Lugoj

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Lugoj
Municipality
Baroque Orthodox Cathedral
Baroque Orthodox Cathedral
Coat of arms of Lugoj
Coat of arms
Location of Lugoj
Location of Lugoj
Coordinates: 45°41′10″N 21°54′2″E / 45.68611°N 21.90056°E / 45.68611; 21.90056Coordinates: 45°41′10″N 21°54′2″E / 45.68611°N 21.90056°E / 45.68611; 21.90056
Country  Romania
County Actual Timis county CoA.svg Timiș
Status Municipality
Government
 • Mayor Francisc Boldea (PSD)
Area
 • Total 88.05 km2 (34.00 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 37,700
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Website http://www.primarialugoj.ro/
View from a bridge in Lugoj

Lugoj (Romanian pronunciation: [luˈɡoʒ]) is a city in Timiş County, Banat, western Romania. The Timiş River divides the city into two halves, the so-called Romanian Lugoj that spreads on the right bank and the German Lugoj on the left bank. It is the seat of the Eparchy of Lugoj in the Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic. The city administers two villages, Măguri and Tapia.

Name[edit]

In German: Lugosch; in Serbian: Lugoš (Лугош); in Hungarian: Lugos; in Turkish: Logoş.

History[edit]

Queen Mary Market (Piața Regina Maria) area in 1804

Lugoj was once a strongly fortified city that developed along the Timis River. During the Middle Ages and eighteenth century, it was of greater relative importance than at present.

A diploma dated Wedenesday 22 August 1376, signed by King Sigismund of Luxemburg, shows that Lugoj city was donated to landowners Ladislaus and Stephen Loszonczy. At the end of the 14th century, after the Battle of Nicopolis (1396), the Turks crossed the Danube, invading Bana,t and reached the gates of Lugoj. During major campaigns against the Turks, Hunyadi, as a comite of Timis (1440), took steps to organize the city's defense system. He strengthened the city with trenches, ramparts and palisades.

The Banate of Lugoj-Caransebes resisted Ottoman pressures until 1658, when Acațiu Barcsai, Prince of Transylvania, asked Lugoj and Caransebes to accept the decision taken by the Diet of Sighisoara to agree to Turkish occupation.

After the defeat of the Turks during the Battle of Vienna in 1683, the Habsburgs went on the offensive and briefly occupied the cities of Lugoj and Lipova (1688). On September 25, 1695 the battle between the armies of the Habsburg Empire and the Ottoman Empire that took place near Lugoj ended with the defeat of the Austrians.

After signing the Treaty of Karlovitz (1699), Banat remained under Ottoman rule for nearly 20 years. The Treaty of Passarowitz (21 July 1718) was signed and the Turks were expelled. Austria-Hungary wanted to repopulate the Banat, which had emptied following the years of occupation and earlier bubonic plague. The government recruited Germans from Bavaria, Swabia and Alsace-Lorraine, particularly farmers to revive agriculture in the rich floodplain. They traveled down the Danube River on boats to this area. They later took the rafts apart to use to build their first houses. In this area, the first German colonists settled on the left bank of the river Timis (circa 1720), creating what was called "German Lugoj". The government had offered them the privileges of keeping their German language and religion; most were Roman Catholic.

In the 18th century, many public buildings were built in the city, including the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church "Assumption". In 1778, following the incorporation of Banat into Hungary, Lugoj became the county seat of Caras. In 1795 the government unified the Romanian Lugoj and the German Lugoj.

Eftimie Murgu settled in Lugoj in 1841. In June 1848 he chaired the second National Assembly of Romanians of Banat, where they expressed in postulates the National Order of Romanians during the Revolutionary Movement from Banat, whose center was Lugoj.

In the summer of 1842 a great fire took place, in which about 400 houses and important buildings were destroyed.

In August 1849 Lugoj was the last seat of the Hungarian revolutionary government. It served as the last refuge of Lajos Kossuth and several other leaders of the Revolution prior to their escape to the Ottoman Empire.

Under the imperial resolution of 12 December 1850, Lugoj became the seat of the Greek-Catholic Diocese of Banat (also called Greek Orthodox). Lugoj was county seat of Caras-Severin from 1881 until 1925. Following the break-up of Austria-Hungary during World War I, Romania became independent. Caras Severin County was organized and named, and its seat was held in Lugoj until the end of World War II.

The Iron Bridge, a symbol of Lugoj, was built in 1902. On November 3, 1918 the Great National Assembly took place in Lugoj. The right of self-determination of the Romanian nation was proclaimed after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in WWI.

In modern times, the city was the home town of famous Dracula actor Bela Lugosi. Lugosi's family name was Blaskó; the stagename Lugosi is the adjective form of Lugos, the town's Hungarian name.

Population and demographics[edit]

Historical population of Lugoj[1]
Year Population Romanians Hungarians Germans
1880 12,389 46.8% 11.6% 36.9%
1890 13,548 46% 13.8% 38.3%
1900 17,486 37.9% 22.7% 35.9%
1910 20,962 34.9% 32.9% 29.5%
1920 21,172 41.2% 20.1% 28.3%
1930 24,694 43.3% 21.9% 24.9%
1941 27,871 51.6% 17% 21.7%
1956 31,364 63.4% 17.8% 13.6%
1966 36,728 68% 16.3% 12.4%
1977 44,537 72.6% 13.8% 10.7%
1992 50,939 79.8% 10.7% 5.2%
2002 44,636 83% 9.6% 3%
Detailed Demographics - 2011
Ethnic group Number Percentage
Romanians 32,036 85.83%
Hungarians 2,727 7.3%
Germans 744 1.99%
Roma 905 2.42%
Ukrainians 508 1.36%
Other 398 0.6%
Total 37,321 100%

Senior High and Post-secondary Education[edit]

Lugos cancellation in 1889, Kingdom of Hungary

Natives[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Lugoj is twinned with:

References[edit]

External links[edit]