Ludwig Traube (June 19, 1861 – May 19, 1907) was a paleographer and held the first chair of Medieval Latin in Germany (at the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich). He was a son of the physician Ludwig Traube (1818-1876).
Traube was born in Berlin, the son of a middle-class Jewish family, and studied at the universities of Munich and Greifswald. In 1883 he finished his Ph.D. with a dissertation entitled Varia libamenta critica. He finished his Habilitation in classical and medieval philology in 1888 with a part of his book on Carolingian poetry. He became a professor in Munich in 1904 and in 1905 discovered he had leukemia, from which he died two years later.