||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the French Wikipedia. (July 2014)|
Theater, whose archway gives access to the chateau gardens.
|• Mayor (2008–-)||Jacques Lamblain|
|Area1||16.34 km2 (6.31 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,300/km2 (3,300/sq mi)|
|INSEE/Postal code||54329 / 54300|
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
Lunéville was a renowned resort in the 18th century, known as the capital of Lorraine. The grand Château de Lunéville, built in 1702 for Leopold, Duke of Lorraine to replace an older palace, was the residence of the duke of Lorraine until the duchy was annexed by France in 1766. The chateau was designed in the style of Versailles to satisfy Leopold's wife, Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans, the niece of Louis XIV, and became known as the "Versailles of Lorraine". It includes a chapel designed by Germain Boffrand. Leopold and his wife were the parents of Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor (through him they were the grandparents of Marie Antoinette).
The last duke of Lorraine was Stanisław Leszczyński, the former king of Poland. A devout catholic, author, and philanthropist, Stanislas had a church built and several follies in his gardens for the amusement and education of visiting Polish nobility and followers of the Enlightenment. The more famous visitors to his court were Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, André Morellet, and Montesquieu. After the death of his father-in-law in 1766, Louis XV of France annexed the duchy and turned the castle into a barracks, but much of the original construction has survived, and what remains is open to the public and the chateau's intricate parterre gardens, designed by Yves Hours (a pupil of André Le Nôtre) in 1711 and Louis de Nesle in 1724, are a public park today.
It was over the nearby Fôret de Parroy, directly east of Lunéville, only some 11 months after the breakout of World War I that the first aerial victory by a fighter aircraft armed with a synchronized machine gun occurred on July 1, 1915, as Leutnant Kurt Wintgens of the German Fliegertruppe forced down an Aeronautique Militaire Morane-Saulnier L parasol monoplane. Neither member of the French aircrew was seriously wounded, while the French aircraft's Gnome Lambda engine received multiple hits to disable the aircraft.
The Treaty of Lunéville was signed in the "Treaty house", one of the houses built up against the chateau gardens of Luneville on 9 February 1801 between the French Republic and the Austrian Empire by Count Ludwig von Cobenzl, and Joseph Bonaparte.
Another treaty, signed in Germany, was the Treaty of Frankfurt (1871), which made Luneville into a border town attracting the best and the brightest of the Alsace and Moselle regions who relocated to keep their French nationality. A new period of economic prosperity known as the Belle Époque restored some of the glory of Stanislas's ducal court of the eighteenth century.
Lunéville faience, a kind of unglazed faience produced from 1723 at Lunéville by Jacques Chambrette, became the Manufacture Royale du Roi de Pologne (“Royal Factory of the King of Poland”) after Stanislas sponsored it in 1749. The earthenware first became famous for its detailed figurines and in the 20th century for its art deco designs, and still exists today as "Terres d'Est".
Louis Ferry-Bonnechaux discovered a technique using beads and sequins on embroidery in 1865. His craft was widely copied and became known as "Luneville point" and its heritage can still be seen in modern haute couture.
A subsidiary of the Dietrich company, Lorraine-Dietrich moved to Luneville after the 1871 treaty of Frankfurt. Today it is known for its trailers, but it started off as a manufacturer of cars and railway equipment.
- Stanisław I Leszczyński (1677–1766), King of Poland 1704-1709, 1733-1736 (Stanislas I), then Duke of Lorraine until his death at Lunéville where he spent 30 years in exile.
- Muller Frères, an art nouveau glass production company
- Georges de La Tour lived in Lunéville for much of his career.
Lunéville was the birthplace of :
- Nicolas Beatrizet, 16th century engraver
- Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine, 1712
- François Nicolas Benoît, Baron Haxo, 1774 June 24
- Jean Bastien-Thiry, 1927
And the Daughter Of Emille Du Chaelet
- Grosz, Peter M., Windsock Datafile No. 91, Fokker E.I/II, Albatros Publications, Ltd. 2002. ISBN No. 1-902207-46-7.
- Sands, Jeffrey, "The Forgotten Ace, Ltn. Kurt Wintgens and his War Letters", Cross & Cockade USA, Summer 1985.
- Website Luneville faience
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lunéville.|
- Official website (in French)