||It has been suggested that Luke Short – Jim Courtright duel be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since May 2013.|
|Luke L. Short|
|Born||Luke L. Short
|Died||September 8, 1893 (aged c. 39)
Geuda Springs, Kansas, United States
|Cause||Edema (formerly known as dropsy)|
|Occupation||Gunfighter, farmer, cowboy, gambler, cattle rustling, Army scout, saloon-keeper|
Luke L. Short (1854-September 8, 1893) was an American Old West gunfighter, who had worked as a farmer, cowboy, whiskey peddler, army scout, dispatch rider, gambler, and saloon keeper at various times during his almost four decades life.
Early life 
Short was born in Mississippi; his family having moved to Texas when he was two years of age. As a teenager he left home after it was rumored that he had killed another youth with a pair of scissors. He became a cowboy, working herds north to the Kansas railheads. He traveled to Abilene, Kansas, in 1870, and attempted to make a living as a professional gambler.
In 1876, he arrived in Sidney, Nebraska, where he obtained employment as a whiskey peddler. During this time he sold whiskey illegally to Sioux Indians from a trading post far north of Sidney. This was a federal offense. Short later admitted to killing a half dozen inebriated Sioux natives on various occasions during this venture. Despite this, Short was hired as a scout for the United States Army cavalry and worked in that capacity from 1878 to 1879.
According to Ed Lemmon in "Boss Cowman," he was in Ogallala, Nebraska, the northern point of the Texas Trail, from 1877 to 1878. During this time, he gambled at Cowboy's Rest Saloon, sometimes in the company of Bat Masterson. James Cook, in "40 Years..." said that he had watched Short practicing drawing his gun on the banks of South Platte River. Cook claimed that he had never seen anyone faster than Short.
Notoriety as a gunfighter 
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Short then wandered through Dodge City, Kansas, where he became associated with Wyatt Earp and, again, Bat Masterson, among others. Shortly afterward he moved to Tombstone, Arizona, a boomtown full of dozens of saloons and gambling halls. He developed a habit of "dressing to the nines", which gave him the reputation of a dandy. By this time, through his experiences in various mining camps, Short had already developed a reputation as being good with a gun and a man of few words.
In June 1880, Wyatt Earp telegraphed Short, who was living in Leadville, Colorado, and offered him a job as a faro dealer. While in Tombstone, Short and professional gambler and gunfighter, Charlie Storms had a verbal altercation which was defused by Masterson, who knew both men. On February 28, 1881, outside the Oriental Saloon, Storms pulled a .45 caliber revolver on Short, but he was too slow, and Short shot him twice at point-blank range and killed him. The fight was at such close quarters that Short's muzzle flash set Storms's clothes on fire. Short was alleged to have then turned to Bat Masterson who was with him, and stated "You sure pick some of the damnedest friends, Bat." Short was arrested, but the shooting was determined to have been self-defense.
In 1883, Short settled in Dodge City, where he purchased a half interest in the now famous Long Branch Saloon, partnered with friend W. H. Harris. This put him at odds with the mayor of Dodge City and his allies, who made attempts to run Short out of town as an "undesirable." In what became known as the Dodge City War, Luke's friends rallied a formidable force of gunfighters to support him, including Masterson, Earp, Doc Holliday, and Charlie Bassett. Faced with the threat of force, Short's opponents allowed him to return without a shot being fired. Later that year he sold his interest and moved south to Fort Worth, Texas.
Short versus Courtright gunfight 
In Fort Worth, Short was involved in another of the most famous historical gunfights. Short had developed an invested interest in the White Elephant Saloon. "Longhair" Jim Courtright, a former marshal of Fort Worth, reportedly ran a protection racket in which he offered his "protection" to saloon and gambling house owners. Short told Courtright that he would protect his own place. This irritated Courtright, and many now believe that Courtright felt it was necessary for his other protection interests to make an example of Short as to what could happen if his services were declined.
On a cold night of February 8, 1887, Courtright called Short out of the White Elephant saloon. Courtright reportedly had been drinking, some words were passed, and the two men walked down the street about one block. There, facing one another, Courtright said something in reference to Short's gun, apparently to give the impression that the inevitable gunfight was "in self-defense." Short stated he was not armed, although he was. Short then indicated that Courtright could check for himself, and walking toward Courtright, he opened his vest. When he did so, Courtright said loudly "Don't you pull a gun on me.", and quickly drew his pistol.
However, Courtright's pistol hung on his watch-chain for a brief second, at which time Short pulled his pistol and fired one shot. The bullet tore off Courtright's right thumb, rendering him incapable of firing his single-action revolver. As he tried to switch the pistol to his left hand, Short fired at least four more times and killed Courtright.
The gunfight became a well known because of the notoriety of both men. Courtright was given a grand funeral with hundreds in attendance. Despite his corruption, he had lowered Fort Worth's murder rate by more than half during his time as town marshal. No blame was held toward Short however, and although he was brought to trial for the shooting, it was ruled justifiable self-defense.
Later life and death 
Short continued his life as a gambler and invested in other saloon interests, traveling to several other cattle towns over the next five years. Short died peacefully in bed in Geuda Springs in southern Kansas, on September 8, 1893. The cause of his death was listed as dropsy, the 19th century term for congestive heart failure with severe body edema.
In popular culture 
Short was played by the actor Wally Cassell in a 1955 episode of the syndicated television series, Stories of the Century, with Jim Davis in the starring role of railroad detective Matt Clark. The part of rival Jim Courtright was portrayed by Robert Knapp.
On January 25, 1960, the actor Bob Steele played Short in the episode "The Terrified Town" of the CBS western television series, The Texan, starring Rory Calhoun. Barbara Stuart played the frontier gambler Poker Alice, and Reed Hadley portrayed "Wild Jack Tobin" in the same episode.
- Wood, Bob. "Luke L. Short". Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- Wood, Bob. "Luke L. Short - Photos". Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "Frontier Gamblers - Luke Short". Frontier Gamblers. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- Tarrant County Historical Journal - Edition 01
- A contemporary anecdote concerning Luke Short
- Tarrant County Historical Journal - Bad Blood
- "Stories of the Century: "Jim Courtright"". tv.com. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- "[[The Texan (TV series)|The Texan]]". Classic Television Archive. Retrieved January 31, 2013. Wikilink embedded in URL title (help)
Further reading 
- Luke Short: A Biography, by Wayne Short (Luke Short's great-nephew), 1997, Devil's Thumb Press.
- Luke Short in Dodge City Peace Commission 1883, Original photograph, Ford County Historical Society