The district dates back to the Oberamt Ludwigsburg, which was created by the dukedom Württemberg in the beginning of the 19th century. After several small changes during the century, it was converted into a district in 1938. Several municipalities of the dissolved Oberämter Besigheim, Marbach and Waiblingen were added to the newly formed district.
As a result of the communal reform of 1973, the district gained about half of the dissolved district Vaihingen, and some few municipalities from the districts Backnang and Leonberg.
The imperial eagle in the coat of arms is taken from the arms of the city Markgröningen, which was an imperial city. It was later adopted by the city Ludwigsburg as well. The deer antler above the eagle is the symbol of Württemberg.