Luminous blue variable
Luminous blue variables (LBVs) are massive evolved stars that show unpredictable and sometimes dramatic variations in both their spectra and their brightness. They are also known as S Doradus variables after S Doradus, one of the brightest stars of the Large Magellanic Cloud. They are extraordinarily rare with just 20 objects listed in the General Catalogue of Variable Stars as SDor, and a number of these are no longer considered to be LBVs.
Discovery and history
The LBV stars P Cygni and Eta Carinae have been known as unusual variables since the 17th century, but their true nature was not fully understood until much more recently. The term "S Doradus variable" was used to describe them as a group in 1974.
In 1922, J. C. Duncan published the first three variable stars ever detected in an external galaxy, variables 1, 2, and 3, in M33. These were followed up by Edwin Hubble with three more in 1926: A, B, and C in M33. Then in 1929 Hubble added a list of variables detected in M31. Of these, Var A, Var B, Var C, and Var 2 in M33 and Var 19 in M31 were followed up with a detailed study by Hubble and Allan Sandage in 1953. Var 1 in M33 was excluded as being too faint and Var 3 had already been classified as a Cepheid variable. At the time they were simply described as irregular variables, although remarkable for being the most luminous stars in those galaxies. The original Hubble Sandage paper contains a footnote that S Doradus might be the same type of star, but expressed strong reservations, so the link would have to wait several decades to be confirmed.
Later papers referred to these five stars as Hubble–Sandage variables. In the 1970s, Var 83 in M33 and AE Andromedae, AF Andromedae (=Var 19), Var 15, and Var A-1 in M31 were added to the list and described by several authors as "luminous blue variables", although it was not considered a formal name at the time. The spectra were found to contain lines with P Cygni profiles and were compared to Eta Carinae. In 1978, Roberta Humphreys published a study of eight variables in M31 and M33 (excluding Var A) and referred to them as luminous blue variables, as well as making the link to the S Doradus class of variable stars. In 1984 in a presentation at the IAU symposium, Peter Conti formally grouped the S Doradus variables, Hubble–Sandage variables, Eta Carinae, P Cygni, and other similar stars together under the term "luminous blue variables" and shortened it to LBV. He also clearly separated them from those other luminous blue stars, the Wolf–Rayet stars.
LBVs are unstable supergiant (or hypergiant) stars. In their "quiescent" state they are B-type stars with unusual emission lines, lying in a zone of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram where the least luminous have a temperature around 10,000 K and a luminosity about 250,000 times the Sun, whereas the most luminous have a temperature around 25,000 K and a luminosity over a million times the Sun, making them some of the most luminous of all stars. During a normal "outburst" the temperature decreases to around 8,500 K for all stars, whereas the bolometric luminosity remains constant (meaning visual luminosity increases somewhat). At irregular intervals, LBVs experience giant eruptions with dramatically increased mass loss and luminosity, so violent that several were initially catalogued as supernovae. The outbursts mean there are usually nebulae around such stars; Eta Carinae is the best-studied and most luminous known example, but may not be typical.
Because of these stars' large mass and high luminosity, their lifetime is very short—only a few million years in total and much less than a million years in the LBV phase. They are rapidly evolving on observable timescales; examples have been detected where stars with Wolf–Rayet spectra (WNL/Ofpe) have developed to show LBV outbursts and a handful of supernovae have been traced to likely LBV progenitors. Recent research, in fact, seems to confirm the latter scenario, where luminous blue variable stars are the final evolutionary stage of massive stars before exploding as supernovae, for at least stars with initial masses between 20 and 25 solar masses.; for more massive stars, the newest studies suggest the luminous blue variable phase takes place during the latest phases of core hydrogen burning (LBV with high surface temperature), the hydrogen shell burning phase (LBV with lower surface temperature), and the earliest part of the core helium burning phase (LBV with high surface temperature again) before transitioning to the Wolf–Rayet phase., thus being analogous to the red giant and red supergiant phases of less massive stars.
There appear to be two groups of LBVs, one with luminosities above 630,000 times the Sun and the other with luminosities below 400,000 times the Sun, although this is disputed in more-recent research. Models have been constructed showing that the lower-luminosity group are post-red-supergiants with initial masses of 30–60 times the Sun, whereas the higher-luminosity group are population-II stars with initial masses 60–90 times the Sun that never develop to red supergiants, although they may become yellow hypergiants. Some models suggest that LBVs are a stage in the evolution of very massive stars required for them to shed excess mass, whereas others require that most of the mass is lost at an earlier cool-supergiant stage. Normal outbursts and the stellar winds in the quiescent state are not sufficient for the required mass loss, but LBVs occasionally produce abnormally large outbursts that can be mistaken for a faint supernova and these may shed the necessary mass. Recent models all agree that the LBV stage occurs after a hydrogen-rich Wolf–Rayet stage and before a hydrogen-poor Wolf–Rayet stage, and that almost all will eventually end as a supernova. They apparently can explode directly as a supernova although that is not easily predicted by theory. If the star does not lose enough mass before the end of the LBV stage, it may undergo a particularly powerful supernova created by pair-instability. Newer models of stellar evolution suggest that some single stars with initial masses around 20 times that of the Sun will explode as LBVs as type II-P, type IIb, or type Ib supernovae, whereas binary stars undergo much-more-complex evolution through envelope stripping leading to less predictable outcomes.
Supernovae and imposters
Luminous blue variable stars can undergo "giant outbursts" with dramatically increased mass loss and luminosity. Eta Carinae is the prototypical example, with P Cygni showing one or more similar outbursts 300–400 years ago, but dozens have now been catalogued in external galaxies. Many of these were initially classified as supernovae but re-examined because of unusual features. The nature of the outbursts and of the progenitor stars seems to be highly variable, with the outbursts most likely having several different causes. The historical Eta Carinae and P Cygni outbursts, and several seen more recently in external galaxies, have lasted years or decades whereas some of the supernova imposter events have declined to normal brightness within months. Well-studied examples are:
Early models of stellar evolution had predicted that although the high-mass stars that produce LBVs would often or always end their lives as supernovae, the supernova explosion would not occur at the LBV stage. Prompted by the progenitor of SN 1987A being a blue supergiant, and most likely an LBV, several subsequent supernovae have been associated with LBV progenitors. The progenitor of SN 2005gl has been shown to be an LBV apparently in outburst only a few years earlier, whereas SN 2009ip was first shown to be a giant outburst of an LBV star, followed by two more in quick succession, and finally a true supernova.
Modelling suggests that at near-solar metallicity, stars with an initial mass around 20–25 M☉ will explode as a supernova while in the LBV stage of their lives. They will be post-red-supergiants with luminosities a few hundred thousand times that of the Sun. The supernova is expected to be of type II, most likely type IIb, although possibly type IIn due to episodes of enhanced mass loss that occur as an LBV and in the yellow-hypergiant stage.
List of LBVs
The identification of LBVs requires confirmation of the characteristic spectral and photometric variations, but these stars can be "quiescent" for decades or centuries at which time they are indistinguishable from many other hot luminous stars. A candidate luminous blue variable (cLBV) can be identified relatively quickly on the basis of its spectrum or luminosity, and dozens have been catalogued in our galaxy during recent surveys.
Recent studies of dense clusters and mass spectrographic analysis of luminous stars have identified dozens of probable LBVs in our own galaxy out of a likely total population of just a few hundred, although few have been observed in enough detail to confirm the characteristic types of variability. In addition the majority of the LBVs in the Magellanic Clouds have been identified, several dozen in M31 and M33, plus a handful in other local group galaxies.
- Eta Carinae
- P Cygni
- V4650 Sagittarii (FMM 362 or qF362, in the Quintuplet cluster)
- G0.120 0.048 (very close to Quintuplet cluster)
- AG Carinae
- HR Carinae
- Wray 15-751
- V4029 Sagittarii
- V905 Scorpii
- V1672 Aquilae (= AFGL 2298)
- W1-243 (in Westerlund 1)
- V481 Scuti
- GCIRS 34W
- MWC 930 (= V446 Scuti)
- Wray 16-137
- S Doradus
- HD 269321 (= R85)
- HD 269858 (= R127)
- HD 269006 (= R71)
- HD 269445 (= R99)
- HD 269929 (= R143)
- HD 269662 (= R110)
- HD 269700 (= R116)
- HD 269582 (= MWC 112)
- AF Andromedae
- AE Andromedae
- Var 15
- Var A-1
- J004051.59 +403303.0
- J004526.62 +415006.3
- Var 2 (an extremely hot star showing no variability since 1935 and hardly studied)
- Var 83
- Var B
- Var C
- GR 290 (Romano's star, a hot and extremely luminous LBV)
A number of cLBVs in our galaxy are well known because of their extreme luminosity or unusual characteristics, including:
- Wray 17-96 (unusual hypergiant in the gap between the two semi-stable LBV regions)
- Pistol Star (once thought to be the most luminous star in the galaxy)
- LBV 1806-20 (one of the most luminous stars known)
- Sanduleak -69° 202 (the star that exploded as SN 1987A)
- Cygnus OB2-12 (blue hypergiant and one of the most luminous stars known)
- HD 80077 (blue hypergiant)
- V1429 Aquilae (with a supergiant companion, very similar to a less luminous Eta Car)
- V4030 Sgr (hypergiant surrounded by a nebula identical to the one around Sanduleak -69° 202)
- WR 102ka (the Peony star, one of the most luminous stars known, and would be one of the hottest LBVs)
- Sher 25 (blue supergiant in NGC 3603 with a bipolar outflow and surrounded by a circumstellar ring)
- BD+40° 4210 (blue supergiant in the stellar association Cygnus OB2)
Other well-known stars not currently classified as LBVs but may be transitioning into LBVs, have been LBVs relatively recently, or are LBVs in a stable phase include:
- Zeta-1 Scorpii (naked-eye hypergiant)
- IRC+10420 (yellow hypergiant that has increased its temperature into the LBV range)
- V509 Cas (= HR 8752, an unusual yellow hypergiant evolving bluewards)
- Rho Cassiopeiae (unstable yellow hypergiant suffering periodic outbursts)
- "GCVS Variability Types". General Catalogue of Variable Stars @ Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia. 12 Feb 2009. Retrieved 2010-11-24.
- Thackeray, A. D. (1974). "Variations of S Dor and HDE 269006". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 168: 221. Bibcode:1974MNRAS.168..221T. doi:10.1093/mnras/168.1.221.
- Hubble, Edwin; Sandage, Allan (1953). "The Brightest Variable Stars in Extragalactic Nebulae. I. M31 and M33". Astrophysical Journal 118: 353. Bibcode:1953ApJ...118..353H. doi:10.1086/145764.
- Bianchini, A.; Rosino, L. (1975). "The spectrum of the bright variable A-1 in M31". Astronomy and Astrophysics 42: 289. Bibcode:1975A&A....42..289B.
- Humphreys, R. M. (1978). "Luminous variable stars in M31 and M33". The Astrophysical Journal 219: 445. Bibcode:1978ApJ...219..445H. doi:10.1086/155797.
- Conti, P. S. (1984). "Basic Observational Constraints on the Evolution of Massive Stars". Observational Tests of the Stellar Evolution Theory. International Astronomical Union Symposium No. 105 105: 233. Bibcode:1984IAUS..105..233C. doi:10.1007/978-94-010-9570-9_47. ISBN 978-90-277-1775-7.
- Joyce Ann Guzik and Catherine C. Lovekin (2012). "Pulsations and Hydrodynamics of Luminous Blue Variable Stars". Astronomical Review 7 (2): 13–47.
- Groh, Jose; Meynet, Georges; Ekstrom, Sylvia; Georgy, Cyril (2014). "The evolution of massive stars and their spectra I. A non-rotating 60 Msun star from the zero-age main sequence to the pre-supernova stage". Astronomy & Astrophysics 564: A30. arXiv:1401.7322v1. Bibcode:2014A&A...564A..30G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201322573.
- Groh, J. H.; Meynet, G.; Ekström, S. (2013). "Massive star evolution: Luminous blue variables as unexpected supernova progenitors". Astronomy & Astrophysics 550: L7. arXiv:1301.1519. Bibcode:2013A&A...550L...7G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201220741.
- Groh, Jose; Meynet, Georges; Ekstrom, Sylvia; Georgy, Cyril (2014). "The evolution of massive stars and their spectra I. A non-rotating 60 Msun star from the zero-age main sequence to the pre-supernova stage". Astronomy & Astrophysics 564: A30. arXiv:1401.7322. Bibcode:2014A&A...564A..30G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201322573.
- Groh, Jose H.; Meynet, Georges; Georgy, Cyril; Ekstrom, Sylvia (2013). "Fundamental properties of core-collapse Supernova and GRB progenitors: Predicting the look of massive stars before death". arXiv:1308.4681v1 [astro-ph.SR].
- Stothers, R. B.; Chin, C. W. (1996). "Evolution of Massive Stars into Luminous Blue Variables and Wolf-Rayet Stars for a Range of Metallicities: Theory versus Observation". The Astrophysical Journal 468: 842. doi:10.1086/177740.
- Smith, N.; Owocki, S. P. (2006). "On the Role of Continuum-driven Eruptions in the Evolution of Very Massive Stars and Population III Stars". The Astrophysical Journal 645: L45. doi:10.1086/506523.
- Sana, H.; De Mink, S. E.; De Koter, A.; Langer, N.; Evans, C. J.; Gieles, M.; Gosset, E.; Izzard, R. G.; Le Bouquin, J. - B.; Schneider, F. R. N. (2012). "Binary Interaction Dominates the Evolution of Massive Stars". Science 337 (6093): 444. doi:10.1126/science.1223344.
- Smith, N.; Li, W.; Silverman, J. M.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Filippenko, A. V. (2011). "Luminous blue variable eruptions and related transients: Diversity of progenitors and outburst properties". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 415: 773. arXiv:1010.3718. Bibcode:2011MNRAS.415..773S. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18763.x.
- Kochanek; Szczygiel; Stanek (2012). "Unmasking the Supernova Impostors". arXiv:1202.0281v1 [astro-ph.SR].
- Gal-Yam, A.; Leonard, D. C. (2009). "A Massive Hypergiant Star as the Progenitor of the Supernova SN 2005gl" (pdf). Nature 458 (7240): 865–867. doi:10.1038/nature07934. PMID 19305392.
- Mauerhan; Nathan Smith; Alexei Filippenko; Kyle Blanchard; Peter Blanchard; Casper; Bradley Cenko; Clubb et al. (2012). "The Unprecedented Third Outburst of SN 2009ip: A Luminous Blue Variable Becomes a Supernova". arXiv:1209.6320v2 [astro-ph.SR].
- Groh, J. H.; Meynet, G.; Ekström, S. (2013). "Massive star evolution: Luminous blue variables as unexpected supernova progenitors". Astronomy & Astrophysics 550: L7. Bibcode:2013A&A...550L...7G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201220741.
- Nazé, Y.; Rauw, G.; Hutsemékers, D. (2012). "The first X-ray survey of Galactic luminous blue variables". Astronomy & Astrophysics 538: A47. arXiv:1111.6375. Bibcode:2012A&A...538A..47N. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201118040.
- Philip Massey (2009). "A Census of Massive Stars Across the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram of Nearby Galaxies: What We Know and What We Don't". arXiv:0903.0155v2 [astro-ph.SR].
- Miroshnichenko, A. S. (2014). "Confirmation of the Luminous Blue Variable Status of MWC 930". Advances in Astronomy 2014: 1–9. doi:10.1155/2014/130378.
- Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Berdnikov, L. N.; Langer, N.; Grebel, E. K.; Bestenlehner, J. M. (2014). "Discovery of a new Galactic bona fide luminous blue variable with Spitzer". arXiv:1408.6232v1 [astro-ph.SR].
- Neugent, K. F.; Massey, P.; Morrell, N. (2012). "The Discovery of a Rare Wo-Type Wolf–Rayet Star in the Large Magellanic Cloud". The Astronomical Journal 144 (6): 162. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/144/6/162.
- Humphreys, R. M.; Weis, K.; Davidson, K.; Bomans, D. J.; Burggraf, B. (2014). "LUMINOUS AND VARIABLE STARS IN M31 AND M33. II. LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLES, CANDIDATE LBVs, Fe II EMISSION LINE STARS, AND OTHER SUPERGIANTS". The Astrophysical Journal 790: 48. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/790/1/48.
- Sholukhova, O.; Bizyaev, D.; Fabrika, S.; Sarkisyan, A.; Malanushenko, V.; Valeev, A. (2015). "New luminous blue variables in the Andromeda galaxy". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 447 (3): 2459. doi:10.1093/mnras/stu2597.
- Maryeva, Olga (2014). "The half-century history of studies of Romano's star". arXiv:1411.2662v2 [astro-ph.SR].