Luna 19

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Luna 19
Luna-22.jpg
Luna 19
Mission type Lunar orbiter
COSPAR ID 1971-082A
Mission duration ~388 days
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft type E-8-LS
Manufacturer GSMZ Lavochkin
Launch mass 5,700 kilograms (12,600 lb)
Dry mass 5,600 kilograms (12,300 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date September 28, 1971, 10:00:22 (1971-09-28UTC10:00:22Z) UTC
Rocket Proton-K/D
Launch site Baikonur 81/24
End of mission
Deactivated c. October 20, 1972 (1972-10-21)
Orbital parameters
Reference system Selenocentric
Eccentricity 0.18[citation needed]
Periselene 140 kilometres (87 mi)[citation needed]
Aposelene 140 kilometres (87 mi)[citation needed]
Inclination 40.58 degrees
Period 121.13 minutes
Lunar orbiter
Orbital insertion October 3, 1971
Orbits ~4,315
Instruments
Imaging system
Gamma-ray spectrometer
Radio altimeter
Meteoroid detectors
Magnetometer
Cosmic-ray detectors
Radiation detectors

Luna 19 (a.k.a. Lunik 19) (E-8-LS series), was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program. Luna 19 extended the systematic study of lunar gravitational fields and location of mascons (mass concentrations). It also studied the lunar radiation environment, the gamma-active lunar surface, and the solar wind. Photographic coverage via a television system was also obtained.

Luna 19 was the first of the “advanced” lunar orbiters whose design was based upon the same Ye-8-class bus used for the lunar rovers and the sample collectors. For these orbiters, designated Ye-8LS, the basic “lander stage” was topped off by a wheelless Lunokhod-like frame that housed all scientific instrumentation in a pressurized container.

Luna 19 was launched into an earth parking orbit on 28 September, and, from this orbit, was sent toward the Moon. Luna 19 entered an orbit around the Moon on 2 October 1971 after two midcourse corrections on 29 September and 1 October. Initial orbital parameters were 140 x 140 kilometers at 40.58° inclination.

Soon afterward, the spacecraft began its main imaging mission — providing panoramic images of the mountainous region of the Moon between 30° and 60° south latitude and between 20° and 80° east longitude. Other scientific experiments included extensive studies on the shape and strength of the lunar gravitational field and the locations of the mascons. Occultation experiments in May and June 1972 allowed scientists to determine the concentration of charged particles at an altitude of 10 kilometers. Additional studies of the solar wind were evidently coordinated with those performed by the Mars 2 and 3 orbiters and Veneras 7 and 8. Communications with Luna 19 were terminated some time between 3 and 20 October 1972, after a year of operation and more than 4,000 orbits around the Moon.

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