|Nickname(s): Eastern gate of Ukraine, dawn of Ukraine, Luhanshchyna, Luhan'|
|Established||June 3, 1938|
|• Governor||Valeriy Holenko (Party of Regions)|
|• Oblast council||? seats|
|• Chairperson||Vladimir Prystyuk (Party of Regions)|
|• Total||26,684 km2 (10,303 sq mi)|
|Population (September 1, 2013)|
|• Rank||Ranked 7th|
|• Official language(s)||Ukrainian, Russian|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|ISO 3166 code||UA-09|
|Cities of oblast subordinance||14|
Luhansk Oblast (Ukrainian: Луганська область, translit. Luhans’ka oblast’, Russian: Луганская область, translit. Luganskaya oblast; also referred to as Luhanshchyna – Ukrainian: Луганщина or locally as Luhan' [Лугань]) is the easternmost oblast (province) of Ukraine. Its administrative center is Luhansk. The oblast was established in 1938 and bore the name Voroshilovgrad Oblast (until 1958 and again 1970 to 1990) in honor of Kliment Voroshilov.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Administrative subdivisions
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Transport
- 7 Education
- 8 Points of interest
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The Luhansk Oblast is located in eastern Ukraine. The area of the oblast (26,700 km²), comprises about 4.42% of the total area of the country.
Its longitude from north to south is 250 km, from east to west – 190 km. The oblast has the longest segment of the Ukrainian international border with Russia among other regions (see State Border of Ukraine) consisting of 746 km (464 mi). It borders the Belgorod and Voronezh Oblast's of Russia on the north, while the Rostov Oblast is located to the east and the south. Among Ukrainian regions, the oblast borders the Kharkiv and Donetsk Oblast's to its west.
The region is located in the valley of Siversky Donets which splits the region approximately in half. The southern portion of the region is elevated by the Donetsk Ridge which is located closer to the southern border. The highest point is Mohyla Mechetna (367 m (1,204 ft)) which is the highest point of Donetsk Ridge.
The left bank of Siversky Donets is part of the Starobilsk Plain which to the north transforms into the Central Russian Upland.
The oblast was created in 1938 as Voroshylovhrad (Voroshilovgrad) Obalst after the Donetsk Oblast was split between Voroshylovhrad and Staline (today Donetsk Oblast) oblasts. After the invasion of Nazi Germany, the region was under a German military administration, due to its proximity to frontlines.
During the Soviet times the oblast carried its current name between 1958 and 1970.
Following the Euromaidan events, and as a protest against cancelling the Legislation on languages in Ukraine, the Oblast council of Luhansk Oblast voted to demand giving Russian language the status of second official language, stopping ″persecution of Berkut fighters″, disarming Maidan self-defense units and banning a number far-right political organizations like Svoboda and UNA-UNSO. For the case the authorities failed to comply with the demands, the Oblast council reserved itself the ″right to ask for help from the brotherly people of the Russian Federation.″
As the rest of regions in Ukraine, Luhansk Oblast has double jurisdiction. The region is predominantly administrated by the Luhansk Region State Administration headed by the governor of the oblast and appointed by the President of Ukraine. The region also has a representative body, the regional council, which is headed by its chairman and elected by popular vote.
The region is primarily divided into:
- 18 raions (districts)
- 14 cities (cities of regional significance), including the regional administrative center Luhansk
The region's secondary division consists of various municipalities that are governed by their councils. Those municipalities may consist of one or more populated places. The city of Luhansk is subdivided into its own four city-districts (boroughs).
The population is largely Russian-speaking although ethnic Ukrainians constitute a majority (58%). Among the minorities are native Russians (39%), Belarusians (0.8%), and others (1.4%). Ukrainians constitute the majority in all raions except for Stanytsia-Luhanska Raion and Krasnodon Raion, both of which are east of Luhansk. Ethnic Russians also constitute the majority in regionally significant cities, such as Krasnodon, Sverdlovsk, Krasnyi Luch and Stakhanov.
According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census more than 68.8% of the population consider themselves Russian speakers, while Ukrainian speakers were only 30%. The Russophone population predominates in the southern portion of the region and around the city of Luhansk, while the northern region is less populated, mostly agricultural and Ukrainophone.
Its population (as of 2004) of 2,461,506 million constitutes 5.13% of the overall Ukrainian population. The Luhansk Oblast rates fifth in Ukraine by the number of its inhabitants, having an average population density of 90.28/km². About 87% of the population lives in urban areas, while the remaining 13% reside in agricultural areas. According to the national census, 54% of the population are Ukrainians and 42% are Russians.
- 0-14 years: 12.3% (male 143,272/female 134,803)
- 15-64 years: 71.4% (male 768,544/female 838,639)
- 65 years and over: 16.3% (male 117,782/female 248,914) (2013 official)
- total: 42.1 years
- male: 38.2 years
- female: 45.9 years (2013 official)
Economically the region is connected with the Donets Basin.
- Lysychansk Coal
- Luhansk Coal
- Sverdlov Anthracite
- Pervomaisk Coal
- Rovenky Anthracite
- Donbas Anthracite
- Krasnyi Luch Machine building Factory
- Pervomaisk Power mechanical Factory
- Stakhonov Railcar Plant
Chemical and oil refinery
- E50 within the Luhansk Oblast uses highway M03 that starts from Debaltseve (Donetsk Oblast), passes through the city of Krasnyi Luch, and enters the Russian Federation at the border checkpoint "Dolzhansky" (settlement Dovzhanske, town of Biryukove).
- E40 within the Luhansk Oblast uses highway M03 that starts from Debaltseve (Donetsk Oblast), passes through the city of Luhansk, and enters the Russian Federation at the border checkpoint "Izvaryne" (town of Izvaryne).
- There is also another highway H21 that runs from north to south and connects Starobilsk, Luhansk, and Krasnyi Luch with Donetsk.
Rail transportation is administered by the Donetsk Railway.
There is also its regional airport Luhansk International Airport with its own carrier.
- Luhansk State Medical University
- Luhansk National Agrarian University
- Luhansk State University of Internal Affairs
Points of interest
The following sites were nominated for the Seven Wonders of Ukraine.
- The house of Dal's birth (Luhansk)
- Fighters for the Revolution monument
- Derkul horse factory
- Royal Rocks (Luhansk State Preserve)
- Chasm Steppe (Sverdlovsk Raion)
- Ram Foreheads (limestone rocks)
- Mscichowski Palace
- Oda, UA: LG, 2007.
- Umoloda, Kiev, UA.
- Oda, UA: LG, 1930.
- "Territory", 70 years, UA: LG, 2008 Mar 14  .
- "70 years", Calendar, UA: LG, 2008 Apr 11 .
- "President appoints 14 regional governors", Interfax-Ukraine, March 18, 2010.
- Владимир Николаевич ПРИСТЮК [Vladimir nikolaevich Pristyuk] (in Russian), Luhansk Oblast council.
- "State Statistics Committee of Ukraine". Retrieved September 1, 2013.
- "Облсовет Луганская угрожает разоружить Майдан руками "братской" России". Gazeta.ua. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
- Official site of Luhansk Oblast Administration (Ukrainian)
- Information Card of the Region – official site of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine
- The Official Site of the Radomysl Castle
| Russia/Voronezh Oblast
|Donetsk Oblast||Russia/Rostov Oblast|| Russia