Luge

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Luge
Départ d'un lugeur.jpg
Departing German luger at the 2010 Olympics
Highest governing body Fédération Internationale de Luge de Course
First played 1870s
Characteristics
Contact No
Team members Teams of 1 or 2
Mixed gender Yes, but usually in separate competitions
Type Winter sport, Time trial
Equipment Sled, helmet, suit, visor, gloves, finger spikes, booties
Venue Luge tracks
Presence
Olympic Part of Winter Olympic program in 1964 to today

A luge /ˈlʒ/ is a small one- or two-person sled on which one sleds supine (face up) and feet-first. Steering is done by flexing the sled's runners with the calf of each leg or exerting opposite shoulder pressure to the seat. Racing sleds weigh 21–25 kilograms (46–55 lb) for singles and 25–30 kilograms (55–66 lb) for doubles.[1] Luge is also the name of an Olympic sport. Lugers can reach speeds of 140 km per hour (87 mph). Manuel Pfister of Austria, reached a top speed of 154 km per hour (95.69 mph) on the track in Whistler, Canada prior to the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics.[2] Lugers compete against a timer and are timed to a thousandth of a second, making luge one of the most precisely timed sports in the world. The first recorded use of the term "luge" is 1905, from the Savoy/Swiss dialect of French "luge" meaning "small coasting sled", and is possibly from a Gaulish word with the same root as English sled.[3]

History[edit]

Luge sled, with steel runners removed.
A young luger on the start ramp at the Utah Olympic track.

The practical use of sleds is ancient and widespread. The first recorded sled races took place in Norway sometime during the 15th century.[4] The sport of luge, like the skeleton and the bobsleigh, originated in the health-spa town of St Moritz, Switzerland, in the mid-to-late 19th century, through the endeavours of hotel entrepreneur Caspar Badrutt. Badrutt successfully sold the idea of winter resorting, as well as rooms with food, drink, and activities. His more adventurous English guests began adapting delivery boys' sleds for recreation, which led to collisions with pedestrians as they sped down the lanes and alleys of the village.

The first organized meeting of the sport took place in 1883 in Switzerland.[5] In 1913, the Internationale Schlittensportverband or International Sled Sports Federation was founded in Dresden, Germany. This body governed the sport until 1935, when it was incorporated in the Fédération Internationale de Bobsleigh et de Tobogganing (FIBT, International Bobsleigh and Tobogganing Federation). After it had been decided that luge would replace the sport of skeleton at the Olympic Games, the first World Championships in the sport were held in 1955 in Oslo (Norway). In 1957, the Fédération Internationale de Luge de Course (FIL, International Luge Federation) was founded. Luge events were first included in the Olympic Winter Games in 1964.

Americans were slow to adopt the sport of luge. The first luge run in North America was built at Lolo Hot Springs, Montana in 1965.[6][7] Although the United States competed in every Olympic luge event from 1964 through 1976, it was not until 1979 that the United States Luge Association was founded. The first artificial American track was completed in that year for use in the 1980 XIII Winter Olympic Games at Lake Placid, New York.[4] Since that time the United States luge program has greatly improved. A second artificial track was constructed near Park City, Utah for the 2002 XIX Olympic Winter Games at Salt Lake City.

Artificial tracks[edit]

German luger Thomas Köhler in 1964
Matt Mortensen (top) and Preston Griffall (bottom) are clocked at 80 miles per hour on a run at Sanki Sliding Centre in Krasnaya Polyana, Russia.
Curves 11 and 12 on the Utah Olympic track near Park City, Utah.
For more details on this topic, see List of bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton tracks.

Artificial luge tracks have specially-designed and -constructed banked curves plus walled-in straights. Most tracks are artificially refrigerated, but artificial tracks without artificial cooling also exist (for example, in St. Moritz). Tracks tend to be very smooth.

The athletes ride in a flat, aerodynamic position on the sled, keeping their heads low to minimize air resistance. They steer the sled mainly with their calves by applying pressure on the runners—right calf to turn left, left calf to turn right. It takes a precise mix of shifting body weight, applying pressure with calves and rolling the shoulders. There are also handles for minor adjustments. A successful luger maintains complete concentration and relaxation on the sled while traveling at high speeds. Most lugers "visualize" the course in their minds before sliding.[citation needed] Fastest times result from following the perfect "line" down the track. Any slight error, such as a brush of the wall, costs time. Track conditions are also important. Softer ice tends to slow speeds, while harder ice tends to lead to faster times. Lugers race at speeds averaging 120–145 km/h (75–90 mph) around high banked curves while experiencing a centripetal acceleration of up to 5g. Men's Singles have their start locations near where the bobsled and skeleton competitors start at most tracks, while both the Doubles and Women's Singles competition have their starthouse located further down the track. Artificial track luge is the fastest and most agile sledding sport.

Natural track luge[edit]

FIL-luge logo.jpg
For more details on this topic, see List of natural luge tracks.

Natural tracks are adapted from existing mountain roads and paths. Artificially banked curves are not permitted. The track's surface must be horizontal. They are naturally iced. The use of artificial refrigeration is forbidden. Tracks can get rough from the braking and steering action. Athletes use a steering rein and drag their hands and use their legs in order to drive around the tight flat corners. Braking is often required in front of curves and is accomplished by the use of spikes built on the bottom of the shoes.

Most of the tracks are situated in Austria and Italy, with others in Germany, Poland, Russia, Slovenia, Canada, and the United States. The Upper Peninsula Luge Club[8] in Negaunee, Michigan, is home to one of only five lighted natural track luge runs in the world, and the only natural track in the United States. The half-mile (0.8 km) track features 29 curves along its 88-meter (289 ft) vertical drop. The hill hosts international luge events and offers luge instruction to the public during the winter months. World championships have been held since 1979 while European championships have been held since 1970.

Risks[edit]

As with many extreme sports, luging has risks. Though most injuries involve bumps, bruises, broken bones and concussions, fatalities do occasionally occur. Georgian luger Nodar Kumaritashvili suffered a fatal crash during his final practice run for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Whistler, British Columbia, Canada.[9] Hours later, the International Luge Federation concluded that the accident was caused by a steering error and not a track error; nevertheless, changes to the track were made before the re-opening.[10] Kumaritashvili was the fourth athlete to die while in preparation for a Winter Olympics competition, following speed skier Nicolas Bochatay, 27, who died while preparing for the Albertville 1992 games, British luger Kazimierz Kay-Skrzypeski and skier Ross Milne, 19, who both died in the run-up to the Innsbruck 1964 games.

Training[edit]

The sport of luge requires an athlete to balance mental and physical fitness. To become an elite luger, a competitor must begin training at an early age and spend decades honing their skills. Physically, a luger must have strong neck, upper body, abdominal, and thigh muscles. Strength training is essential to withstand the extreme G-forces of tight turns at high speeds. Since lugers have very little protection other than a visor and helmet, they must be able to endure the physical pounding administered by the track when mistakes are made. Mentally a luger must maintain total focus as they steer their sled through more than a kilometer of curves and straights at high speed. Dozens of subtle movements and weight shifts are required to find the perfect line down the track. Consistency is essential for success. Sled maintenance is also an important element for success. Serious lugers spend hours meticulously sanding their "steels," and making other important adjustments and repairs to their sleds. No luger can possibly achieve elite status without working closely with an experienced coaching staff, implementing suggestions and fine tuning technique. Other lugers will often give tips that can improve a slider's ability to find the "sweet spot" on the track. Though luge is a winter sport, it requires daily, year-round training.

Events[edit]

There are four luge disciplines.

  • Men's singles
  • Doubles (mixed event)
  • Women's singles
  • Team Relay (Olympic discipline starting in 2014)

These are further broken into several age classes which include novice (ages 7–10), youth (ages 11–14), junior (ages 15–20), and general (ages 21 and older).[11] Older competitors may enjoy the sport in masters (age 30–50), and senior masters (age 51+) classes.[12] In a team relay competition one man, one woman and a doubles pair form a team. A touchpad at the bottom of the run is touched by a competitor signaling a teammate at the top of the run to start.

Rules and procedures for races are very precise. Prior to a race the athlete must be weighed. This is to determine if the athlete is entitled to carry extra weight on their body while sliding. Men may use additional weight amounting to 75% of the difference between body weight and a base weight of 90 kg. Women may use additional weight amounting to 50% of the difference between body weight and a base weight of 70 kg. Doubles athletes may use additional weight amounting to 50% of the difference between body weight and a base weight of 90 kg. Additional weight is not allowed if the body weight of the front person and back person together exceeds 180 kg. If one of the partners weighs more than 90 kg, the weight exceeding the 90 kg mark is added to the lighter partner. If there should still be a difference between the partner’s weight and the 90 kg mark, the difference can be compensated according to an official weight table.[13] A drawing is held to determine start order for the race. Athletes are assigned a number which is displayed on a bib. During major national and international events, Men's singles consists of four runs. Women's singles and doubles competitions consist of two runs. The cumulative time of all runs is used to determine finish order. In all three events, the start order after the first run is determined by the outcome of the previous run, with the last-place slider sliding first, the next-to-last place slider sliding second, and so forth, with the leader of the previous run sliding last. Between runs athletes are randomly selected for additional weight checks. Before each run the athlete and his or her sled are weighed at the start ramp. The temperature of the sled's steel blades is checked and may not be more than 5 °C above that of a previously established control temperature. Once an athlete is on their sled they are audibly notified that the track is clear. At this point a tone sounds and the athlete has thirty seconds to begin their run. A run becomes official when an athlete and their sled, in contact with one another, crosses the finish line. If an athlete and sled are not within contact of one another the athlete is disqualified from further competition. Disqualifications may also take place for any violation of rules and regulations. Certain disqualifications may be appealed.[13]

Governing body[edit]

The sport of luge is governed by the FIL, Fédération International de Luge de Course. The FIL is located in Berchtesgaden, Germany and includes 53 member nations.[14] It is traditionally dominated by German representatives, however.

The following persons have been president of the FIL:

Olympic Medal table[edit]

A man with a goatee wears a red-white-and-yellow tight jumpsuit, with a red-and-white vest over it, and a red helmet with a raised full-faced visor. He shows a concentrated look. Partially hidden behind him is another man, wearing a black tracksuit jacket and winter cap.
Georg Hackl of Germany is the most successful Olympic luger, having won five medals, of which three are gold medals attained in three consecutive Olympics.
A man with a soul patch wears a red-and-white tight jumpsuit, with a red-and-white vest over it, and a metallic silver helmet with a raised full-faced visor. He is sat on the ground with his arms resting upon his legs.
Armin Zöggeler is the first Italian athlete to have won one medal in six consecutive Olympics and the second luger to do so, after Hackl.
Three smiling men stand side-by-side in front of a crowd of photographers. Each holds up a flower bouquet with their right arm, and wears the same tight black-and-white jumpsuit with some yellow and red stripes. The man on the left wears a white cap, while the one in the middle wears a red headband.
German lugers Felix Loch (center) and David Möller (left) occupied the first and second places, respectively, of the men's singles at the 2010 Winter Olympics.
Spectators at the Whistler Sliding Centre watching lugers pass the point on the track where Kumaritashvili crashed and died.
For more details on this topic, see List of Olympic medalists in luge.

Men's singles[edit]

Current Olympic champion: 1  Germany (GER)  Russia (RUS)  Italy (ITA)

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Germany 10 7 6 23
2 Italy 3 2 3 8
3 Austria 1 2 6 5
4 Russia 0 3 2 5
5 Latvia 0 0 1 1
Total 14 14 14 42

Doubles[edit]

Current Olympic champion: 1  Germany (GER)  Austria (AUT)  Latvia (LAT)

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Germany 10 4 6 20
2 Austria 3 3 2 8
3 Italy 2 2 3 7
4 United States 0 2 2 4
5 Latvia 0 1 1 2
6 Russia 0 1 0 1
Total 15 13 14 42

Women's singles[edit]

Current Olympic champion: 1  Germany (GER)  Germany (GER)  United States (USA)

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Germany 10 12 9 31
2 Italy 2 0 0 2
3 Austria 1 2 3 6
4 Russia 1 0 1 2
5 United States 0 0 1 1
Total 14 14 14 42

Team relay[edit]

Current Olympic champion: 1  Germany (GER)  Russia (RUS)  Latvia (LAT)

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Germany 1 0 0 1
2 Russia 0 1 0 1
3 Latvia 0 0 1 1
Total 1 1 1 3

Total Olympic Ranking (2014)[edit]

 Rank  Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Germany[15] 31 23 21 75
2 Italy 7 4 6 17
3 Austria 5 7 7 19
4 Russia[16] 1 5 3 9
5 United States 0 2 3 5
6 Latvia 0 1 3 4
Total 44 42 43 129

Fatal accidents[edit]

Competitor Year Track Section Race Event Vehicle
United Kingdom Kazimierz Kay-Skrzypeski 1964 Austria Igls Training run 1964 Winter Olympics Luge
Poland Stanisław Paczka 1969 Germany Königssee Luge
Georgia (country) Nodar Kumaritashvili 2010 Canada Whistler Training run 2010 Winter Olympics Luge

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Rules & Policies". usaluge.org. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  2. ^ "Whistler's fast luge track poised risky". News.xinhuanet.com. 2010-02-13. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  3. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  4. ^ a b "United States Luge Association". Usaluge.org. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  5. ^ "International Luge Federation". Fil-luge.org. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  6. ^ Delta Sky Mag: 124. January 2011. 
  7. ^ Briggeman, Kim (2014-02-06). "Lolo Hot Springs was home to first, 'pretty crude' American luge run". Missoulian. Retrieved 2014-02-07. 
  8. ^ "The Upper Peninsula Luge Club". Negauneeluge.freehomepage.com. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  9. ^ Footage of the accident
  10. ^ "Joint VANOC/FIL statement". Vancouver2010.com. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  11. ^ United States Luge Association[dead link]
  12. ^ "usaluge.org". usaluge.org. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  13. ^ a b "Rules & Policies". usaluge.org. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  14. ^ "Member Countries – International Luge Federation". Fil-luge.org. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  15. ^ including East Germany and West Germany
  16. ^ including Soviet Union

External links[edit]