 30°54′N 75°51′E / 30.9°N 75.85°E / 30.9; 75.85.[2] It has an average elevation of 244 metres (798 ft). Ludhiana City, to its residents, consists of the Old City and the New City (or the residential and official quarters of the Colonial British encampment, traditionally known as Civil Lines; this is as opposed to the Army Lines, which are no longer extant as the British Cantonment was abandoned in 1845).

The land dips steeply to the north and the west where, before 1785, the river Sutlej ran.

The Old Fort was at the banks of the Sutlej (and now houses the College of Textile Engineering). Legend has it that an underground tunnel connects it to the Fort in Phillaur – although why this should be is debatable, as the Sutlej was the traditional dividing line between the principalities, often occupied by enemy forces (see History section).

The ground is of yellow sandstone and granite, forming small hillocks, plateaus and dips.

The tree of largest natural extraction was the kikar, or Acacia indica, but has been supplanted by the eucalyptus, transplanted from rural Australia in the late 1960s by the government of Chief Minister Pratap Singh Kairon.

Gulmohars and jacarandas were planted by the British along the avenues of Civil Lines, as were other flowering trees, while the Old City contains almost no vegetation or parks, except for a few isolated pipal trees, holy to the Hindus, as it is supposed to be the abode of Lord Shiva.

Climate[edit]

Ludhiana features a humid subtropical under the Köppen climate classification, with three defined seasons; summer, monsoon and winter. Ludhiana on average sees roughly 730 millimetres (29 in) of precipitation annually.

Ludhiana has one of the worst air pollution problems in India, with particulate matter being over six times the World Health Organization recommended standard.[3][4] Industrial water pollution is also of significant concern in portions of Ludhiana, notably along the Budha Dariya.[5]

Climate data for Ludhiana (1971–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.2
(70.2)
26.2
(79.2)
34.6
(94.3)
40.8
(105.4)
43.4
(110.1)
44.0
(111.2)
42.8
(109)
38.0
(100.4)
36.6
(97.9)
33.8
(92.8)
29.2
(84.6)
25.6
(78.1)
44
(111.2)
Average high °C (°F) 14.9
(58.8)
17.0
(62.6)
22.0
(71.6)
30.6
(87.1)
35.8
(96.4)
35.6
(96.1)
30.9
(87.6)
28.9
(84)
29.4
(84.9)
28.0
(82.4)
22.4
(72.3)
16.7
(62.1)
26.02
(78.83)
Average low °C (°F) 2.7
(36.9)
4.5
(40.1)
8.8
(47.8)
14.8
(58.6)
19.3
(66.7)
22.2
(72)
22.1
(71.8)
20.8
(69.4)
19.4
(66.9)
13.7
(56.7)
7.6
(45.7)
3.4
(38.1)
13.525
(56.345)
Record low °C (°F) −5.2
(22.6)
−3.1
(26.4)
−1.2
(29.8)
5.4
(41.7)
7.8
(46)
12.8
(55)
12.2
(54)
15.8
(60.4)
10.6
(51.1)
4.6
(40.3)
−3.2
(26.2)
−4.2
(24.4)
−5.2
(22.6)
Rainfall mm (inches) 21
(0.83)
39
(1.54)
31
(1.22)
20
(0.79)
20
(0.79)
60
(2.36)
229
(9.02)
189
(7.44)
85
(3.35)
5
(0.2)
13
(0.51)
21
(0.83)
733
(28.88)
Avg. precipitation days 2.8 3.6 4.5 1.9 2.3 4.7 11.6 9.6 4.5 0.5 1.4 2.1 49.5
 % humidity 74 66 62 44 39 49 71 76 68 61 68 74 62.7
Source: NOAA (1971–1990)[6]

Demographics[edit]

As per provisional data of 2011 census Ludhiana had a population of 3,487,882, of which male and female were 1,866,203 and 1,621,679 respectively. The literacy rate was 82.50 per cent.[7]

As of 2001 India census,[8] Ludhiana City had a population of 3,032,831. Males population was 1,662,716 and female population was 1,370,115. Ludhiana had an average literacy rate of 70.5%, sex ratio of 824 and density of population was 805.

Commerce[edit]

Feroze Gandhi Market, Ludhiana

The World Bank ranked Ludhiana as the city in India with the best business environment in 2009.[9]

The riches are brought mostly by small-scale industrial units,[10] which produce industrial goods, machine parts, auto parts, household appliances, hosiery, apparel, and garments. Ludhiana is Asia's largest hub for bicycle manufacturing and produces more than 50% of India's bicycle consumption of more than 10 million each year. Ludhiana produces 60% of India's tractor parts and a large portion of auto and two-wheeler parts. Many parts used in German cars like BMW and Mercedes are exclusively produced in Ludhiana to satisfy the world requirement. It is one of the largest manufacturer of sewing machines. Hand tools and precision industrial equipment is another speciality. The apparel industry Ludhiana is famous all over India for its woolen sweaters and cotton T-shirts; most of the top Indian woolen apparel brands are based in Ludhiana.

Ludhiana is also home to the Ludhiana Stock Exchange Association.

Education[edit]

Ludhiana is home to the largest agricultural university in Asia and one of the largest in the world, Punjab Agricultural University.[11] The College of Veterinary Sciences at PAU had been recently upgraded to the Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science University (GADVASU).

Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Gulzar Group of Institutes, Bhutta College of Engineering,Guru Arjan Dev Polytechnic College Ludhiana and Ludhiana College of Engineering & Technology are main colleges offering quality education in engineering. Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College is a very old and renowned institution offering best available facilities and education for engineering students. Research & development centre for bicycle and sewing machine [1]. There are other institutes catering to local and surrounding areas such as Institute of Banking Services (IBS).

Transportation[edit]

Ludhiana is well connected by air and rail as Ludhiana railway station is on main Delhi-Amritsar route and is an important railway junction with lines going to Jalandhar, Ferozepur, Dhuri and Delhi. The city is very well connected with daily or weekly trains to most places in India including the major cities of Jammu, Amritsar, Jalandhar, Patiala, Pathankot, Kanpur, Jaipur, Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata. For administrative reasons the station is under Ferozepur Railway Division.The railway line between Ludhiana and Chandigarh opened in 2013. The government has even passed a dedicated freight track between Ludhiana and Kolkata.[citation needed]

A DMU Train in Ludhiana

Airport[edit]

Ludhiana is connected by air with Delhi. Air India and Kingfisher fly daily between New Delhi and Ludhiana Airport.[12] The government is looking at purchasing another 500 acres (2.0 km2) of land to construct the new international airport.[citation needed]. Ludhiana's status as a large industrial hub is cited as a reason for another international airport in Punjab after Amritsar.

Moving around inside the city is done mostly by mini-buses, auto-rickshaws, and pedal rickshaws, loosely licensed by the Municipal Corporation.

Ludhiana Metro[edit]

The government has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Delhi for construction of a Ludhiana Metro. This light transit system will serve about 25 years to Ludhiana. There will be two corridors in Ludhiana Metro.

City Transportation[edit]

Ludhiana is connected with other cities of Punjab and also with other states by Bus service. Several major National Highways, NH1, NH95, NH11, NH20 pass through the city. The transportation services are provided by state owned Punjab Roadways and private bus operators.

Auto Rickshaw[edit]

The Auto Rickshaw is a three-wheel drive vehicle, which is one way to travel in the city. These Auto Rickshaws have the capacity to hold three to six passengers. It can be hired individually or on a sharing basis.

Rickshaw[edit]

Cycle rickshaws are widely used in Ludhiana.The Rickshaw or tricycle is pulled by a person and is a relatively cheap way of travelling, but has become pricey after the autos were being scrapped.

Taxi[edit]

Radio taxis are also easily available. It is also the most used means of transport by the people of Ludhiana. Ola Cabs launched in the city on October 7th, 2014.[13]

Attractions[edit]

Parks and Recreation[edit]

Ludhiana is a mixture of Urban and Rural living. The city is surrounded by farming land on every side but inside the city there are very many parks that still exist for relaxation, walking and picnics.

Kabaddi[edit]

Guru Nanak Stadium is known for the Kabaddi matches along with athletic games. Ludhiana has great passion for the Punjabi game Kabaddi. Two-time Kabaddi world cup's finals are played in Guru Nanak Stadium Ludhiana.[14] The Stadium often hosts high-profile Kabbadi matches.


Skating[edit]

A skating rink for speed skating and roller hockey is there in Ludhiana in Leisure Valley, Sarabha Nagar. Many skaters like Harshveer Singh Sekhon and Saurabh Sharma have made Ludhiana proud by bagging medals in nationals and representing India in internationals.[15][16]

Kila Raipur Sports Festival[edit]

Kila Raipur Sports Festival, popularly known as Rural Olympics,[17] is held annually in Kila Raipur (near Ludhiana), in Punjab, India. Competition is held for major Punjabi rural sports, include cart-race, rope pulling. Gill Sports Festival

People[edit]

Name Occupation
Vikas Verma Model
Kartar Singh Sarabha Freedom Fighter
Bhai Randhir Singh Freedom Fighter
Dharmendra Actor
Sahir Ludhianvi Lyricist
Divya Dutta Actress
Sunil Mittal Indian Telecom Mogul, Philanthropist
Brijmohan Lall Munjal Industrialist, Founder of Hero Group
Rajinder Gupta Industrialist, Chairman of TridentGroup
Keshub Mahindra Industrialist, Chairman of Mahindra Group
Shubha Phutela Actress
Dakssh Ajit Singh Actor
Abhinav Shukla Actor
Sudarshan Agarwal Politician
Shilpi Sharma Actress
Juhi Chawla Actress
Gulzar Singh Sandhu Writer
Naina Dhaliwal Indian Model
Inderjit Hasanpuri Song Writer
Ram Singh Social Reformer
Maulana Habib-ur-Rehman Ludhianvi One of founders of Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam
Talish Pakistani Actor
Raj Khosla Director
Baldev Raj Chopra Producer and director
Kuldeep Manak Singer
Inderjit Nikku Singer
Ravinder Grewal Singer
Amar Singh Chamkila Singer
Diljit Dosanjh Singer
Surinder Shinda Singer
Karnail Gill Singer
Gippy Grewal Singer
Ishmeet Singh Singer
Lal Chand Yamla Jatt Singer
Pankaj Kapoor Actor
Hardev Dilgir Writer

References[edit]

  1. ^ "India's Manchester". BBC. February 28, 2006. 
  2. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Ludhiana". fallingrain.com. 
  3. ^ Majeed, Shariq (March 26, 2014). "Ludhiana worries over its PM". The Times of India. Archived from the original on March 27, 2014. 
  4. ^ Preet, Jatinder (October 16, 2011). "Ludhiana fourth most polluted city in the world". The Sunday Guardian (Delhi, India). Archived from the original on April 12, 2014. 
  5. ^ "How air and water pollution plagues Indian cities". Hindustan Times. December 1, 2013. Archived from the original on January 29, 2014. 
  6. ^ "Ludhiana Climate Normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 31, 2012. 
  7. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  8. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  9. ^ "Doing Business in India 2009". World Bank. Retrieved June 8, 2010. 
  10. ^ Entrepreneurship in India's small-scale industries. Richard P. Taub, Doris L. Taub
  11. ^ Ludhiana Colleges. Mapsofindia.com. Retrieved on June 16, 2014.
  12. ^ New Delhi to Ludhiana Flights, Cheap Air Tickets from New Delhi to Ludhiana: MakeMyTrip India. Makemytrip.com. Retrieved on June 16, 2014.
  13. ^ "Ola Cabs launch in Ludhiana and Amritsar". Retrieved {{subst:CURRENTYEAR}}-{{subst:CURRENTMONTH2}}-{{subst:CURRENTDAY2}}.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  14. ^ "Kabaddi World Cup: India all the way". The Tribune – Sports Page. November 21, 2011. 
  15. ^ Ludhiana’s Harshveer Sekhon wins medals at National Open Roller Skating Championship - YesPunjab
  16. ^ Hindustan Times e-Paper. Paper.hindustantimes.com. Retrieved on June 16, 2014.
  17. ^ "Racy start to Kila Raipur Rural Olympics". The Tribune – Ludhiana Tribune. February 4, 2011. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]