Luis A. Eguiguren

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Luis A. Eguiguren Escudero
Dr. Luis Antonio Eguiguren.jpg
President of the Supreme Court of Justice
In office
1953–1954
Preceded by Raúl Noriega
Succeeded by Raúl Pinto
President of the Constituent Congress
In office
28 July 1931 – 28 July 1932
Preceded by Roberto Leguía (President of the Senate)
Succeeded by Clemente Revilla
Member of the Constituent Congress
In office
28 July 1931 – 28 July 1932
Mayor of Lima
In office
1 January 1930 – 1 January 1931
City Councilman of Lima
In office
1 January 1914 – 1 January 1920
Personal details
Born (1887-07-21)July 21, 1887
Piura
Died August 15, 1967(1967-08-15) (aged 80)
Lima
Political party Social Democrat Party
Spouse(s) Rosa Barragán Rodríguez
Children Luis Jose Alejandro and Maria
Residence Lima
Religion Roman Catholic

Luis Antonio Eguiguren Escudero (* Piura, July 21, 1887 - † Lima, August 15, 1967) was an educator, magistrate, historian and Peruvian politician. He was the director of the General Archive (File) of the Nation (1914), Alderman of Lima (1914-1920), Mayor of Lima (1930), President of the Constituent Congress (1930-1932), founder and leader of the Social Democratic Party. He won the Peruvian presidential election of 1936, but his victory was ignored by the Congress and the then-President Oscar R. Benavides, who claimed that he had won with votes of the APRA. He presided over the Supreme Court and the Judiciary in 1953 and 1954.

Biography[edit]

Luis A. Eguiguren was born in the historical San Francisco Street (now Lima Street), in the city of Piura. He was the son of Francisco Jose Eguiguren Escudero,[1] honest judge, congressman, Secretary of Justice and President of the Supreme Court in 1931, and the distinguished lady Josefina Escudero Menacho. Between 1893 and 1902, he studied at Colegio San Miguel de Piura School and then at Colegio La Inmaculada(The Jesuit Fathers School) in Lima (1902-1904). He got into the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, where he chose the academic degrees of Doctor of Letters (1913), in Jurisprudence with the thesis "The Peruvian ayllu legal status" (1914), and Political and Administrative Science (1914). His thesis of Bachelor of Political and Administrative Sciences was titled: "The Role of students in Political life”, and his doctoral thesis: "The need for a diplomatic tradition in Peru". His remains were transferred to his native Piura in December 2005, in order to rest in the tomb that he ordered to be built in San Teodoro Cemetery.[2] Law No. 24899,[3] promulgated on October 19, 1988, establishes that each July 21 is the Peruvian Humanist Day. It was established in honor of the magistrate, historian, journalist and Peruvian politician, Don Luis Antonio Eguiguren, on the centenary of his birth.

Career[edit]

He was appointed Director of the National Archive (File), but he resigned because he did not receive enough support to carry out the institution that was under his charge.[4]

In the field of politics, he deployed an intense task. He was the Mayor of Lima in a short period of time, during the years of 1930 and 1931. He was elected deputy and later he presided over the Constituent Assembly. He was also president of the Supreme Court of the Republic.[4]

At that time, there was a political intolerance environment. This explains, but it does not justify, the annulment of the general election of 1936, in which Luis A. Eguiguren won with the support of APRA. He developed the activity of historical research with dynamism and conviction, and perhaps it explains the abundant and interesting bibliographical production of his authorship.[4]

Besides, we must highlight their work and research for the construction of the history of his alma mater, San Marcos. Orígenes de la Universidad de San Marcos is the title of a valuable text that all “sanmarquinos” should read in order to learn more about the oldest American college.[4]

Other of the books he also published were Catálogo histórico del claustro de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos 1576-1800, la Universidad de San Marcos: IV centenario de la fundación de la Universidad Real y Pontificia y de su vigorosa continuidad histórica, y Diccionario cronológico de la Real y Pontificia Universidad de San Marcos y sus Colegios.

He is the most prolific San Marcos historian, because he has written six thousand pages of documents and texts about his university. He chaired the Committee appointed to draft the official history of San Marcos, on the occasion of its four hundred year anniversary in 1951.[4] Luis A. Eguiguren was interested also on events and characters of Peru’s Independence. Therefore, he published studies about La rebelión de León de Huánuco, Lima y Huamanga 1812, La revolución de 1814, El mártir pescador José Silverio Olaya, La sublevación de Túpac Amaru, among others.

He made an important contribution to the text Apuntes sobre la cuestión internacional entre Perú y Ecuador, in which he demonstrated that some Peru's northern territories, like Jaen and Maynas, undoubtedly belong to his country.

Luis A. Eguiguren is the only Peruvian who leaded the three branches of government, the Constituent Congress, the Supreme Court and the failed Presidency.

Political Offices[edit]

• Secretario del Ministerio de Hacienda (1910-1911).
• Director del Archivo Nacional (1914). Director of the Peruvian National Archives
• Embajador Ad-Honorem en el Vaticano (1924). Ad-honorem Ambassador to the Vatican of Peru
• Alcalde de Lima (1930-1931) Mayor of Lima
• Presidente del Congreso Constituyente (1931). President of the Constituent Congress
• Presidente electo del Perú (1936). Elected President of Peru
• Vocal de la Corte Suprema de Justicia (1946). Member of the Supreme Court
• Presidente de la Corte Suprema de Justicia (1952-1953). President of the Supreme Court
• Fundador del Diario y editorial "Ahora" (1934). Founder of the newspaper and editorial “Now (Ahora)”

Honours[edit]

• Gran Cruz de la Orden del Sol del Perú.
• Orden de San Gregorio Magno. Holy See.
• Orden del Libertador . Venezuela

He was named Doctor Honoris Causa of the following universities:

• Columbia University. New York (1953)
• Georgetown University. Washington (1953)
• Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Santiago (1932)

Publications[edit]

1908 Los símbolos de la patria
1909 Recordando a Manuel Candamo
1910 El fundador de la Universidad de San Marcos
1909 El Pensamiento de San Martín
1911 Origen de la Universidad de San Marcos
1912 Catálogo histórico del claustro de la Universidad de San Marcos
1912 Con la juventud de América
1912 La Rebelión de León de Huánuco
1913 Ensayo sobre el sistema penal incaico
1913 Tentativa de segunda rebelión de Huánuco, octubre de 1812-enero de 1813
1913 Reflexiones en torno del edicto de Milán
1914 El ayllu peruano y su condición legal
1914 La tradición diplomática en el Perú
1914 La rebelión del Cuzco de 1814
1915 Intervención de los estudiantes de la Universidades en la vida política
1915 La Holgazanería en el Perú
1921 Historia de la Universidad de San Marcos hasta el 15 de julio de 1647 por el Padre Maestro Fray Antonio de la Calancha
1933 En la Selva política
1935 La sedición de Huamanga en 1812: Ayacucho y la Independencia
1936 La vitalidad de la Democracia en el Perú
1939 El Usurpador
1939 Alma Mater. Orígenes de la Universidad de San Marcos 1551 - 1579
1940–50 Diccionario cronológico de la Real Universidad de San Marcos y sus colegios en tres tomos
1941–43 Apuntes sobre la cuestión internacional entre el Perú y Ecuador: Maynas
1942 El estudiante de medicina Daniel Carrión: proceso judicial sobre su gloriosa muerte
1943 Invencible Jaén (English)
1944 Santa Rosa de Lima
1944 La Creación de la Democracia de Post Guerra
1944 La restauración del derecho
1945 La sublevación de Túpac Amaru
1945 El mártir pescador José Silverio Olaya y los pupilos del Real Felipe
1945 La inconstitucionalidad de las leyes: Artículo XXII del título preliminar del Código Civil
1945 Carta de las Naciones Unidas y Estatutos de la Corte Internacional de la Haya
1945 La Democracia y la mutilación de la Constitución
1945 Leyendas y curiosidades de la historia nacional
1945 Fondo Monetario Internacional y Banco Internacional para la Reconstrucción
1945 Documentos de Dumbarton Oaks sobre Organización Internacional
1945 Organización Propósitos y Progreso de la UNRRA
1946 Sociología Sexual
1945–47 Las calles de Lima
1948 El abuso del Derecho
1949 El Archivo Nacional del Perú. Breve inventario de expedientes
1949 El paseo triunfal y el vejamen del graduando
1950 Toribio Rodríguez de Mendoza
1950 Toward the country of democracy: Hacia el país de la democracia (English-Spanish)
1950 Universidad de San Marcos: IV centenario de la fundación de la Universidad Real y Pontificia y de su vigorosa continuidad histórica
1950 La Universidad en el s. XVI
1950 Historia de la medicina peruana. (Editor)
1950 Lugares Teológicos por Rodríguez de Mendoza
1952 La sublevación de Túpac Amaru
1953 El proceso de Berindoaga: un capítulo de Historia del Libertador Bolívar en el Perú
1954 Sánchez Carrión: Ministro General de los negocios del Perú
1954 Las instituciones civiles en el Perú
1955 Unanue, Arequipa y la Historia creadora
1956 Huellas de la Compañía de Jesús en el Perú
1956 Dr. Fernando Máximo López Aldana, prócer de la independencia del Perú, vocal de la Corte Suprema de Justicia de la República
1957 Guerra separatista: la tentativa de rebelión que concibió el Doctor José Mateo Silva en Lima
1959 Apellidos y fisonomía moral de Pumacahua
1958 Carta de las Naciones Unidas y Estatutos de la Corte Internacional de Justicia
1959-67 Hojas para la Historia de la Emancipación del Perú Tomos I-III
1964 El Derecho del Perú Virreinal: Crisis del derecho y justicia
1966 Lima inexpugnable: Un libro desconocido del polígrafo don Pedro Peralta y Barnuevo
1967 El recurso de Habeas Corpus
1967 Trozos de vida

References[edit]

  1. ^ LEÓN ZALDÍVAR, Rómulo: Las familias patricias. El Dr. Francisco José Eguiguren Escudero in High Life año II nº 7, Piura marzo 1967
  2. ^ http://www.abogadoperu.com/peruano-fecha-20051202-pagina-79.php
  3. ^ http://www.congreso.gob.pe/ntley/LeyNume_1p.asp
  4. ^ a b c d e UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS (Lima-Perú) Personajes distinguidos http://www.unmsm.edu.pe/sanmarcos/biografia/eguigurenl.htm
Preceded by
Luis Albizuri
Mayor of Lima
1930–1931
Succeeded by
José Manuel García Bedoya