Luna-Glob

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Luna-Glob (Russian: Луна-Глоб, meaning Lunar sphere) is the name of a Moon-exploration program by the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) based on plans dating back to 1997. Due to financial problems, however, the project was put on hold only to be revived a few years later. Initially scheduled for launch in 2012,[1] the mission has been delayed twice, first to 2014 and then to 2015.[2] Now it is planned to be launched in 2016.[3]

Luna-Glob is the first of four missions planned before the creation of a fully robotic lunar base scheduled for after 2016.

Luna-Glob 1[edit]

Luna-Glob 1
Operator Roscosmos
Mission type Orbiter, lander, penetrators
Launch date 2016
Launch vehicle Soyuz 2 rocket
Satellite of Moon
Mass launch mass of 7.24 tonnes, orbiter payload mass is 120 kg

Luna-Glob 1 is an unmanned mission to the Moon planned by Russia including an orbiter with ground penetrating sensors.[4] Four Japanese-built penetrators inherited from the Lunar-A will be used, each weighing 45 kg (100 lb), including 14 kg (31 lb) for the penetrator proper.

Luna-Glob is slated to be launched in 2016[5] by a Soyuz 2 rocket.[6] Furthermore, seismic experiments are planned, including the use of four penetrators, which will slam into the lunar surface equipped to detect seismic signals. These experiments are expected to help clarify the origin of Earth's moon whereas two of the penetrators are planned to land near the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 landing sites, taking advantage of seismic data gathered there from 1969 to 1974.

The payload of the orbiter will total 120 kg (260 lb) and include astrophysics experiments, dust monitors, plasma sensors, including the LORD astronomy payload, designed to study ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.[7]

As of October 2013, the lander was planned to be launched in 2016 and the orbiter in 2018.[8]

Luna-Glob 2 (Luna-Resurs)[edit]

Luna-Glob 2
Operator Roscosmos, ISRO
Mission type Landing module, moon rover
Launch date 2018
Launch vehicle GSLV
Mission duration 1 year
Mass 1,000 kg total, 50 kg rover

The Luna-Glob 2[4] (also called Luna-Resurs [9]) joint orbiter-rover mission (the orbiter will be the Indian Chandrayaan-2) is planned for 2018 and will feature a 58 kg Russian Polar Moon Rover and lander, as part of the International Lunar Network. This mission will land in Moon's south pole, examine a crater and operate for up to one year. The six wheeled, solar powered rover will land near one of the poles and will survive for a year, roving up to 150 km at a speed of 360 m/h.

Because the loss of the Fobos-Grunt mission which was planned as a test for the landing system, Russia cited its inability to provide the lander within the proposed time. India then decided to develop the lunar mission independently.[10]

Luna-Grunt[edit]

Luna-Grunt
Operator Roscosmos
Mission type Landing vehicles, moon rover and moon ascent vehicle (sample return)
Launch date 2020 and 2021
Launch vehicle Soyuz-Fregat rocket
Mass 2320 kg following translunar injection, including 400 kg (880 lb) (rover) or 400 kg (ascent stage for returning up to 1 kg of moon soil to Earth) payload delivered to lunar surface[11]

The next two missions,[12] to be called Luna-Grunt, will launch in 2020, featuring an orbiter and a lander. The lander carries a large 400 kg rover capable of in-situ soil analysis. Later, in 2021, a second lander with a 400 kg ascent stage will return up to 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) of surface and rock samples.

Lunny Poligon (Lunnyj Poligon)[edit]

A robotic lunar base [13][14] that follows Glob and Grunt would be a "Robotic proving ground", consist of several components:

  • solar power station,
  • telecommunication station
  • technological station
  • scientific station
  • long-range research rover
  • landing and launch area
  • orbiting satellite

This project is planned for 2020, with an expected completion date of 2037.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]