From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the municipality in Punjab, India. For its namesake district, see Ludhiana district.
Metropolitan City
Gurudwara Sri Dukhniwaran Sahib, Clock Tower, Gurudwara Shri Manji Sahib Alamgir, Lodhi Fort, Maharaja Ranjit Singh War Museum, Shri Krishna Mandir and Guru Nanak Dev Bhavan,
Gurudwara Sri Dukhniwaran Sahib, Clock Tower, Gurudwara Shri Manji Sahib Alamgir, Lodhi Fort, Maharaja Ranjit Singh War Museum, Shri Krishna Mandir and Guru Nanak Dev Bhavan,
Coordinates: 30°55′N 75°51′E / 30.91°N 75.85°E / 30.91; 75.85Coordinates: 30°55′N 75°51′E / 30.91°N 75.85°E / 30.91; 75.85
Country India
State Punjab
District Ludhiana
Named for Sikander Lodi
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Mayor Harcharan Singh Gohalwaria (SAD)
 • Total 310 km2 (120 sq mi)
Elevation 262 m (860 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 1,613,878
 • Rank 22nd
 • Density 975/km2 (2,530/sq mi)
Demonym Lodhi, Ludhianvi
 • Official Punjabi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN Multiple 141001-141011
Telephone code0161 91-161-XXX XXXX
Vehicle registration PB 10

Ludhiana (Punjabi: ਲੁਧਿਆਣਾ) is a city and a municipal corporation in Ludhiana district in the Indian state of Punjab, and is the largest city, north of New Delhi. It is the largest city in the state, with an estimated population of 3,487,882 as per Census 2011.The population increases substantially during the harvesting season due to the migration of labourers from the eastern states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Odisha and Delhi. It has an area of about 310 km². The city stands on the Sutlej River's old bank, 13 km south of its present course. It is a major industrial centre of northern India, and was referred to as India's Manchester by the BBC.[1]

Ludhiana is located 90 km west from state capital Chandigarh on NH 95 and is centrally located on National Highway 1 from Indian capital New Delhi to Amritsar, and is well connected to New Delhi by road, frequent train service and by air.


This translation from Punjabi of a passage of Gulām Sarvar Lāhaurī's (alias Bute Shah) Tarīḵẖ-i maḵẖzan-i Panjāb (History of the Punjab), written in the mid-19th century, is given in the Gazetteer for the Ludhiana District 1888–89: It was originally known as Lodi-Ana (The Lodi's Place) during the Lodi Dynasty under which the city was created.

"In the reign of Sikandar, son of Bahlol Lodi, the people of Ludhiana were oppressed by the plundering Baluchis, and applied to the Emperor for assistance. Sikandar, in answer to their prayer, sent two of his Lodi chiefs, by name Yusaf Khan and Nihang Khan, with an army. These chiefs fixed on the present site of the Ludhiana city, which was then a village called Mir Hota. Nihang Khan remained at Mir Hota as the Emperor's Lieutenant; and called the place Ludhiana. He was succeeded by his son and, subsequently, his grandson. The latter, Jalal Khan, built the fort of Ludhiana out of the bricks found at Sunet. He saved the town from invaders and treated all its citizen equally. His two sons partitioned the country round about Ludhiana, which was then lying in waste, amongst the people of the town, and distributed them in villages. In the time of Jalal Khan's grandsons, Alu Khan and Khizr Khan, the Lodi dynasty was overthrown by Babar; and the Lodis of Ludhiana sunk to the position of ordinary subjects of the Mughal empire. They are said to have lived close to the fort for many generations, but all traces of them have now disappeared, and even the tombs of Nihang and his immediate descendants have been lost sight of, although they are said to have been standing some years ago."

The Lodi dynasty lost control of the throne of Delhi in 1526. The Mughals established a strong government at Sirhind, which itself was a sarkar (division) of the Delhi subah (province) and attached Ludhiana as a mahal or parganah.

The century and a half following the death of Akbar (a Mughal emperor) in 1605 was dominated by the rise of Sikhism as a power, and the decline of the Mughal empire. By this time the Mughal empire was tottering to its fall, and local powers began to assert their independence. The Rais of Raikot, who until then had held a considerable tract of land around Ludhiana in lease from the emperors, were some of the first to assert their independence. Raja Ala Singh of Patiala, the representative of the crumbling Delhi Sultanate and Rai Kalha II were the principal actors contenders for power in the region. "Rai Kalha III,who appears to have been a ruler of very great ability, extended his power up to Ludhiana. He established independent power over the whole of the Jagraon(the place of the Rais)and the greater part of Ludhiana Tahsils, and a large portion of the Ferozepur District." Khan Bahadur Rai Inayat Khan (the custodian of Guru Gobind Singh ji's Ganga Sagar) was the chief of Rais of Raikot at the time of partition of India in 1947.

Rai Kalha (shaekh chachu), who was the crown prince of the princely state of Jaisalmer, established in the region by founding Halwara, around the turn of the fifteenth century. Later Hatur, Chakar, Talwandi Rai in 1478 CE, Raikot in 1648 CE and Jagraon in 1680 CE were founded by the Manj Rajputs.[2]

In 1741, Ala Singh defeated Rai Kalha III and chased him out of the country, but he soon recovered the territory.

Thinking to take advantage of this power struggle, Nadir Shah invaded and crossed the Sutlej at Ludhiana, which was then on its banks, and marched through the district along what is now the Grand Trunk Road. Nadir Shah is said to have ordered a general massacre of the inhabitants of Ludhiana on the account of some petty fault, but it seems doubtful that he did.

His successor, Ahmed Shah Durrani, invaded in 1747. On reaching the Sutlej at Ludhiana, he found his passage opposed by the son of the emperor, Kamardin, with a huge army that had advanced from Sirhind. Durrani avoided the conflict but ended up in direct confrontation with him very near Khanna. While Ahmad Shah Bahadur was defeated, the losses were very heavy on both sides. The subsequent invasions of Ahmad Shah were not resisted by the Mughal troops from Sirhind, but they were constantly harassed by the Phulkian chiefs and the Rais. It was some time about 1760 that the Rais were permitted by Ahmed Shah to take possession of the town of Ludhiana and to extend their power over the country about.

Although Zain Khan was appointed by Ahmad Shah as governor of Sirhind in 1761, he was defeated and slain in 1763 by hugery armies of Sikhs. They took possession of Sirhind, which they levelled with the ground.

The fall of Sirhind marked the last vestige of Mughal control over the area, and Ludhiana was left in possession of the Rais. The Malaudh Sirdars belonging to the Phulkian stock had already established themselves in the south of Ludhiana in the Jangal villages and the country about Malaudh;[3] and Sudha Singh Gill, an adventurer from Loharu in the Ferozepur district, secured a few villages around Sahnewal. In 1767 Ahmed Shah reached Ludhiana on his last expedition but got no further.

Around 1785, the Sutlej changed in course so that Ludhiana was no longer situated on its banks.

The condition of the country during the latter part of the 18th century was one of considerable prosperity. The rule of the Rais is still spoken of as being very mild; and it is said that they fixed only one-fourth of the produce as their due.

In 1798, Ludhiana was attacked by the Sikhs under Bedi Sahib Singh of Una. At the time, the ruler of the Rais, Rai Alias was a child. His agents Roshan and Gujar made a good stand against the Sikhs at Jodh, ten miles (16 km) southwest of Ludhiana. Roshan was killed in the fight, and Rai's army was dispersed. However, the Phulkian chiefs, who were on good terms with the Rais, had no intention of allowing the Bedi to establish himself in their midst and came to their aid, driving the invaders out of the villages. Upon the Bedi's siege of Ludhiana, the Rais called in British mercenary George Thomas to help with the defence of the city. On Thomas's approach, Bedi retreated to the other side of the river.

Having recently consolidated the new Sikh Empire, Maharaja Ranjit Singh crossed the Sutlej in 1806 in his first expedition against the Cis-Sutlej states and stripped the Rais of all their possessions, including Ludhiana. The city was occupied but not immediately annexed to the Lahore state.

By 1809 Ranjit Singh was completing his third expedition and was again on the west bank of the Sutlej ready to attack Ludhiana. Fearing further expansion that was coming closer to their sphere of interest, the East India Company occupied the Cis-Sutlej states east of the Sutlej. The Company sent Colonel David Ochterlony with a force to occupy Ludhiana.

By the end of 1809, The Treaty with the Rajah of Lahore was signed in which the Rajah agreed to remain north and west of the Sutlej. British troops were permanently stationed in Ludhiana, and they established a cantonment to further consolidate their occupation. Compensation was paid by the British to the Raja of Jind.

In 1835, the Jind family, who technically still ruled Ludhiana, were left without any heirs. By the British doctrine of lapse, Ludhiana came under official control of the East India Company.

Following the First Afghan War, Ludhiana became the residence of the exiled family of Shah Shuja.

The British cantonment was abandoned in 1854. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857 Deputy-Commissioner George Ricketts crushed a rebellion in Ludhiana with the assistance of the chiefs of Nabha and Maler Kotla.

Sukhdev Thapar, who was hanged along with Bhagat Singh and Rajguru, was born in Ludhiana.


Ludhiana is located at 30°54′N 75°51′E / 30.9°N 75.85°E / 30.9; 75.85.[4] It has an average elevation of 244 metres (798 ft). Ludhiana City, to its residents, consists of the Old City and the New City (or the residential and official quarters of the Colonial British encampment, traditionally known as Civil Lines; this is as opposed to the Army Lines, which are no longer extant as the British Cantonment was abandoned in 1845).

The land dips steeply to the north and the west where, before 1785, the river Sutlej ran.

The Old Fort was at the banks of the Sutlej (and now houses the College of Textile Engineering). Legend has it that an underground tunnel connects it to the Fort in Phillaur – although why this should be is debatable, as the Sutlej was the traditional dividing line between the principalities, often occupied by enemy forces (see History section).

The ground is of yellow sandstone and granite, forming small hillocks, plateaus and dips.

The tree of largest natural extraction was the kikar, or Acacia indica, but has been supplanted by the eucalyptus, transplanted from rural Australia in the late 1960s by the government of Chief Minister Pratap Singh Kairon.

Gulmohars and jacarandas were planted by the British along the avenues of Civil Lines, as were other flowering trees, while the Old City contains almost no vegetation or parks, except for a few isolated pipal trees, holy to the Hindus, as it is supposed to be the abode of Lord Shiva.


Ludhiana features a humid subtropical under the Köppen climate classification, with three defined seasons; summer, monsoon and winter. Summers, which range from April through June in the city, tends to be very hot and very dry with average highs in May and June hovering around 40 °C (104 °F). The monsoon season which runs from July through September, sees a slight decrease in average temperatures but an increase in humidity. The bulk of the city's annual precipitation is received during the monsoon season. October and November interestingly enough is dry; more similar to a summer month than a monsoon month, though November is noticeably cooler than a summer month. Average temperatures though tend to decrease during the course of each of these months. December through February, which forms the winter months, is relatively mild with warm days and chilly nights. March is more of a sharp transitional month from winter to summer. Ludhiana on average sees roughly 730 millimetres (29 in) of precipitation annually.

Ludhiana has one of the worst air pollution problems in India, with particulate matter being over six times the World Health Organization recommended standard.[5][6] Industrial water pollution is also of significant concern in portions of Ludhiana, notably along the Budha Dariya.[7]

Climate data for Ludhiana (1971–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.2
Average high °C (°F) 14.9
Average low °C (°F) 2.7
Record low °C (°F) −5.2
Rainfall mm (inches) 21
Avg. precipitation days 2.8 3.6 4.5 1.9 2.3 4.7 11.6 9.6 4.5 0.5 1.4 2.1 49.5
 % humidity 74 66 62 44 39 49 71 76 68 61 68 74 62.7
Source: NOAA (1971–1990)[8]


As per provisional data of 2011 census Ludhiana had a population of 3,487,882, of which male and female were 1,866,203 and 1,621,679 respectively. The literacy rate was 82.50 per cent.[9]

As of 2001 India census,[10] Ludhiana City had a population of 3,032,831. Males population was 1,662,716 and female population was 1,370,115. Ludhiana had an average literacy rate of 70.5%, sex ratio of 824 and density of population was 805.

Urban structure[edit]

, Aggar Nagar, BRS Nagar, Sarabha Nagar are the major posh areas. Some other urban centres are Urban Estate Dugri Road Chandigarh Road Model Town Model Gram Harnam Nagar Chora Bazaar Old City Sector 32-A Sector 38 Sector 39


Feroze Gandhi Market, Ludhiana

The World Bank ranked Ludhiana as the city in India with the best business environment in 2009.[11]

The riches are brought mostly by small-scale industrial units,[12] which produce industrial goods, machine parts, auto parts, household appliances, hosiery, apparel, and garments. Ludhiana is Asia's largest hub for bicycle manufacturing and produces more than 50% of India's bicycle consumption of more than 10 million each year. Ludhiana produces 60% of India's tractor parts and a large portion of auto and two-wheeler parts. Many parts used in German cars like BMW and Mercedes are exclusively produced in Ludhiana to satisfy the world requirement. It is one of the largest manufacturer of sewing machines. Hand tools and precision industrial equipment is another speciality. The apparel industry Ludhiana is famous all over India for its woolen sweaters and cotton t-shirts; most of the top Indian woolen apparel brands are based in Ludhiana.

Ludhiana is known for Manufacturing Agricultural Implements and its Spare parts like Rotavator, Till Seed Drill, Combine Harvestors and doing continuous R&D in same sector.

Ludhiana is also having Chamber of Industrial and Commercial Undertakings (CICU) which is a non-government, not-for-profit, industry lead and industry managed organisation playing a proactive role in Punjab's developmental process.

Besides industry, Ludhiana is a major agri-products producer. It is a big centre for dairy product packaging. Ludhiana is also a major trading hub for commodities for North India. It is a major consumer shopping centre with consumers coming from around parts of Punjab to do their big-ticket shopping. With a lot of crowd and parking issues near the city area the trading industry is moving towards outer parts of Ludhiana towards Jalandhar Road.

The first major setback to the industry and business in Ludhiana has been the insurgency in Punjab that lasted from 1984 to 1992. Many industries moved out of and set up base in the township of Faridabad, Harayana, in close contiguity with teater New Delhi area. Another major impact has been the preferential taxation policies in neighbouring hill states which has provided the businesses in those states a huge competitive advantage. Many Ludhiana-based industries are moving into those areas to take advantage of the zero tax policies. Another major challenges in recent years has been the chronic labour shortages.

Ludhiana is also home to the Ludhiana Stock Exchange Association.


Ludhiana is home to the largest agricultural university in Asia and one of the largest in the world, Punjab Agricultural University.[13] The College of Veterinary Sciences at PAU had been recently upgraded to the Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science University (GADVASU).

Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Gulzar Group of Institutes, Bhutta College of Engineering,Guru Arjan Dev Polytechnic College Ludhiana and Ludhiana College of Engineering & Technology are main colleges offering quality education in engineering. Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College is a very old and renowned institution offering best available facilities and education for engineering students. Research & development centre for bicycle and sewing machine [1]. There are other institutes catering to local and surrounding areas such as Institute of Banking Services (IBS).

SCD Government College, Sri Aurobindo College of Commerce and Management, PCTE Group of Institutes, Guru Nanak Institute of Management and Technology (GNIMT), SDP College for Women, Khalsa College, Gujranwala Guru Nanak Institute of Management & Technologies] (Co Educational), B.C.M College of Education, Arya College for Boys, Kamla Lohtia College, Sri Aurobindo College of Commerce and Management and SCD Government Colleges for Boys and Girls are some of the other reputed colleges for higher education in this region. S.C.D Government College for Boys is named after Satish Chander Dhawan – a renowned space scientist, who like many of his compatriots migrated to the USA and had a long and illustrious career at MIT, Massachusetts. Other famous people from Ludhiana include the well-loved poet Sahir Ludhianvi, the renowned Punjabi literaturer Dr Vidya Bhaskar Arun, economists M S Gill and SS Johl, union HRD minister Kapil Sibal, the retired police chief KPS Gill, and film director David Dhawan. Late Sardar Sahib Sardar Amar Singh Thandi Amar Villa civil lines Ludhiana (Minister Mandi Skait 1920s). Mr Sunil Bharti Mittal(Airtel Group) hails from Ludhiana.

Ludhiana has one law school, The University Institute of Laws. Ludhiana is home to some of the region's best medical institutions like the Christian Medical College Ludhiana, Dayanand Medical College & Hospital. DMCH with a dedicated ancillary for cardiology is counted among the best hospitals in the region along with the more famous Apollo Hospital.

Ludhiana two Homeopathic Medical Colleges, Lord Mahavira HMC and H and the other one Sri Guru Nanak Dev HMC and H. Both colleges produce Bachelors in Homeopathic medicine. It has one physiotherapy college, All Saints Medical College.

Ludhiana has a very sound primary education system with a couple of notable primary and government schools imparting quality education. Ludhiana takes pride of having the Punjab University Extension Library which has a huge collection of books, periodicals, journals and newspapers for enthusiasts.

Ludhiana also has a dedicated guitar school, Guitarmonk.


Ludhiana is well connected by air and rail as Ludhiana railway station is on main Delhi-Amritsar route and is an important railway junction with lines going to Jalandhar, Ferozepur, Dhuri and Delhi. The city is very well connected with daily or weekly trains to most places in India including the major cities of Jammu, Amritsar, Jalandhar, Patiala, Pathankot, Kanpur, Jaipur, Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata. For administrative reasons the station is under Ferozepur Railway Division.The railway line between Ludhiana and Chandigarh opened in 2013. The government has even passed a dedicated freight track between Ludhiana and Kolkata.[citation needed]

A DMU Train in Ludhiana


Ludhiana is connected by air with Delhi. Air India and Kingfisher fly daily between New Delhi and Ludhiana Airport.[14] The government is looking at purchasing another 500 acres (2.0 km2) of land to construct the new international airport.[citation needed]. Ludhiana's status as a large industrial hub is cited as a reason for another international airport in Punjab after Amritsar.

Moving around inside the city is done mostly by mini-buses, auto-rickshaws, and pedal rickshaws, loosely licensed by the Municipal Corporation.

Ludhiana Metro[edit]

The government has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Delhi for construction of a Ludhiana Metro. This light transit system will serve about 25 years to Ludhiana. There will be two corridors in Ludhiana Metro.The project is expected to begin in 2015. but look to get into vein due to political wars.

City Transportation[edit]

Ludhiana is well connected with other cities of Punjab and also with other states by Bus service. Several major National Highways, NH1, NH95, NH11, NH20 pass through the city. The transportation services are provided by state owned Punjab Roadways and private bus operators. Moving inside the city, now there are state of the art Tata Marcopolo low floor buses for local travelling inside the city.The Ludhiana City Bus Services Limited(LCBSL) is the company which operates these buses covering almost the city.

Auto Rickshaw[edit]

The Auto Rickshaw is a three-wheel drive vehicle, which is one way to travel in the city. These Auto Rickshaws have the capacity to hold three to six passengers. It can be hired individually or on a sharing basis.


Cycle rickshaws are widely used in Ludhiana.The Rickshaw or tricycle is pulled by a person and is a relatively cheap way of travelling, but has become pricey after the autos were being scrapped.


Radio taxis are also easily available. It is also the most used means of transport by the people of Ludhiana. Ola Cabs launched in the city on October 7th, 2014.[15]


Parks and Recreation[edit]

Ludhiana is a mixture of Urban and Rural living. Ludhiana district has a great history in agriculture due to the fertile soil. No forest is left. Farming, Industry and human occupancy uses most of the land. But still Ludhiana holds some beautiful gardens and public places. The city is surrounded by farming land on every side but inside the city there are very many parks that still exist for relaxation, walking and picnics.

Roshni Ka Mela[edit]

Hazrat Shah Kamal Qadri Kaithaly stayed in ludhiana for some time, his visiting place where he stayed is known as Gayarween wali sarkar.It is near Daraysi ground and baba budha temple gurdwara and old subzi mandi chowk. Rashini masjid is also near by.Every year a Mela is celebrated on September 6,in his remembrance which is known as Bare peer ki Roshni ka mela.Hazrat Shah Kamal Qadri Kaithaly (died 1572)is buried in Kaithal where Urs is celebrated every year from March 28–30.


Every Sunday morning, cricket matches are played in most parks and grounds. Football is another game but not passionate like West Bengal or Goa. Due to lack of interest Punjab's most famous football club JCT FC was dissolved in 2011.


Punjab Agricultural University's cricket ground is used for many matches in Ranji trophy for Punjab State Team.


Guru Nanak Stadium was the home ground of demolished JCT FC. Dakha, mohi, Jangpur, Bhanohar, mullanpur, abbual, jagraon, rurka are the top football teams in the area.


Guru Nanak Stadium is known for the Kabaddi matches along with athletic games. Ludhiana has great passion for the Punjabi game Kabaddi. Two-time Kabaddi world cup's finals are played in Guru Nanak Stadium Ludhiana.[16] The Stadium often hosts high-profile Kabbadi matches.


A skating rink for speed skating and roller hockey is there in Ludhiana in Leisure Valley, Sarabha Nagar. Many skaters like Harshveer Singh Sekhon and Saurabh Sharma have made Ludhiana proud by bagging medals in nationals and representing India in internationals.[17][18]

Gulli Danda[edit]

Gulli Danda is a traditional game of the Ludhiana villages and part of Punjabi culture but is no longer as popular. It is played in rural or orthodox parts of the state

Kila Raipur Sports Festival[edit]

Kila Raipur Sports Festival, popularly known as Rural Olympics,[19] is held annually in Kila Raipur (near Ludhiana), in Punjab, India. Competition is held for major Punjabi rural sports, include cart-race, rope pulling. Gill Sports Festival


Name Occupation
Vikas Verma Model
Kartar Singh Sarabha Freedom Fighter
Bhai Randhir Singh Freedom Fighter
Dharmendra Actor
Sahir Ludhianvi Lyricist
Divya Dutta Actress
Sunil Mittal Indian Telecom Mogul, Philanthropist
Brijmohan Lall Munjal Industrialist, Founder of Hero Group
Rajinder Gupta Industrialist, Chairman of TridentGroup
Keshub Mahindra Industrialist, Chairman of Mahindra Group
Shubha Phutela Actress
Dakssh Ajit Singh Actor
Abhinav Shukla Actor
Sudarshan Agarwal Politician
Shilpi Sharma Actress
Juhi Chawla Actress
Gulzar Singh Sandhu Writer
Naina Dhaliwal Indian Model
Inderjit Hasanpuri Song Writer
Ram Singh Social Reformer
Maulana Habib-ur-Rehman Ludhianvi One of founders of Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam
Talish Pakistani Actor
Raj Khosla Director
Baldev Raj Chopra Producer and director
Kuldeep Manak Singer
Inderjit Nikku Singer
Ravinder Grewal Singer
Amar Singh Chamkila Singer
Diljit Dosanjh Singer
Surinder Shinda Singer
Karnail Gill Singer
Gippy Grewal Singer
Ishmeet Singh Singer
Lal Chand Yamla Jatt Singer
Pankaj Kapoor Actor
Hardev Dilgir Writer


  1. ^ "India's Manchester". BBC. February 28, 2006. 
  2. ^ Ludhiana Dist Gazetteer 1888–89, 1904, 1935. Chiefs of Punjab 1890, 1909, 1940, Mahan Kosh p. 311 by Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha, Encyclopaedia of Sikhism by Prof Harbans Singh-Vol 2, p 416, The Sikh Ref Book by Dr Harjinder Singh Dilgeer p 464, 196
  3. ^ Gazetteer of the Ludhiana District (1888–89) pp.106–108
  4. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Ludhiana". 
  5. ^ Majeed, Shariq (March 26, 2014). "Ludhiana worries over its PM". The Times of India. Archived from the original on March 27, 2014. 
  6. ^ Preet, Jatinder (October 16, 2011). "Ludhiana fourth most polluted city in the world". The Sunday Guardian (Delhi, India). Archived from the original on April 12, 2014. 
  7. ^ "How air and water pollution plagues Indian cities". Hindustan Times. December 1, 2013. Archived from the original on January 29, 2014. 
  8. ^ "Ludhiana Climate Normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 31, 2012. 
  9. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  10. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  11. ^ "Doing Business in India 2009". World Bank. Retrieved June 8, 2010. 
  12. ^ Entrepreneurship in India's small-scale industries. Richard P. Taub, Doris L. Taub
  13. ^ Ludhiana Colleges. Retrieved on June 16, 2014.
  14. ^ New Delhi to Ludhiana Flights, Cheap Air Tickets from New Delhi to Ludhiana: MakeMyTrip India. Retrieved on June 16, 2014.
  15. ^ "Ola Cabs launch in Ludhiana and Amritsar". Retrieved {{subst:CURRENTYEAR}}-{{subst:CURRENTMONTH2}}-{{subst:CURRENTDAY2}}.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  16. ^ "Kabaddi World Cup: India all the way". The Tribune – Sports Page. November 21, 2011. 
  17. ^ Ludhiana’s Harshveer Sekhon wins medals at National Open Roller Skating Championship - YesPunjab
  18. ^ Hindustan Times e-Paper. Retrieved on June 16, 2014.
  19. ^ "Racy start to Kila Raipur Rural Olympics". The Tribune – Ludhiana Tribune. February 4, 2011. 


External links[edit]