Lufthansa

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Deutsche Lufthansa AG
Lufthansa Logo.svg
IATA
LH
ICAO
DLH
Callsign
LUFTHANSA
Founded 1953[note 1]
Commenced operations 1955
Hubs [note 2]
Frequent-flyer program Miles & More
Airport lounge
  • First Class Lounge
  • Senator Lounge
  • Business Lounge
Alliance Star Alliance
Subsidiaries
Fleet size 282
Destinations 215
Company slogan 'Nonstop you'
Parent company Private Investors (88.52%)
Headquarters Frankfurt, Germany
Key people Carsten Spohr (Chairman & CEO)[5]
Revenue Decrease 30.03 billion (2013)[6]
Operating income Decrease €697 million (2013)[6]
Net income Decrease €330 million (2013)[6]
Total assets Increase €21.26 billion (2013)[6]
Total equity Increase €4.40 billion (2013)[6]
Employees 118,214 (2013)[6]
Website lufthansa.com

Deutsche Lufthansa AG (FWBLHA, OTCQXDLAKY) (German pronunciation: [ˈdɔʏt͡ʃə ˈlʊfthanza]), commonly known as Lufthansa (sometimes also as Lufthansa German Airlines),[7] is the flag carrier of Germany[note 3] and also the largest airline in Europe, both in terms of overall passengers carried and fleet size when combined with its subsidiaries.[10] It operates services to 18 domestic destinations and 197 international destinations in 78 countries across Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe,[11] using a fleet of more than 280 aircraft.

Besides the actual airline named Lufthansa, Deutsche Lufthansa AG is also the parent company for several other airlines and further aviation-related branches, among the most well-known are Swiss International Air Lines and Lufthansa Technik. With over 620 aircraft, it has one of the largest passenger airline fleets in the world when combined with its subsidiaries.[12] In 2012, the entire Lufthansa Group carried over 103 million passengers.[13]

Lufthansa's registered office and corporate headquarters are in Cologne. The main operations base, called Lufthansa Aviation Center (LAC), is located at Lufthansa's primary traffic hub at Frankfurt Airport.[14][15][16] The majority of Lufthansa's pilots, ground staff, and flight attendants are based there.[17] Lufthansa's secondary hub is Munich Airport with a third, considerably smaller one maintained at Düsseldorf Airport which transfers to Germanwings so Lufthansa only operate just around 10 destinations excluded seasonal which all has been transferred to Germanwings

Lufthansa is also a founding member of Star Alliance, the world's largest airline alliance, formed in 1997.

Having been a state-owned enterprise until 1994,[8] the majority of Lufthansa's shares are nowadays held by private investors (88.52%), as well as MGL Gesellschaft für Luftverkehrswerte (10.05%), Deutsche Postbank (1.03%), and Deutsche Bank (0.4%). Since 1970, Lufthansa has involved its employees in profit sharing, giving them the opportunity to choose between cash and preference shares. When Lufthansa was privatised, employees received more than 3% of its shares.[18]

The name of the company is derived from Luft (the German word for "air"), and Hansa (a Latin term meaning "guild" most commonly used historically in reference to the Hanseatic League).

History[edit]

1950s: Post-war (re-)formation[edit]

Revenue Passenger-Kilometers, scheduled flights only, in millions
Year Traffic
1955 78
1960 1284
1965 3785
1969 6922
1971 8610
1975 13634
1980 21056
1989 36133
1995 61602
2000 94170
Source: ICAO Digest of Statistics for 1955, IATA World Air Transport Statistics 1960-2000
Lufthansa's first aircraft, a Convair 340 (type pictured), was delivered in August 1954

Lufthansa traces its history to 1926 when Deutsche Luft Hansa A.G. (from 1933 styled as Deutsche Lufthansa) was formed in Berlin,[3] an airline that was Germany's flag carrier until 1945 when all services were suspended following the defeat of Germany. In an effort to create a new national airline, a company called Aktiengesellschaft für Luftverkehrsbedarf (Luftag),[1] was founded in Cologne on 6 January 1953, with many of its staff having worked for the pre-war Lufthansa. West Germany had not yet been granted sovereignty over its airspace, so it was unknown when the new airline could become operational. Nevertheless, in 1953 Luftag placed orders for four Convair CV-340s and four Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellations and set up a maintenance base at Hamburg Airport.[1][2] On 6 August 1954, Luftag acquired the name and logo from the liquidated Deutsche Lufthansa for DM 30,000,[2] thus continuing the tradition of a German flag carrier of that name.

On 1 April 1955 Lufthansa got approval to start scheduled domestic flights,[2] linking Hamburg, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Cologne, and Munich.[19] International flights started on 15 May 1955, to London, Paris, and Madrid,[19][20] followed by Super Constellation flights to New York City from 1 June of that year,[19] and across the South Atlantic from August 1956. In August 1958 fifteen Lufthansa 1049Gs and 1649s left Germany each week to Canada and the United States, three 1049Gs a week flew to South America, three flew to Tehran and one to Baghdad.

Due to the special status of that city, Lufthansa was not allowed to fly to either part of Berlin until 1989. Originally thought to be only a temporary matter (and with intentions to move the airline's headquarters and main base there once the political situation would change),[1] the Division of Germany turned out to be long-lasting, which gradually led to Frankfurt Airport evolving into the major hub for Lufthansa.

East Germany tried to establish its own airline in 1955 using the Lufthansa name, but this resulted in a legal dispute with West Germany, where Lufthansa was operating. East Germany instead established Interflug as its national airline in 1963, which coincided with the East German Lufthansa being shut down.[21]

1960s: Jetliner introduction[edit]

In 1960 Lufthansa joined the jet age with the Boeing 707. The image shows a 707 at Hamburg Airport in 1984, shortly before the type was retired.
A Lufthansa Boeing 727–100 approaching London Heathrow Airport in 1978.

In 1958 Lufthansa ordered four Boeing 707s and started jet flights from Frankfurt to New York City in March 1960. Boeing 720Bs were later bought to back up the 707 fleet. In February 1961 Far East routes were extended beyond Bangkok, Thailand, to Hong Kong and Tokyo. Lagos, Nigeria and Johannesburg, South Africa were added in 1962.

Lufthansa introduced the Boeing 727 in 1964 and that May began the Polar route from Frankfurt to Tokyo via Anchorage. In February 1965 the company ordered twenty-one Boeing 737s that went into service in 1968. Lufthansa was the first customer for the Boeing 737 and was one of four buyers of the 737-100s (the others were NASA, Malaysia-Singapore Airlines, and Avianca – while the NASA airframe was the first built, it was the last delivered and originally intended for delivery to Lufthansa). Lufthansa was the first foreign launch customer for a Boeing airliner.

1970s–1980s: The wide-body era[edit]

The wide-body era for Lufthansa started with a Boeing 747 flight on April 26, 1970. It was followed by the introduction of the DC-10-30 on November 12, 1973, and the first Airbus A300 in 1976. In 1979 Lufthansa and Swissair were launch customers for the Airbus A310 with an order for twenty-five aircraft.

The company's fleet modernisation programme for the 1990s began on June 29, 1985 with an order for fifteen Airbus A320s and seven Airbus A300-600s. Ten Boeing 737-300s were ordered a few days later. All were delivered between 1987 and 1992. Lufthansa also bought Airbus A321, Airbus A340, and the Boeing 747-400.

In 1987 Lufthansa, together with Air France, Iberia, and SAS, founded Amadeus, an IT company (also known as a GDS) that would enable travel agencies to sell the founders and other airlines' products from a single system.

Lufthansa adopted a new corporate identity in 1988. The fleet was given a new livery while cabins, city offices, and airport lounges were redesigned.

1990s–2000s: Further expansion[edit]

The Boeing 737 is the best-selling jet airliner in the history of aviation.[22] Lufthansa was the launch customer of the original 737-100 version. The image shows an aircraft of that type at Hannover Airport in 1968.
Lufthansa operated the high-capacity Airbus A300-600 on domestic and European routes until 2009. The image shows an aircraft of that type on final approach at Frankfurt Airport in 2003.

On October 28, 1990, 25 days after reunification, Berlin became a Lufthansa destination again. On May 18, 1997, Lufthansa, Air Canada, Scandinavian Airlines, Thai Airways, and United Airlines formed the Star Alliance, the world's first multilateral airline alliance.

In 2000, Air One became a Lufthansa partner airline and nearly all Air One flights were code-shared with Lufthansa until Alitalia purchased Air One. Lufthansa has a good track record for posting profits, even in 2001, after 9/11, the airline suffered a significant loss in profits but still managed to stay 'in the black'. While many other airlines announced layoffs (typically 20% of their workforce), Lufthansa retained its current workforce.[18]

On December 6, 2001, Lufthansa announced an order for 15 Airbus A380 superjumbos with 10 more options, which was confirmed on December 20. The A380 fleet will be used for long-haul flights from Frankfurt exclusively.

In June 2003, Lufthansa opened Terminal 2 at Munich's Franz Josef Strauß Airport to relieve its main hub, Frankfurt, which was suffering from capacity constraints. It is one of the first terminals in Europe partially owned by an airline.

In autumn 2003, the implementation of a new sales strategy initiated by then-incumbent Executive Vice President Thierry Antinori to make the company fit for the digital era led to the abolition of commission payments for travel agencies and led to a revolution in the German travel business with many travel agencies disappearing from the market on the one hand, and the rise of new digital distribution platforms on the other hand.[23]

On May 17, 2004, Lufthansa became the launch customer for the Connexion by Boeing in-flight online connectivity service.

On March 22, 2005, SWISS was purchased by Lufthansa Airlines. The acquisition included the provision that the majority shareholders (the Swiss government and large Swiss companies) be offered payment if Lufthansa's share price outperforms an airline index during the years following the merger. The two companies will continue to be run separately.

On December 6, 2006, Lufthansa placed an order for 20 Boeing 747-8I airliners, becoming the launch customer of the type. The airline is also the second European airline to operate the Airbus A380 (after Air France). Their first A380 was delivered on May 19, 2010.[24]

On September 15, 2008, Lufthansa Group announced its purchase of a stake in Brussels Airlines. In June 2009 the EU Commission granted regulatory approval for this strategic partnership between Brussels Airlines and Lufthansa. The decision paved the way for Lufthansa to acquire an initial 45% stake in SN Airholding SA/NV, the parent company of Brussels Airlines.[25] Lufthansa has an option to purchase the remaining 55% of Brussels Airlines until 2017.

In September 2009, Lufthansa purchases Austrian Airlines with the approval of the European Commission.[26]

On June 11, 2010, the Airbus A380 service was operated between Frankfurt and Tokyo.[27]

2010s: Belt-tightening[edit]

After a loss of 381 million euros in the first quarter of 2010 and another 13 million loss in the year 2011 due to the economic recession and the cost of restructuring, Deutsche Lufthansa AG cut 3,500 administrative positions or around 20 percent of the clerical total of 16,800.[28] In 2012 Lufthansa announced a restructuring program called SCORE to improve its operating profit. As a part of the restructuring plan the company started to transfer all short-haul flights outside its hubs in Frankfurt, Munich and Düsseldorf to the company’s re-branded low-cost carrier Germanwings.[29]

In September 2013 Lufthansa Group announced its biggest order, for 59 wide-body aircraft valued more than 14 billion euros at list prices. Earlier in the same year Lufthansa placed an order for 100 next-generation narrow-body aircraft.[30]

Corporate affairs and identity[edit]

Main entrance to Lufthansa headquarters in Deutz, Cologne
Lufthansa aircraft at Munich Airport in 2010.

Headquarters[edit]

Lufthansa's corporate headquarters are located in Cologne.

In 1971, Lawrence Fellows of The New York Times described the then-new headquarters building that Lufthansa occupied in Cologne as "gleaming".[31] In 1986, terrorists bombed the Lufthansa headquarters.[32] No people received injuries as a result of the bombing.[33]

In 2006, the builders laid the first stone to the new Lufthansa headquarters in Deutz, Cologne. By the end of 2007 Lufthansa planned to move 800 employees, including the company's finance department, to the new building.[34] Several Lufthansa departments are not located in the headquarters; instead they are located in the Lufthansa Aviation Center at Frankfurt Airport. The departments include Corporate Communications,[35] Investor Relations,[36] and Media Relations.[37]

In early 2013 Lufthansa revealed plans to relocate its head office from Cologne to Frankfurt by 2017.[38]

Subsidiaries[edit]

In addition to its main operation, Lufthansa has several subsidiaries, including:[13]

Airline subsidiaries

Wholly owned by Lufthansa

Partly owned by Lufthansa

  • AeroLogic, German cargo airline owned 50% by Lufthansa in joint venture with DHL.
  • Brussels Airlines: 45% owned by Lufthansa with an option to acquire the remaining shares in the future.
  • JetBlue Airways, 15.85% owned by Lufthansa.
  • Luxair, 14.44% owned by Lufthansa.
  • SunExpress, airline based in Antalya, Turkey; 50% owned by Lufthansa and the remaining owned by Turkish Airlines.
  • Lufthansa Commercial Holding, 19% owned by Lufthansa.
Other operations

Brand history[edit]

The Lufthansa logo, an encircled stylized crane in flight, was created in 1918 by Otto Firle. It was part of the livery of the first German airline, Deutsche Luft-Reederei (abbreviated DLR), which began air service on February 5, 1919. In 1926, Deutsche Luft Hansa adopted this symbol, and in 1954, Lufthansa expressed continuity by adopting it, too.

The original creator of the name Lufthansa is believed to be F.A. Fischer von Puturzyn. In 1925, he published a book entitled "Luft-Hansa" which examined the options open to aviation policymakers at the time. Luft Hansa was the name given to the new airline which resulted from the merger of Junkers' airline (Luftverkehr AG) and Deutscher Aero Lloyd.[39]

Alliances and partnerships[edit]

A Lufthansa Boeing 747-400 taking off from Frankfurt Airport in 2010.

Commercial[edit]

Lufthansa is owned by private investors (88.52%), MGL Gesellschaft für Luftverkehrswerte (10.05%), Deutsche Postbank (1.03%) and Deutsche Bank (0.4%) and has 37,042 employees (at March 2007).[40]

On December 13, 2007, Lufthansa and JetBlue Airways announced the beginning of a partnership initiated through the 19% stake purchase in Jetblue shares by Lufthansa. This is the first major ownership investment by a European carrier in an American carrier since the EU–U.S. Open Skies Agreement became effective in 2008.

Lufthansa is the airline with the largest number of Airbus A340-600s in its fleet. The picture shows one landing at Frankfurt Airport in 2011.
D-AIMA, the first Airbus A380 delivered to Lufthansa, landing at Stuttgart Airport during a crew training flight in 2010.
Lufthansa is the launch customer and to date only airline to operate the passenger version of the Boeing 747-8 (pictured), seen here shortly after take-off at Frankfurt Airport.

In late 2007, the Lufthansa cargo hub dispute was started by Russia. Lufthansa was forced to relocate its cargo hub from Kazakhstan to Russia.

On August 28, 2008, Lufthansa and Brussels Airlines announced that they were negotiating joining together.[41]

On September 15, 2008, it was jointly announced by both airlines that Lufthansa will acquire a 45% stake in Brussels Airlines with an option to acquire the remaining 55% from 2011. As a part of this deal Brussels Airlines will join Star Alliance. Brussels entered into the Star Alliance in December 2009.[42][43][44]

On October 28, 2008, Lufthansa exercised its option to purchase a further 60% share in BMI (additionally to the 20% Lufthansa already owned), this resulted in a dispute with former owner Sir Michael Bishop, though. Both parties reached an agreement at the end of June 2009, so the acquisition could take place with effect from July 1, 2009.[45] By acquiring the remaining 20% from Scandinavian Airlines Lufthansa has full control over BMI since November 1, 2009.[46]

In November 2008, Lufthansa and Austrian Airlines announced a deal in which Lufthansa will buy the majority stock from the Austrian government. The deal was completed in January 2009. At the same time, Lufthansa announced that they are in serious talks with Scandinavian Airlines System about a merger between the two airlines but Lufthansa would have to make great changes to SAS before this is viable because of the financial state of Scandinavian Airlines System over the last few years. In May 2009, it announced that talks are occurring between about a "closer commercial co-operation" between the two companies, but that a takeover is not in Lufthansa's plans.[47] Additionally, it announced that if British Airways was unable to complete its merger with Iberia, it would attempt to begin talks with the Spanish airline itself.[48]

In 2010, Lufthansa was named in a European Commission investigation into price-fixing, but was not fined due to acting as a whistleblower.[49]

In November 2011, Lufthansa agreed to sell BMI to International Airlines Group (IAG), owner of British Airways and Iberia, pending approvals, for £172.5 million.

In July 2012, a Qantas–Lufthansa Technik maintenance deal for Tullamarine airport fell through due to having insufficient engine maintenance work to support the partnership. This resulted in 164 engineers becoming redundant. This follows just months after the closing of heavy maintenance operations, which resulted in 400 additional job losses. It was announced that the Lufthansa Technik–Qantas partnership would end in September.[50]

Technology[edit]

Until April 2009 Lufthansa inventory and departure control systems, based on Unisys were managed by LH Systems. Lufthansa reservations systems were outsourced to Amadeus in the early 1990s. Following a decision to outsource all components of the Passenger Service System, the functions were outsourced to the Altéa platform managed by Amadeus.

Partner airlines[edit]

Lufthansa built up a worldwide partner network, offering coordinated connections, common frequent-flyer programmes and code sharing. After the liquidation of Team Lufthansa, some of the former Team Lufthansa members were integrated into the partner programme. All airlines remain independent and keep their own corporate identity. Lufthansa partners around the world are:

Sponsorships[edit]

Lufthansa sponsors Bundesliga club Bayern Munich.[51]

Destinations[edit]

Further information: Lufthansa destinations

Codeshare agreements[edit]

Besides fellow Star Alliance members, Lufthansa has codeshare agreements with the following airlines (as of September 2013):[52]

Fleet[edit]

Gradually, the Airbus A320 family has become the primary short haul aircraft with Lufthansa, replacing the Boeing 737 Classic. The image shows an Airbus A320-200.
The shortened A319-100 variant.
The longer Airbus A321-200. This particular airplane is painted in special Retrojet colours, inspired by Lufthansa's first post-war livery.

As of July 2014, the Lufthansa fleet consists of the following aircraft with an average age of 12.2 years:[53][54][55][56][57]

Lufthansa Mainline Fleet
Aircraft In Service Orders Options Passengers Notes
F C E Y Total
Airbus A319-100 32 0 0 0 138 138
Airbus A320-200 59 34 75[A] 168 168
Airbus A320neo 60 TBA
Airbus A321-100 20 0 0 0 200 200
Airbus A321-200 42 2
Airbus A321neo 40 TBA
Airbus A330-300 19
8 48 0 161 217
165 221
Airbus A340-300 19 8 48 0 165 221
36 197 241
0 44 222 266
Airbus A340-600 24
8 60 0 238 306
56 229 293
Airbus A350-900 25[58] 30[58] TBA Deliveries 2016-2023[59]
Airbus A380-800 12 2 8 98 0 420 526 New Deliveries: 2 in 2015
Boeing 737-300 10 0 0 0 140 140 To be phased out by 2015[60]
Boeing 737-500 14 120 120 To be phased out by 2015[60]
Boeing 747-400 19
8 80 0 242 330
66 278 352
0 67 322 389
Boeing 747-8I 15 4
8 92 0 262 362 Further Deliveries: 4 in 2015[61]
80 298 386
32 244 364
Boeing 777-9X 34[62] 24 TBA Deliveries 2020-2025[62]
Total 284 202 129

A Lufthansa doesn't specify if these Options are for A320-200 or A320neo.[57]

Fleet history[edit]

A Lufthansa Boeing 737-200 at Charles de Gaulle Airport in 1983, featuring a livery variant with inverted colors for the tail logo and a bare metal fuselage.
A Lufthansa Boeing 747-200 approaches Frankfurt Airport in 1989. This livery (using a blue cheatline and unpainted lower fuselage parts) was abandoned during that period in favor of the current one.
A Lufthansa Boeing 767-300 in Star Alliance livery at a gate at Frankfurt Airport in 2003.

Over the years, Lufthansa has operated the following aircraft types:[63]

Lufthansa Mainline Historical Fleet since 1955
Aircraft Introduced Retired Notes
Airbus A300B2/B4 1976 1984
Airbus A300-600 1987 2009
Airbus A310 1984 2005
Airbus A319 1996
Airbus A320 1989
Airbus A321 1994
Airbus A330-200 2002 2006
Airbus A330-300 2004
Airbus A340-200 1993 2006
Airbus A340-300 1993
Airbus A340-600 2003
Airbus A380 2010
Boeing 707 1960 1984 Also used in cargo configuration
Boeing 720 1961 1965
Boeing 727-100 1964 1979 Also used in Quick Change version
Boeing 727-200 1971 1993
Boeing 737-100 1967 1982 Launch customer, dubbed City Jet
Boeing 737-200 1969 1997 Also used in Quick Change version
Boeing 737-300 1986 Also used in Quick Change version
Boeing 737-400 1992 1998
Boeing 737-500 1990
Boeing 747-100 1970 1979
Boeing 747-200 1971 2004 Also used in cargo configuration
Boeing 747-400 1989
Boeing 747-8 Intercontinental 2012 Launch customer
Boeing 767-300 1994
2003
1996
2004
Leased from Condor[64]
Convair CV-340/440 1955 1968
Curtiss C-46 1964 1969 Leased cargo aircraft
Douglas DC-3 1955 1960 Also used in cargo configuration
Douglas DC-4 1958 1959 One single leased cargo aircraft
Douglas DC-8 1965 1966 One single leased cargo aircraft
McDonnell Douglas DC-10 1974 1994
Fokker F27 Friendship ~1965 ~1966 Leased from Condor
Lockheed Super Constellation/Starliner 1955 1967 Also used in cargo configuration
Vickers Viking 1956 1961 Two leased cargo aircraft
Vickers Viscount 1958 1971

Aircraft Naming Conventions[edit]

In September 1960, the Lufthansa Boeing 707 (D-ABOC), which would serve the Frankfurt-New York intercontinental route, was christened Berlin after the divided city of Berlin by then-mayor Willy Brandt. Following the Berlin, other Lufthansa 707 planes were named "Hamburg", "Frankfurt", "München", and "Bonn." With these names, the company established a tradition of naming the planes in its fleet after German cities and towns or federal states, with a general rule of thumb that the airplane make, size, or route would correspond roughly to the relative size or importance of the city or town it was named after.

This tradition has continued to this day, with two notable exceptions until 2010. The first was an Airbus A340-300 registered D-AIFC, name "Gander/Halifax", named after Gander and Halifax, two Canadian cities along the standard flight path from Europe to North America. It became the first Lufthansa airplane named after a non-German city. The name is meant to commemorate the hospitality of the communities of Gander and Halifax, which served as improvised safe havens for the passengers and crew of the multitude of international aircraft unable to return to their originating airports during Operation Yellow Ribbon after the September 11, 2001 attacks.

The other aircraft not named after a German city was an Airbus A321-100 registered as D-AIRA, which was designated Finkenwerder in honour of the collaborative Airbus facility in the borough of Hamburg-Finkenwerder, where about 40% of Airbus narrowbody models are manufactured.

In February 2010, Lufthansa announced that the first two Airbus A380s delivered would be named Frankfurt am Main and München, following its naming tradition. However, the subsequent A380 aircraft are named after Star Alliance hub cities like Tokyo, Beijing, Brussels, and New York.

Vintage aircraft restoration[edit]

Lufthansa Technik, the airline's maintenance arm, restored a Junkers Ju 52/3m built in 1936 to airworthiness; this aircraft was in use on the 10-hour Berlin to Rome route, across the Alps, in the 1930s. Lufthansa is now restoring a Lockheed Super Constellation, using parts from three such aircraft bought at auction. Lufthansa's Super Constellations and L1649 "Starliners" served routes such as Hamburg-Madrid-Dakar-Caracas-Santiago. Lufthansa Technik recruits retired employees and volunteers for skilled labour.[65][66]

Cabin[edit]

First Class[edit]

First Class is offered on most long-haul aircraft (Airbus A330-300, A340-300, A340-600, the front part of the upper deck of all Airbus A380s, and the main deck nose section of all Boeing 747–8s). Each seat converts to a 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) bed, includes laptop power outlets, as well as entertainment facilities. On Boeing 747-400s, First Class is situated on the upper deck, with a window-side bed and aisle seat all as part of one ticket. Meals are available on demand. Lufthansa offers dedicated First Class check-in counters at most airports, and offers dedicated First Class lounges in Frankfurt and Munich, as well as a dedicated First Class Terminal in Frankfurt. Arriving passengers have the option of using Lufthansa's First Class arrival facilities, as well as the new Welcome Lounge. Lufthansa has introduced a new First Class product aboard the Airbus A380 and plans to gradually introduce it on all of its long-haul aircraft.[67] With the new programme SCORE, introduced to boost profits by 1.5 billion euros over the following years, LH will stop route expansion and extensively decrease its First Class offerings on most routes.[68][69]

Business Class[edit]

Business Class on the main deck of a Boeing 747-8
Business Class on the upper deck of a Boeing 747-8

Business Class is offered on all long-haul aircraft. Each seat converts to a 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) angled lie-flat bed and includes laptop power outlets and entertainment facilities. Lufthansa offers dedicated Business Class check-in counters at all airports, as well as dedicated Business Class lounges at most airports, or contract lounges at other airports, as well as the Lufthansa Welcome Lounge upon arrival in Frankfurt. The original Business Class featured angle-lie flat seats with 150 degrees of recline. Business Class on all Boeing 747-8s, features fully flat bed seats,[70] and a larger seat-back entertainment screen.[70] The new seats are gradually being rolled out across the rest of the A330, A340, A380 and 747-400 fleet.

Premium Economy[edit]

Introduced in 2014,[71] Lufthansa's long-haul Premium Economy is being rolled out on all long-haul aircraft, starting with a select number of Boeing 747-8s. Similar in design to United Airlines' Economy Plus or British Airways' World Traveler Plus cabins, Premium Economy features 38-inch (970 mm) pitch along with up to 3 inches (76 mm) more width than economy class, depending on the aircraft. The seats also feature a 11 or 12 inches (280 or 300 mm) personal seat-back entertainment screens and a larger armrest separating seats.

Economy Class[edit]

Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 Economy Class
The Economy cabin on a 747-8

Lufthansa's long-haul Economy Class is offered on all long-haul aircraft. All have a 31-inch (790 mm) seat pitch except the Airbus A340s, which have a 32-inch (810 mm) seat pitch. Passengers receive meals, as well as free drinks. Moreover, the whole fleet offers Audio-Video-On-Demand (AVOD) screens in Economy Class.

Miles & More[edit]

Main article: Miles & More

Lufthansa's frequent-flyer programme is called Miles & More, and is shared among several European airlines, including Austrian Airlines, Adria Airways, Croatia Airlines, LOT Polish Airlines, Luxair, Swiss International Air Lines, and Brussels Airlines.[72] Miles & More members may earn miles on Lufthansa flights and Star Alliance partner flights, as well as through Lufthansa credit cards, and purchases made through the Lufthansa shops. Status within Miles & More is determined by miles flown during one calendar year with specific partners. Membership levels include: Miles & More member (no minimal threshold), Frequent Traveller (Silver, 35,000-mile (56,000 km) threshold or 30 individual flights), Senator (Gold, 100,000-mile (160,000 km) threshold), and HON Circle (Black, 600,000-mile (970,000 km) threshold over two calendar years). All Miles & More status levels higher than Miles & More member offer lounge access and executive bonus miles, with the higher levels offering more exclusive benefits.[72]

Lounges[edit]

Overview and access[edit]

Lounge Access by class Access by status
(Miles&More / Star Alliance)
Notes Number[73]
First Class Terminal First Class only
(Lufthansa & SWISS only)
HON Circle only
No Star Alliance Gold
only available at Frankfurt Airport 1
First Class Lounge First Class only
(Lufthansa, SWISS & Star Alliance)
HON Circle only
No Star Alliance Gold
available at Frankfurt (2), Munich and New York-John F. Kennedy 4
Senator Lounge First Class only
(Lufthansa, SWISS & Star Alliance)
Senator or higher
Star Alliance Gold
27
Business Lounge First and Business Class
(Lufthansa & Star Alliance)
Frequent Traveller or higher
Star Alliance Gold
30
Welcome Lounge First and Business Class
(Lufthansa, SWISS & United Airlines only)
Frequent Traveller or higher
No Star Alliance Gold
only available at Frankfurt Airport 1

Lufthansa operates four types of lounges: First Class, Senator, Business, and Welcome Lounges. Each departure lounge is accessible both through travel class, or Miles and More/Star Alliance status; the Welcome Lounge is limited to arriving premium passengers of the Lufthansa Group and United Airlines only.[74]

First Class Terminal[edit]

Lufthansa operates a First Class Terminal at Frankfurt Airport. The first terminal of its kind, access is limited only to departing Lufthansa First Class, and HON Circle members. Approximately 200 staff care for approximately 300 passengers per day in the terminal, which features a full-service restaurant, full bar, cigar lounge, relaxation rooms, and offices, as well as bath facilities. Guests are driven directly to their departing flight by Mercedes-Benz S-Class, Porsche Cayenne, Porsche Panamera, or Mercedes-Benz Viano.

Accidents and incidents[edit]

This is a list of accidents and incidents involving Lufthansa mainline aircraft since 1954. For earlier occurrences, refer to Deutsche Luft Hansa. For accidents and incidents on Lufthansa-branded flights which were operated by other airlines, see the respective articles (Lufthansa CityLine, Lufthansa Cargo, Contact Air, and Air Dolomiti).

Fatal[edit]

  • On January 11, 1959, Lufthansa Flight 502, a Lufthansa Lockheed Super Constellation (registered D-ALAK) crashed onto a beach shortly off Galeão Airport in Rio de Janeiro following a scheduled passenger flight from Hamburg, Germany. Of the 29 passengers and 10 crew members on board, only the co-pilot and 2 flight attendants survived. Investigation into the accident resulted in blaming the pilots for having executed a too low approach, which may have been caused by fatigue.[75]
  • On December 4, 1961, a Lufthansa Boeing 720 (registered D-ABOK) crashed of unknown causes near Mainz during a training flight from Frankfurt to Cologne, killing the three occupants. It was the first crash involving an aircraft of that type.[76]
  • On July 15, 1964, another Boeing 720 (registered D-ABOP) crashed during a training flight, with the three people on board losing their lives (in what was only the second crash for this aircraft type). The accident occurred near Ansbach after the pilots had lost control of the aircraft when executing an aileron roll.
  • On January 28, 1966 at 17:50 local time, Lufthansa Flight 5 from Frankfurt to Bremen, which was operated using a Convair CV-440 Metropolitan registered D-ACAT, crashed 0.5 kilometres (0.31 mi) short of Bremen Airport, killing all 42 passengers and 4 crew members on board. The pilots had tried to execute a go-around when approaching the airport, during which the aircraft stalled and went out of control, possibly due to pilot error.[77]
D-ABYB, the aircraft destroyed in the disaster of Flight 540, was the 2nd of 3 Boeing 747-100 delivered to Lufthansa.[78] It is seen here during a promotional event at Nuremberg Airport in 1970.
  • On November 20, 1974 at 07:54 local time, Lufthansa Flight 540, a Boeing 747–100 (registered D-ABYB), crashed shortly after take-off at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in what was the first air accident involving a Boeing 747. 55 out of the 140 passengers and 4 out of the 17 crew lost their lives, making it the worst accident in the history of the airline.[79]
  • On July 26, 1979 at 21:32 UTC, a cargo-configured Boeing 707 (registered D-ABUY) that was en route Lufthansa Flight 527 from Rio de Janeiro to Dakar and onwards to Germany (at that time cargo flights were operated in-house, the German Cargo subsidiary had not been founded yet) crashed into a mountain 25 kilometres (16 mi) from Galeão Airport during initial climb, killing the three crew members on board. A flawed communication between the pilots and the air traffic controller had resulted in the aircraft flying on a wrong path.[80]
  • On September 14, 1993, Lufthansa Flight 2904, an Airbus A320-200 (registered D-AIPN) flying from Frankfurt to Warsaw with 64 passengers and 4 crew members on board, overran the runway upon landing at Warsaw-Okecie Airport, and crashed into an earth embankment, resulting in the death of the co-pilot and one passenger.[81][82]

Non-fatal[edit]

  • On December 20, 1973 at 00:33 local time, a Lufthansa Boeing 707 (registered D-ABOT) with 98 passengers and 11 crew members on board collided with a middle marker shack upon approaching Palam Airport in Delhi following a scheduled passenger flight from Bangkok (as part of a multi-leg flight back to Germany). There were no injuries, but the aircraft was damaged beyond repair. At the time of the incident, there had been poor visibility conditions.[83]

Hijackings[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The company that today is known as Deutsche Lufthansa AG was founded as Aktiengesellschaft für Luftverkehrsbedarf (Luftag) on 6 January 1953.[1] It sees itself in the tradition of Deutsche Lufthansa, the former German national airline that was founded in 1926 and liquidated in 1951, whose name and logo it acquired in 1954.[2] Therefore, Lufthansa frequently gives "1926" as its founding date, though from the legal point of view, it is not the assignee of the earlier airline.[3]
  2. ^ Lufthansa also counts Vienna International Airport and Zurich Airport as its hubs.[4] They are not listed here because they are home for Lufthansa's subsidiaries Austrian Airlines and Swiss International Airlines, respectively. For the same reason, Germanwings bases are omitted.
  3. ^ Until 1994, Lufthansa was the state-owned national airline of (West) Germany.[8] Even though having been privatized since then, it has de facto retained the "German flag carrier" designation,[9] due to its history and international route network, which is by far the most extensive of any airline of the country. De jure, Lufthansa does not enjoy any special rights compared to other German airlines, though.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "We Call on Luftag". Flight International (5 February 1954): 165. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d Klussmann, Niels (2007). Lexikon der Luftfahrt. Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 396–397. 
  3. ^ a b "As Time Flies By". Lufthansa. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  4. ^ "Our hubs in Frankfurt, Munich, Dusseldorf, Zurich and Vienna". Lufthansa. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  5. ^ https://ph.news.yahoo.com/lufthansa-ceo-oversees-network-airline-brands-170145075--sector.html
  6. ^ a b c d e f Lufthansa Group boosts earnings power and gains altitude March 13, 2014
  7. ^ Star Alliance Website: [1] ("The airlines engaged in the passenger transportation business are Lufthansa German Airlines...") Retrieved 5 July 2014
  8. ^ a b Blüthmann, Heinz (13 May 1994). "Neue Freiheit". Die Zeit (in German). Retrieved 21 October 2013. 
  9. ^ Kopplin, Ilka (25 September 2013). "Lufthansa CEO Faces Employee Resistance to Cost Cuts". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 21 October 2013. "German flag carrier Deutsche Lufthansa AG" 
  10. ^ Dinah Deckstein (9 May 2012). "Restructuring Plans Further Along Than Thought for German Airline Lufthansa". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 5 July 2013. 
  11. ^ "Lufthansa Group - Route Map" (in German). Lufthansa.com. 2007-02-16. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  12. ^ "Lufthansa Fleet". investor-relations.lufthansa.com. 
  13. ^ a b "Lufthansa Annual Report 2012". Retrieved March 30, 2013. 
  14. ^ "We hereby invite our shareholders to attend the 51st Annual General Meeting". investor-relations.lufthansa.com. Retrieved August 25, 2009. 
  15. ^ "How to get there". lac.lufthansa.com. Retrieved July 30, 2002. 
  16. ^ "Lufthansa opens new office complex in Frankfurt (Lufthansa eroffnet neue Konzernzentrale in Frankfurt)". Europe Intelligence Wire. July 19, 2006. Retrieved August 25, 2009. 
  17. ^ "Lufthansa Flies to 50-Year Milestone". Deutsche Welle. January 4, 2005. Retrieved August 25, 2009. 
  18. ^ a b Bamber, G.J., Gittell, J.H., Kochan, T.A. & von Nordenflytch, A. (2009). "chapter 5". Up in the Air: How Airlines Can Improve Performance by Engaging their Employees. Cornell University Press, Ithaca. 
  19. ^ a b c "A German Airline Again". Flight. 15 April 1955. pp. 472–473. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  20. ^ "Die Tabellen-Piloten". Der Spiegel (22/1955): 32–40. 25 May 1955. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  21. ^ Michał Petrykowski, Samoloty Ił-18 Lufthansy, Lotnictwo Nr. 12/2009, p.20 (Polish)
  22. ^ Kingsley-Jones, Max. "6,000 and counting for Boeing’s popular little twinjet." Flight International, Reed Business Information, April 22, 2009. Retrieved: April 22, 2009.
  23. ^ Axel Kaune (Hrsg.): Konfliktmanagement im Tourismus - Die Einführung der Nullprovision. In: Change Management mit Organisationsentwicklung. Berlin 2010
  24. ^ "Another airline enters the "A380 era" as Lufthansa receives its initial 21st century flagship aircraft". airbus.com. Retrieved November 24, 2010. [dead link]
  25. ^ "History of Brussels Airlines". Retrieved August 13, 2013. 
  26. ^ "Green Light for Merger of Austrian Airlines and Lufthansa | News". Breaking Travel News. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  27. ^ "A380". Lufthansa. February 16, 2007. Retrieved June 6, 2010. 
  28. ^ "Lufthansa to Scrap 3,500 Administrative Posts After Loss". May 3, 2012. 
  29. ^ "Lufthansa on course with its SCORE programme". Lufthansagroup.com. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  30. ^ "Lufthansa Group orders 59 wide-body aircraft". Lufthansagroup.com. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  31. ^ Fellows, Lawrence. "Germans Setting Own Office Hours; Some German Workers Set Their Own Hours -Within Reason." The New York Times. Monday July 12, 1971. Page 1. Retrieved on February 14, 2010. "At Lufthansa's gleaming new office building here, and at many other offices and factories around West Germany, men and women now go to work when they want and stay as long as they want – within reason."
  32. ^ "Terrorists Shoot Berlin Official, Bomb Airline". Los Angeles Times. October 28, 1986. p. Section 1, Late Final Desk. Start Page 2. Retrieved February 14, 2010. 
  33. ^ "Around the World; Bomb Rips Offices Of Lufthansa in Cologne". Associated Press at The New York Times. October 29, 1986. Retrieved November 24, 2010. 
  34. ^ "Grundsteinlegung für Lufthansa Hauptverwaltung in Köln." KFZ.net. Retrieved on February 12, 2010. "Die Lufthansa hat mit einer Grundsteinlegung in Köln-Deutz den Beginn der Arbeiten für ihre neue Kölner Konzernzentrale gefeiert. Ende 2007 werden rund 800 Kölner Lufthanseaten, vor allem aus dem Konzernressort Finanzen, das Hochhaus am Rhein verlassen und in den nur wenige hundert Meter entfernten Neubau umziehen, erklärte das Unternehmen."
  35. ^ "Service Contact Person." Lufthansa. Retrieved on February 15, 2010.[dead link]
  36. ^ "Contacts Investor Relations." Lufthansa. Retrieved on February 14, 2010.
  37. ^ "Media Relations." Lufthansa. Retrieved on February 14, 2010.
  38. ^ Hofmann, Kurt. "Lufthansa deepens cuts." (Archive) Air Transport World. 20.2.2013. Retrieved on 15 November 2013.
  39. ^ Lufthansa Chronicle. Konzern.lufthansa.com (June 28, 2011). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  40. ^ "Directory: World Airlines". Flight International. April 3, 2007. p. 107. 
  41. ^ Lufthansa.com. Konzern.lufthansa.com (June 28, 2011). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.[dead link]
  42. ^ Official press release by Lufthansa. Konzern.lufthansa.com (June 28, 2011). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.[dead link]
  43. ^ airreview.com airreview.com. Retrieved on April 2, 2012
  44. ^ staralliance.com. staralliance.com. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  45. ^ "Lufthansa Strikes BMI Deal, Ending Dispute". Dow Jones Deutschland. July 22, 2009. Retrieved November 24, 2010. [dead link]
  46. ^ "Lufthansa to gain full control of bmi from SAS, while BA confirms interest in the UK carrier". Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation. October 2, 2009. 
  47. ^ Impact Publications. Impactpub.com.au (May 20, 2009). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.[dead link]
  48. ^ UK. Ft.com (May 19, 2009). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.(subscription required)
  49. ^ "Eleven airlines fined in European cargo cartel investigation". Retrieved November 10, 2010. 
  50. ^ "Job Losses After Qantas-Lufthansa Deal Falls Through". Airport International. July 26, 2012. 
  51. ^ "German giants sign Samsung extension". 
  52. ^ "Codeshare Partners". lufthansa.com. Retrieved 21 September 2013. 
  53. ^ "Fleet - Corporate Facts - Lufthansa Group". Lufthansa - Group. 
  54. ^ "Lufthansa Fleet". ch-aviation.ch. Retrieved 29 September 2013. 
  55. ^ "Lufthansa Germany - Seat Maps". Lufthansa. 
  56. ^ Lufthansa. "Lufthansa Fleet Development". Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  57. ^ a b "Lufthansa Group Annual Report 2013" (PDF). Lufthansa Group. March 13, 2014. Retrieved April 1, 2014. 
  58. ^ a b 19 September 2013. "Lufthansa, Airbus’ biggest airline customer, commits to up to 55 A350s | Airbus News & Events". Airbus.com. Retrieved 2013-09-19. 
  59. ^ 19 September 2013. "Lufthansa confirms huge Airbus, Boeing jet order". Reuters.com. Retrieved 2013-09-19. 
  60. ^ a b "Lufthansa SCORE Expert Session". Lufthansa Group. Retrieved October 4, 2013. 
  61. ^ Fleet Development Lufthansa Group
  62. ^ a b Boeing Launches 777X with Record Breaking Orders and Commitments
  63. ^ "Airfleets: Lufthansa". Airfleets.net. Retrieved August 3, 2010. 
  64. ^ http://rzjets.net/aircraft/?parentid=427&typeid=59&frstatus=3
  65. ^ Michaels, Daniel (16 June 2008). "http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121357457537975947.html?mod=hps_us_inside_today". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  66. ^ Michaels, Daniel (16 June 2008). "Engineering Veteran Plays a Vital Role In Plane's Rebirth". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  67. ^ "Lufthansa First Class". a380.lufthansa.com. Retrieved November 24, 2010. 
  68. ^ Richard Weiss (2013-02-21). "Lufthansa to Shrink First-Class Fleet Below British Airways". bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2013-08-18. 
  69. ^ "Lufthansa To Reduce First Class Capacity". LufthansaFlyer (Blog). 2013-02-22. Retrieved 2013-08-18. [unreliable source?]
  70. ^ a b "Lufthansa unveils new fully-flat business class seat". Business Traveler. 08/03/2012. Retrieved May 20, 2012. 
  71. ^ http://www.lufthansagroup.com/en/press/news-releases/singleview/archive/2014/march/05/article/2828.html
  72. ^ a b "Miles & More status levels". Miles-and-more.com. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  73. ^ Airports with Lufthansa / SWISS / Austrian Lounges Lufthansa
  74. ^ Lounge types and access Lufthansa.
  75. ^ Lufthansa 1959 crash at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  76. ^ Lufthansa 1961 accidents at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (December 4, 1961). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  77. ^ Lufthansa Flight 5 at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (January 28, 1966). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  78. ^ http://www.planespotters.net/Airline/Lufthansa?show=historic#AirlineFleetList
  79. ^ Flight 540 at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  80. ^ Flight 527 at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  81. ^ Universität Bielefeld (German)
  82. ^ Flight 2904 at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (September 14, 1993). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  83. ^ 1973 incident at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (December 20, 1973). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  84. ^ February 1972 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  85. ^ "On This Day—23 February1972: Hijackers surrender and free Lufthansa crew". BBC. Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  86. ^ July 1972 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (July 10, 1972). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  87. ^ October 1972 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (October 11, 1972). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  88. ^ 29 October 1972 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  89. ^ Peter Chalk (2012). Encyclopedia of Terrorism. ABC-CLIO. Retrieved February 28, 2013. 
  90. ^ Sattar, Majid (9 November 2006). "Folgen eines Anschlags" (in German). Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved 26 July 2013. 
  91. ^ 1973 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  92. ^ Arab Hijackers Land in Kuwait; Hostages Freed," The New York Times, December 19, 1973. Page 1.
  93. ^ June 1977 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (June 28, 1977). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  94. ^ Flight 181 at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  95. ^ 1979 hijacking attempt at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (September 12, 1979). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  96. ^ February 1985 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (February 27, 1985). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  97. ^ March 1985 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (March 27, 1985). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  98. ^ March 1985 hijacking attempt at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (March 29, 1985). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  99. ^ Flight 595 at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.

External links[edit]

Media related to Lufthansa at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates: 50°56′15″N 006°58′11″E / 50.93750°N 6.96972°E / 50.93750; 6.96972