Luisa Isabel Álvarez de Toledo, 21st Duchess of Medina Sidonia
|Luisa Isabel Álvarez de Toledo|
|Duchess of Medina Sidonia|
|Spouse||Leoncio González de Gregorio
(m. 1955, div. 2007)
Liliana Maria Dahlmann
|Issue||Leoncio, 22nd Duke of Medina Sidonia
Pilar, 13th Duchess of Fernandina
Gabriel González de Gregorio
|Luisa Isabel María del Carmen Cristina Rosalía Joaquina|
|House||House of Medina Sidonia
House of Toledo
|Father||Joaquín Álvarez de Toledo, 20th Duke of Medina Sidonia|
|Mother||María del Carmen Maura y Herrera|
August 21, 1936|
Villa Guzmán el Bueno, Estoril, Portugal
|Died||March 7, 2008
Medina Sidonia Palace, Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Spain
Luisa Isabel Alvarez de Toledo y Maura, 21st Duchess of Medina Sidonia, Grandee of Spain (Luisa Isabel María del Carmen Cristina Rosalía Joaquina; 21 August 1936 – 7 March 2008) was the holder of the ducal title Medina-Sidonia in Spain. She was nicknamed La Duquesa Roja or The Red Duchess.
She was the 21st Duchess of the ducal family of Medina-Sidonia, one of the most prestigious noble families and Grandees of Spain. She was also the 15th Duchess of Fernandina and Princess of Montalbán, 17th Marchioness of Villafranca del Bierzo, 18th Marchioness of los Vélez, 25th Countess of Niebla, and three times a Grandee of Spain.
Life and family
Luisa Isabel was born in Estoril, Portugal, the only child of Joaquín Alvarez de Toledo y Caro, the 20th Duke of Medina Sidonia, and of María del Carmen Maura y Herrera, daughter of Gabriel Maura y Gamazo, the 1st Duke of Maura, and wife Cuban Julia de Herrera y Herrera, 5th Countess of la Mortera. Her grandfather was Antonio Maura, who had been Prime Minister of Spain. Her third cousin is actress Carmen Maura.
On 16 July 1955, in Mortera, Cantabria, she married José Leoncio González de Gregorio y Martí, son of Leoncio González de Gregorio y Arribas, Martínez de Azagra y Turull, and wife Leticia Martí y Rodríguez de Castro, with whom she had three children.
Her first son, Leoncio Alonso González de Gregorio y Alvarez de Toledo, was born on 3 January 1956, and was the hereditary Count of Niebla until the death of his mother. He married María Montserrat Viñamata y Marotell (born 15 January 1962, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain), the daughter of the 23rd Countess of Alba de Liste, on 12 December 1983, and has two children. He married Pamela García Damián (born 14 November 1956, Caracas, Venezuela), on 12 July 2001. He now is the 22nd Duke of Medina Sidonia.
Her daughter, María del Pilar Leticia González de Gregorio y Alvarez de Toledo, was born on 10 January 1957 and is the 13th Duchess of Fernandina. Her first marriage was to Rafael Márquez y Osorio (born 4 January 1949, Madrid, Spain), 7th Count of the Torres de Alcorin, on 16 September 1977, and has a child with him. Her second marriage is to Tomás de Terry y Merello (born 30 August 1936, Puerto de Santa María, Cádiz, España) on 25 June 1990. She has another child by this marriage.
The third child of Luisa Isabel is Gabriel Ernesto González de Gregorio y Alvarez de Toledo, born in 1958.
Hours before her death, 7 March 2008, Luisa Isabel married Liliana Maria Dahlmann in a civil ceremony on her deathbed. Today, the Dowager Duchess Liliana Maria, her legal widow, serves as life-president of the Fundación Casa Medina Sidonia.
Luisa Isabel Alvarez de Toledo was the head of the House of Medina Sidonia, the most important ducal house of Spain, with its status as a hereditary title having been granted in 1445. The principal residence of the dukes was the Palace of Medina Sidonia, located in Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Cádiz. This Palace houses the Archivo de la Casa de Medina Sidonia, one of the most important private archives in Europe.
An atypical and controversial aristocrat, she was a historian, the guardian of the ducal archives and the author of numerous works. At the age of 18, she was presented to society in Estoril, Portugal, along with the Infanta Pilar de Borbón. Yet, despite her noble heritage and upbringing, she held strong socialist ideals throughout her life. She is said to have been a member of the then illegal Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE).
Her anti-Francoist activities brought about her incarceration in the prison of Alcalá de Henares during the 1960s. It was from this time that she became popularly known as the "Red Duchess." She established and, until her death, was an active president of the Fundación Casa Medina Sidonia that manages the Archivo de la Casa de Medina Sidonia, the major part of the patrimony of the House of Medina Sidonia, and she continued her work as an historian and author.
During her extensive research in the archives she discovered documents which convinced her that America might have been discovered a long time before Columbus by Arab-andalusian or Moroccan sailors trading with ports in Brazil, Guayana and Venezuela and she published her views in No fuimos nosotros (It wasn't us) and África versus América.
|Ancestors of Luisa Isabel Álvarez de Toledo, 21st Duchess of Medina Sidonia|
Luisa Isabel's patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son. Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in Ducal Houses, as it can be traced back through the generations - which means that Luisa Isabel’s historically accurate House name would be Carrión.
- Noble titles recognized by the Spanish Ministry of Justice:
- Duchess of Medina-Sidonia, Grandee of Spain (1957)
- Duchess of Fernandina
- Marchioness of Villafranca del Bierzo, Grandee of Spain (1957).
- Marchioness of Los Vélez, Grandee of Spain (1951).
- Titles recognized by the Assembly of Noble Italians
- Princess of Montalbano (1957).
- Princess of Paternò (1957).
- Countess of Sclafani (1957).
- Countess of Adernò (1957).
- Countess of Caltabellotta (1957).
- Countess of Caltaxineta (1957).
- Countess of Caltabuturo (1959).
- Countess of Collesano (1962)
- Marchioness of Calatafimi (1959).
- Baroness of Molins del Rey (1959).
- Baroness of Centorvi (1959).
- Baroness of Biancavila (1959).
- Keeley, Graham. "Red Duchess wed lesbian lover to snub children", "The Daily Telegraph", 2008-03-16. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
- (Spanish) Algorri, Luis (2008-03-28). "Liliana, el poder de la nueva duquesa". Tiempo. Retrieved 2009-12-12.
- From Tiempo: Spanish: Le pese a quien le pese, Liliana Dahlmann es la duquesa viuda de Medina Sidonia, English: Liliana Dahlmann is the Dowager Duchess of Medina Sidona no matter who likes it.
- "Liliana, el poder de la nueva duquesa"
- http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2008/03/07/obituarios/1204927631.html Obituary in El Mundo (In Spanish)
- However, according to her biography on the foundation's web site, she was never a member of any party
- "Adiós a la 'Duquesa Roja'". El País. 2008-03-07. Retrieved 2008-03-08.
- website of the Fundación Casa Medina Sidonia (Spanish/English)
- Público (Spain): La 'Duquesa Roja' dies at the age of 72 (Spanish)
- Daily Telegraph obituary
- The Independent: The Duchess of Medina Sidonia: Aristocrat whose radicalism earned her the title 'Red Duchess'
- Guardian obituary
- Duchess of Medina Sidonia (includes photograph)
- La Señora de Sanlucar (2003) on YouTube 3 Videos
Joaquín Álvarez de Toledo
|Duchess of Medina-Sidonia
Leoncio González de Gregorio