Luftwaffe radio equipment (Funkgerät) of World War II

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During World War II, the German Luftwaffe relied on an increasingly diverse array of communications, IFF and RDF equipment for use in their aircraft and on the ground. Most of this equipment received the generic prefix FuG for Funkgerät, meaning "radio equipment". Most of the aircraft-mounted Radar equipment also used the FuG prefix. This article is a list and a description of the radio, IFF and RDF equipment.

Airborne communications[edit]

FuG I: An early receiver/transmitter set manufactured by Lorenz. It operated in the 600 to 1667 kHz range (generally the entire American AM radio broadcast band) at a power of 20 to 100 watts, depending on installation.

FuG II: An update of the FuG 1, also manufactured by Lorenz, that operated in the 310 to 600 kHz frequency range.

FuG 03: Codenamed Stuttgart, was an airborne receiver/transmitter set used in bombers. Was fitted in: Do 11, Do 17 E and F, Fw 58, He 114, Ju 52, Ar 66, Ar 96, Junkers W 33 and W 34. Set consists of: S 3a Transmitter; E 2a Receiver. Power source: G 3 Air-driven generator and 2 - 90 volt dry cells. The FuG 03 operated in the 1.250 to 1.400 MHz frequencies.

FuG 7: A compact airborne receiver/transmitter used in fighters and dive bombers. Prior to 1943, it was fitted in the Bf 109C to G-2, and Fw 190 A-0 to A-3. After 1943, it was still fitted in the Ju 87 and Hs 129. The FuG 7 typically operated in the 2.5 to 7.5 MHz, with a power of approximately 7 watts. The range of the FuG 7 was approximately 50 km in good weather. Later versions of the FuG 7 included the FuG 7a, which included the S 6a Transmitter, E 5a Receiver and Junction Box VK 5 A.

FuG 10

FuG 10 series: A family of transceivers for both R/T and W/T communications. The German FUG-10 panel, or rack, contained two transmitters and two receivers: One transmitter and its companion receiver operated in the MF or Longwave; 300 to 600 kHz (1,000 to 500 m) range and the other transmitter and its companion receiver operated in the HF or Shortwave range; 3 to 6 MHz (100 to 50 m). Most of the FuG 10 series used a fixed wire aerial between the fuselage and tailfin or a retractable trailing aerial wire. The FuG 10P replaced the standard E 10L longwave receiver with an EZ6 unit for a G6 direction finding set. The FuG 10ZY incorporated a fixed loop D/F aerial and a homing device for navigation to a ground station. This loop aerial, usually fitted on a small, "teardrop" shaped mounting, was standard equipment on most fighter aircraft from late 1943 on. Manufactured by Lorenz.[1][2] Typical power was 70 watts.

FuG 16 Z, ZE and ZY: These sets were airborne VHF transceivers used in single-seat fighter aircraft for R/T and W/T communications, and were also used for ground fixes and DF homing on ground stations when used in conjunction with the FuG 10P or FuG 10ZY. Installed for Bf 109G-3/G-4 and later, FW 190A-4 and later subtypes. Frequency Range was 38.5 to 42.3 MHz. The FuG 16ZY was also used for Y-Verfahren (Y-Control), in which aircraft were fitted up as Leitjäger or Fighter Formation Leaders that could be tracked and directed from the ground via special R/T equipment. Aircraft equipped with ZY were fitted with a Morane whip aerial array. Principal components: Transmitter, Receiver, Modulator in one case, S 16 Z Tx, E 16 Z Rcvr, NG 16 Z Modulator Dynamotor U 17 Antenna Matching unit AAG 16 Z Modulator Unit MZ 16 Homing Unit ZVG 16 Indicator AFN - 2

Navigation and direction finding[edit]

Peilgerät (PeilG) 6: Codenamed "Alex Sniatkowski", this was a long and medium range D/F set and homing device used mainly on bombers: Ar 234, Do 217, Ju 87, Ju 88A-4 on, Ju 188, Ju 290, Ju 388, He 177 heavy fighters, He 219, Ju 88G series are some of the aircraft types to be fitted. Frequency range was 150 to 1,200 kHz. A D/F loop made up of a series of metal strips in a "sunburst" pattern was fitted under a round, flush fitting plexiglass cover. A small "whip" aerial was also fitted to the FuG 10 radiomast. Manufactured by Telefunken.

FuG 125 Hermine: A VHF radio beacon signal receiver for single-engine, single-seat fighters; some types of Fw 190 and Bf 109s were known to have been fitted. Frequency range was 30 to 33 MHz; range using earphones was 200 km (120 mi). Weight was 10 kg (22 lbs). Manufactured in small numbers by Lorenz in 1945.

IFF[edit]

FuG 25a Erstling: This was an IFF set designed to respond to Freya, Würzburg and Gemse[3] ground control radar through the transmission of identifying pulses. The reception frequency range was 125 + or - 1.8 MHz. Transmitting frequency was 160 MHz. It could be received at up to 100 km (62 mi).

The German Air Force was known to have fitted small aluminum strips which frequently carried explosive charges onto the outside of the equipment aluminium housings. These explosives were linked then by a fuse (a slow match cord that when ignited, allowed for the evacuation of the crew) onto any sensitive apparatus, which allowed it to be destroyed rather than be captured by the Allies.

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Aders, 1979.
  2. ^ FuG 10
  3. ^ Note: Gemse was a modified version of Freya specifically designed to respond to FuG25.[1]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Aders, Gebhard. History of the German Night Fighter Force 1917-1945. London: Jane's Publishing Group Limited, 1979. ISBN 0-354-01247-9

External links[edit]